pharmacodyamics

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
304254
Filename:
pharmacodyamics
Updated:
2015-06-23 18:52:14
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
what drug does to body
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  1. pharmacodynamics
    what drug does to body
  2. receptor
    • ID: protein that binds to active drug
    • on target cell
    • fxn: chemical reaction
    • stimulate or inhibits cellular activity
    • change permeability of cell membrane
  3. receptor site
    • @ tissue
    • ID: lock-and-key theory
    • fxn: drug molecules
    • interact chemically with receptors
    • on target cells
    • to create full body effects
    • ex: brain- opiate receptors
  4. agonist
    • activate receptor
    • increase normal cellular activity
    • produced otherwise by hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.
  5. antagonist
    • occupy receptor site
    • inhibit cellular activity
    • prevent natural chemicals and other drugs from binding to receptors site  
  6. down-regulation
    • @ agonist
    • prolonged stimulation of cells 
    • reduces # of receptors
    • cell loses sensitivity
  7. up-regulation
    • @ antagonist
    • prolonged inhibition of cells
    • increases # of receptors
    • cell gains sensitivity
    • IF antagonist suddenly stops, cells become excessively responsive to agonist
  8. problem:
    cells become overstimulated after drug
    • solution: taper down drugs
    • ex: anxiety drugs
  9. non-receptor drug actions
    • structurally similar to chemicals that cells require
    • ex: antacids-nutrients
  10. drug-diet interactions
    • slows down absorption
    • ex: stop absorbing fat
    • contraindicated with other drugs
    • ex: tetracycline-dairy
  11. drug-drug interactions
    increase or decrease drug effects
  12. increased drug effects
    • additive
    • synergistic or potentiation
    • interference
    • displacement
  13. additive 
    • same site, 2 chemicals
    • 2 drugs, similar effects
    • 1+1=2
    • ex: alcohol-sedative
  14. synergistic or potentiation
    • 2 sites, 2 chemicals 
    • different receptors
    • 1 + 1 = 3
    • ex: tylenol-codeine
  15. interference
    • one drug blocks the other
    • ex: competitive inhibition
  16. displacement
    protein-binding
  17. problem:
    95% protein-bound drug kicked off 50% protein-bound drug
    • @ displacement
    • solution: give less of 50% protein-bound drug
  18. decreased drug effects
    • antidote
    • decreased in intestinal absorption
    • enzyme inducers
  19. antidote
    • neutralize chemical reactions
    • reverse effects
  20. decrease in intestinal absorption
    • competitive inhibition
    • ex: antacids, coating
    • decreased absorption, decreased distribution
  21. enzyme inducers
    • drug increases metabolism of other drugs 
    • ex: smoke, alcohol
  22. age
    • client-related variable 
    • babies 
    • elderly
  23. body weight
    • client-related variable 
    • kids
    • ex: mg/kg dosage
  24. genetic and ethnicity
    • client-related variable 
    • african 
    • ex: beta blockers, ace inhibitors not effective
  25. gender
    • client-related variable
    • prego
    • ex: metabolism
  26. psychological considerations
    • client-related variable
    • placebo effect
  27. tolerance
    • body accustomed  
    • increased amount, same effect
    • ex: alcohol, morphine
  28. cross-tolerance
    • same receptors
    • ex: alcoholic w/ broken bone, increased amount of morphine needed
  29. adverse effects of drugs
    • opposite to therapeutic effects
    • ex: local, systemic
  30. side effects
    adverse occurs with therapeutic
  31. body system effects
    destroy liver, nephron
  32. hypersensitivity
    • not first time taking drug
    • attach to mast cells, then next time take drug
    • ex: anaphylactic shock
  33. idiosyncrasy
    • unexpected effects
    • ex: faint from aspirin
  34. drug dependence
    • physiological
    • psychological
    • withdrawal
  35. carcinogenicity
    cause cancer
  36. teratogenicity
    effect fetal development

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