Phonology Midterm

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Phonology Midterm
2015-06-26 11:52:48

SIL-UND 2015
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  1. Allomorphs
    Different shapes that a morpheme has in a language are allomorphs of the morpheme. Pit - pit or pi?
  2. Allophones
    contextual, dialececal or stylistic pronunciations are the allophones of a phoneme.
  3. Alternations
    Shapes of morphemes - another way of referring to the allomorphs that a morpheme may have in different contexts
  4. Angle Brackets
    Used to distinguish practical/orthographical representation of a word
  5. Assimilation
    Any process by which one sound becomes more like another sound in the context
  6. Binary
    Claim is that most features (but not all) are binary in nature - either positive or negative. Contrasting view is Privative.
  7. Broad transcription
    Phonetic transcription that omits all or much of the non-distinctive phonetic detail
  8. Closed syllable
    A syllable that has a coda
  9. Coda
    Sounds that follow the nucleus of the syllable
  10. Complementary Distribution
    Sounds occur in complementary distribution when they occur in mutually exclusive contexts
  11. Consonant
    Sound that functions either as the onset or coda in a syllable, obstruent or sonorant, incl central approximates
  12. [continuant]
    airstream is not completely blocked in the ORAL tract (nasals are [-cont])
  13. Contour segments
    Combinations of sounds that occur together in many languages and which function together as a single unites in certain ways. Ex affricates and prenasalized stops
  14. Contrast
    Two sounds contrast in a language if a systematic replacement of one for the other can potentially alter the meaning
  15. Coronal
    Made with the grown of the tongue - from tip and blad. Privative feature, incl interdental, dental, alveolar, postalveolar, retroflect, and palatal consonants
  16. Diphthong
    Two vowel-like sounds occur together in the same syllable and are analyzed as forming the nucleus of the syllable
  17. Distinctive feature
    defining characteristics of the phonemes
  18. Dorsal
    Sounds made iwth the back of the tongue, velar or uvular
  19. Extrametrical; Extrametricality
    Consonant that is extrametrical is excluded from consideration for syllable construction.
  20. Genus
    Group of languages whose relatedness is fairly obvious without systematic comparative analysis
  21. Idiolect
    Speech variations found in a speech community that are characteristic of individuals rather than groups
  22. Labial
    Feature of sounds made with libs - privative node, bilabial, labiodental and lavial-velar
  23. [lateral]
    is the feature that describes sounds made by lowering the mid sectio nof the tongue at both sides or one side...
  24. License
    A unit (such as syllable node) licenses another unit by stating conditions under which the latter may appear.
  25. Major Word CLasses
    Typically Noun, Verb, and Adjective
  26. Maximal Syllable Template
    Describes the largest syllable permitted in language, excluding extrametricality
  27. Minimal Pair
    words of different meanings in the exchange of only one phoneme
  28. Minimal Word Constraint
    Constraint that, with slight variations, a language may impose on a class of possible words. Like two mroras or two syllables
  29. Minor Class Words
    Preposition, Conjunction, Demonstrative, etc
  30. Mora
    Unit of weight that pertains to the syllable
  31. M-Phonology
    Part of a language description that's concerned with shapes of the morphemes of a language (allomorphs)
  32. Narrow Transcription
    contains some or considerable phonetic details, based on analysis or not. Square brackets
  33. [nasal]
    sometimes binary, sometimes privative, indicates whether airstream is passing through the nasal cavity
  34. Natural Class
    Group of sounds that pattern together some way. Share value of some particular feature or set of features
  35. Nucleus of syllable
    Sonority peak, simple or complex (diphthong)
  36. Obligatory Onset Parameter
    Indicates qhether the language reques that any syllable must have an overt onset (except word-initial)
  37. Obstruent
    Not a sonorant. stops, affricates, and fricatives
  38. Onset
    Group of sounds or sound that precede the nucleus
  39. Open Syllable
    Has no coda
  40. Paradigm
    Set of words formally related to each other by some structural properties - plurarlity, possessor, tense, etc... and presentation in a way that makes it clear
  41. Parse
    Breaking into syllables - some theories claim every real word must be exhaustively parsable by particular constraints to be judged a legitimate word
  42. Phone
    Actual sounds of the language, distinguishing small contextual, styalistic, and dialectal variations
  43. Phoneme
    sound-based entities of which morphemes are composed
  44. Phonemic Hypothesis
    The hypothesis that any given language can be adequately analyzed, with respect to its phonology, on the basis of a limited inventory of sounds
  45. Phonemic Transcription
    Represents a text using symbols for the phonemes, leaving out predictable phonetic detail that is not carried by the symbols themselves. Usually equivalent to broad transcription.
  46. Phonetic Transcription
    Records pronunciation of utterances, either in considerable detail (narrow) or less  detail (broad).
  47. Phonetics
    Study of production and perception of human speech sounds, physical properties
  48. Phonological phrase
    Stretch of speech that begins with a major pause and ends with a major pause
  49. Phonology
    Study of organization of human speech sounds - functional properties of language
  50. Phonotactics
    Distribution of osounds and especially combinations of sounds in a language
  51. P-Phonology
    Deals with basic facts of pronunciation fo the sounds of a language
  52. Postlexical
    Certain types of rules or application that tend to be those that add phonetic detail in a fairly automatic way, unnoticed by native speakers.
  53. Privative
    Present or not present. Vs. binary
  54. Rhyme or Rime
    Rime is composed of whatever does not appear in the Onset.
  55. Segment
    Sound that occupies a single position in a phonological string.
  56. Skeletal tier
    Part of the representation of an utterance, maybe composed of C and V; anotehr version, X. Explicitly references to parts of the syllable
  57. Sonorant
    Produced with vocal tract cavity configuration in which spontaneous voicing is possible. r, m, l, j
  58. Sonority
    Sonoros sounds - vocwels, least sonoras sounds - voiceless stops
  59. Sonority Sequencing Constraint
    Sonority peaks at the nucleus and decreases toward margins
  60. Speech community
    members share at lease a single speech variety and the norms for its appropriate use
  61. Square Brackets
    Enclsoting names of distinctive features, ISO codes, narrow transcriptions
  62. Suspicious Pairs
    Pairs of sounds that are similar enough phonetically to be examined more carefully to determine whether they are contrastive
  63. Syllable
    Abstract organizational unit that groups an accoustically prominent element -usually a vowel - with adjacent less prominent elements
  64. Tautosyllabic
    Elements occur int he same syllable
  65. Universal Redundancy Rule
    ex [sonorant] implies [voice], meaning that a sonorant has the feature [+voice] and obstruent [-voice]
  66. Universal Syllable
  67. Unmarked Value, Marked Value
    • Expected value for a feature-
    • [voice] has umarked value of positive for sonorants but negative for obstruents because sonorants are generally voiced while obstruents are typically voiceless.
  68. Unmarked Category, Marked Category
    Marked is the category that is unusal - voiced stops are the marked category when compared with voiceless stops, unmarked
  69. Vowel
    Unobstructed sound that functions as part of the nucleus of a syllable
  70. Word
    Morpheme or combination of morphemes that is stored in the lexicon as a unit that can be used in the construction of phrases.