Parasitology Lab: Class Arachnida

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Parasitology Lab: Class Arachnida
2015-07-11 18:41:13
Class arachnida

Class Arachnida
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  1. Characteristics of arachnid larval stages
    • 3 pairs of legs
    • Nymphs and adults have 4 pairs of legs
    • Head, thorax, abdomen are fused
    • Antennae and mandibles not present
    • Mouth parts are covered by a false head (capitulum)
  2. This order includes ticks and mites
    Order Acarina
  3. This class includes spiders and scorpions
    Class Arachnida
  4. Non reproductive adults AKA
  5. Sub order of ticks
  6. 2 families of ticks
    • Family Ixodidae (hard ticks) (have scutum)
    • Family Argasidae (soft ticks) (no scutum)
  7. Interstadially AKA
  8. Ixodid tick characteristics
    • Shield/scutum covers entire dorsal surface
    • Capitulum (head) projects anteriorly
  9. How many times does a Ixodid tick molt?
  10. Which 2 ticks can transmit transtadial?
    • Two host tick
    • Three host tick
  11. Ixodid one host tick
    • Completes both molts without leaving the host
    • EX: Boophilus annulates
  12. Ixodid two host tick
    Seed tick larvae will molt to nymph, nymph drops off the 1st host, molts to adult, then adult locates the 2nd host
  13. Ixodid three host tick
    Larvae drops off host to molt to nymph, nymph finds 2nd host, nymph drops off 2nd host to molt to adult, adult locates a 3rd host
  14. Ixodid one host tick transmits how?
  15. Transtadial transmission
    Infection is acquired by a larval tick and carried through the molt to the nymph stage and then conveyed to the host, or infection acquired by a nymph who is carried through the molt to adult and conveyed to the host
  16. Ixodid 3 host tick examples
    • Dermacentor variabilis 
    • Rhipicephalus sanquinius
  17. 4 stages of a tick life cycle
    • Egg
    • Six legged larvae "seed tick"
    • Eight legged larvae "nymph"
    • Eight legged larvae "mature adult" (sexually mature)

    Complete cycle can take up to 3 years
  18. Historical importance of Texas Cattle Fever
    Proved transmission of a disease by an intermediate host
  19. Texas cattle fever
    • Vector: Boophilus annulates 
    • One host tick
    • Transovarial transmission
    • Transmits Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina 
    • 1893
    • Kilbourne (vet) and Smith (MD, taught at Baylor)
  20. Tick borne diseases
    • Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever
    • Coxiella
    • Cowdria "Hearwater"
    • Ehrlichia
  21. Piroplasmosis other names
    • Babesiosis
    • Texas Fever
    • Red Water
  22. Piroplasmosis is a ___ disease
    Protozoan of the order Sporozoa
  23. Piroplasmosis facts
    • Genus: Babesia
    • Utilize RBC to parasitize and multiply by binary fission 
    • Lyse the RBC
    • Symptoms: Anemia
  24. Intermediate host of Piroplasmosis/Babesia
    Boophilus annulates
  25. Transmission route of Piroplasmosis/Babesia
  26. Etiology of Canine Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis
    • Babesia canis 
    • Babesia gibsoni (Australia/Europe)
  27. Intermediate host of Canine Piroplasmosis/Baebsiosis
    Rhipicephalus sanquinius
  28. 3 types of Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis
    • Bovine Babesiosis
    • Equine Babesiosis 
    • Canine Babesiosis
  29. Rocky mountain spotted fever facts
    • Rickettsia borne disease
    • Etiology: Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Intermediate host: Dermacentor andersoni
    • Dermacentor variablis
  30. Wood tick
    Dermacentor andersoni
  31. Coxiella facts
    • Rickettsia borne disease
    • Etiology: Coxiella burnetti 
    • "Q fever"
    • Australia 1937
    • Intermediate host: Dermacentor andersoni
    • Dermacentor occidentalis
    • Rhipicephalus sanquineus
    • Otobius megnini (spider tick)
  32. Equine Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis facts
    • Etiology: Babesia caballi –horses, mules, and donkeys
    • Babesia equi –all the above plus zebras Intermediate Host: Boophilus annulatus
  33. Spider tick
    Otobius megnini
  34. Cowdria facts:
    • Rickettsia borne disease
    • Etiology: Cowdria ruminatium
    • Disease Name: Hearwater
    • Characteristic Lesion: Hydropericardium
    • Intermediate Host: Amblyomma
  35. Ehrlichia facts:
    • Rickettsia borne disease
    • Etiology: Ehrlichia canis
    • In WBC & RBC
    • Disease: Vietnam Disease
    • Intermediate Host: Rhipicephalus sanquinius
  36. Lone star tick
    Amblyomma americanum
  37. Gulf coast tick
    Amblyomma maculatum
  38. Idexx Tests
    • Snap # DX test: HW, lyme disease, and erlichia species
    • Snap 4DX test: HW, lyme disease, erlichia species and anaplasma species
  39. Tick that transmits lyme disease
    Ixodes dammini (Ixodes scapularis)
  40. Brown dog tick
    Ripicephlaus sanquinius
  41. Fowl tick
    Argas persicus
  42. Mites sub order names
    • Mesostigmata
    • Astigmata
    • Prostigmata
  43. Respiratory pore in middle of mite body
  44. How many species of mites?
  45. How many species of mites cause health problems
  46. Mite in ear of cattle
    Raillietia auris
  47. Mite that causes yellowish nodules in the lungs of monkeys?
    Pneumonyssus simicola
  48. Mite in the nasal passage of dogs
    Pneumonyssus caninum
  49. Mite found in birds nest and chicken houses that can feed on man
    Dermanyssus gallinae
  50. Mite found in rodents, snakes, and birds. Remain on the host and is zoonotic
    Ornithonyssus species
  51. Most common mite to infect dogs and cats?
    Otodectes cynotis (ear mite)
  52. Sub order Astigmata includes what species?
    Mange mites AKA Clasping hair mites
  53. Families Psoroptidae and Sacoptidae cause what?
    Scabies, signs include pruritis, alopecia, epidermal hyperpigmentation and epidermal hyperplasia
  54. 2 ways to identify mange mites
    • Host and distribution of lesions
    • Jointed (Psoroptidae) or unjointed legs (Sarcoptidae)
  55. Sarcoptic mange starts where on a dog?
    Margins of the ears
  56. Sarcoptic mange etiology in dog
    Sarcoptes scabei
  57. Sarcoptic mange etiology in cats
    Notoedres cati
  58. Sarcoptic mange starts where on a cat?
    Ears, then face and paws
  59. With scraping for sarcoptic mange how must you do it?
    Deep skin scrapings
  60. Family Psoroptidae
    • Psoroptes- sheep, cattle, rabbits and horse (starts at withers and generalizes)
    • Chorioptes- horse (starts at pasterns and moves up leg)
    • Otodectes- dogs, cats, pocket pets (starts at ear canal and moves to face)
  61. Otodectes cynotis
    • Psoroptic mite
    • In dogs and cats
    • Most common mange mite
    • Live on surface of the skin
  62. Treatment for Otodectes cynotis
    Acarexx (0.01% Ivermectin)
  63. Taxonomy for Demodex
    • Suborder: Prostigmata
    • Super family: Cheyletoidea
    • Family: Demodicidae
  64. Demodex lives where?
    On skin and glandular ducts
  65. Demodex species in dog
    Demodex canis
  66. 2 forms of demodectic mange
    • Localized demodicosis
    • Generalized demodicosis
  67. 2 classes of demodex based on age
    • Juvenile onset (3-12 months old)
    • Adult onset (2-4 years old)
  68. What percentage of generalized demodicosis dogs will recover without treatment?
  69. Nickname for demodicosis?
    Red mange due to the concurrent staph infection
  70. Where do lesions of demodicosis start?
    On the face
  71. Drug contraindication with demodicosis?
  72. 2 causes of demodex
    • Mites
    • Suppressed immune system
  73. Drug of choice for demodicosis?
  74. Treatments for demodicosis
    • Amitraz
    • Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor) (Novartis)
    • Ivermectin (Ivomec) (Merial)
    • Moxidectin and Imdiacloprid (Advantage multi)
    • Lufenuron (Program) (Novartis)
  75. Treatment regimen for Amitraz (demodex)
    • 1 dip every 2 weeks for 5 treatments or at least twice after multiple skin scrapings come back negative 
    • 85% success
  76. Treatment regimen for Interceptor (demodex)
    • Monthly dose given twice a day every 30 days for 3 months 
    • 96% remission in 3 months
    • 29% relapse in 1 year
  77. Treatment regimen for Ivermectin (demodex)
    • 0.6 mg/kg/day 
    • Can cause ataxia, coma and death
  78. Treatment regimen for Advantage multi (demodex)
    • Oral: 1 cc/60 lbs/day until 2 negative scrapes
    • Topical: Once a week for 4 weeks
  79. Failures of treatment for Demodex
    • Premature suspension of treatment
    • Failure to treat skin bacterial infection
    • Stress within environment
    • Heat cycle
    • Iatrogenically induced with glucocorticoids
    • Underlying concurrent disease
    • Idiopathic problems
  80. Demodex treatment by doctor at Cornell University
    • Dr. Danny Scott
    • "Scotts solution"
    • 5 parts propylene glycol (antibiotic) with 1 part Ectoral (organophosphate) and applied to 1/3 of body everyday
  81. Demodex species in cow
    Demodex bovis
  82. Demodex species in sheep
    Demodex ovis
  83. Demodex species in goats
    Demodex caprae
  84. Demodex species in pigs
    Demodex phyllodides
  85. Demodex species in horse
    Demodex equi
  86. Demodex species in cats
    • Demodex cati
    • Demodex gatoi
  87. Family Cheyletiellidae nickname
    Big claw mites
  88. Walking dandruff mite in dogs
    Cheyletiella yasguri
  89. Cheyletiellidae mite in cats
    Cheyletiella blakei
  90. Cheyletiellidae mite in rabbits
    Cheyletiella parasitivorax
  91. Sheep itch mite
    • Psorobis ovis
    • Reportable disease
  92. Family Trombiculidae nickname
  93. What stage of chiggers effects man?
  94. Disease caused by triggers