Card Set Information
Different shapes that a morpheme has in a language are allomorphs of the morpheme. Pit - pit or pi?
contextual, dialececal or stylistic pronunciations are the allophones of a phoneme.
Shapes of morphemes - another way of referring to the allomorphs that a morpheme may have in different contexts
Used to distinguish practical/orthographical representation of a word
Any process by which one sound becomes more like another sound in the context
Claim is that most features (but not all) are binary in nature - either positive or negative. Contrasting view is Privative.
Phonetic transcription that omits all or much of the non-distinctive phonetic detail
A syllable that has a coda
Sounds that follow the nucleus of the syllable
Sounds occur in complementary distribution when they occur in mutually exclusive contexts
Sound that functions either as the onset or coda in a syllable, obstruent or sonorant, incl central approximates
airstream is not completely blocked in the ORAL tract (nasals are [-cont])
Combinations of sounds that occur together in many languages and which function together as a single unites in certain ways. Ex affricates and prenasalized stops
Two sounds contrast in a language if a systematic replacement of one for the other can potentially alter the meaning
Made with the grown of the tongue - from tip and blad. Privative feature, incl interdental, dental, alveolar, postalveolar, retroflect, and palatal consonants
Two vowel-like sounds occur together in the same syllable and are analyzed as forming the nucleus of the syllable
defining characteristics of the phonemes
Sounds made iwth the back of the tongue, velar or uvular
Consonant that is extrametrical is excluded from consideration for syllable construction.
Group of languages whose relatedness is fairly obvious without systematic comparative analysis
Speech variations found in a speech community that are characteristic of individuals rather than groups
Feature of sounds made with libs - privative node, bilabial, labiodental and lavial-velar
is the feature that describes sounds made by lowering the mid sectio nof the tongue at both sides or one side...
A unit (such as syllable node) licenses another unit by stating conditions under which the latter may appear.
Major Word CLasses
Typically Noun, Verb, and Adjective
Maximal Syllable Template
Describes the largest syllable permitted in language, excluding extrametricality
words of different meanings in the exchange of only one phoneme
Minimal Word Constraint
Constraint that, with slight variations, a language may impose on a class of possible words. Like two mroras or two syllables
Minor Class Words
Preposition, Conjunction, Demonstrative, etc
Unit of weight that pertains to the syllable
Part of a language description that's concerned with shapes of the morphemes of a language (allomorphs)
contains some or considerable phonetic details, based on analysis or not. Square brackets
sometimes binary, sometimes privative, indicates whether airstream is passing through the nasal cavity
Group of sounds that pattern together some way. Share value of some particular feature or set of features
Nucleus of syllable
Sonority peak, simple or complex (diphthong)
Obligatory Onset Parameter
Indicates qhether the language reques that any syllable must have an overt onset (except word-initial)
Not a sonorant. stops, affricates, and fricatives
Group of sounds or sound that precede the nucleus
Has no coda
Set of words formally related to each other by some structural properties - plurarlity, possessor, tense, etc... and presentation in a way that makes it clear
Breaking into syllables - some theories claim every real word must be exhaustively parsable by particular constraints to be judged a legitimate word
Actual sounds of the language, distinguishing small contextual, styalistic, and dialectal variations
sound-based entities of which morphemes are composed
The hypothesis that any given language can be adequately analyzed, with respect to its phonology, on the basis of a limited inventory of sounds
Represents a text using symbols for the phonemes, leaving out predictable phonetic detail that is not carried by the symbols themselves. Usually equivalent to broad transcription.
Records pronunciation of utterances, either in considerable detail (narrow) or less detail (broad).
Study of production and perception of human speech sounds, physical properties
Stretch of speech that begins with a major pause and ends with a major pause
Study of organization of human speech sounds - functional properties of language
Distribution of osounds and especially combinations of sounds in a language
Deals with basic facts of pronunciation fo the sounds of a language
Certain types of rules or application that tend to be those that add phonetic detail in a fairly automatic way, unnoticed by native speakers.
Present or not present. Vs. binary
Rhyme or Rime
Rime is composed of whatever does not appear in the Onset.
Sound that occupies a single position in a phonological string.
Part of the representation of an utterance, maybe composed of C and V; anotehr version, X. Explicitly references to parts of the syllable
Produced with vocal tract cavity configuration in which spontaneous voicing is possible. r, m, l, j
Sonoros sounds - vocwels, least sonoras sounds - voiceless stops
Sonority Sequencing Constraint
Sonority peaks at the nucleus and decreases toward margins
members share at lease a single speech variety and the norms for its appropriate use
Enclsoting names of distinctive features, ISO codes, narrow transcriptions
Pairs of sounds that are similar enough phonetically to be examined more carefully to determine whether they are contrastive
Abstract organizational unit that groups an accoustically prominent element -usually a vowel - with adjacent less prominent elements
Elements occur int he same syllable
Universal Redundancy Rule
ex [sonorant] implies [voice], meaning that a sonorant has the feature [+voice] and obstruent [-voice]
Unmarked Value, Marked Value
Expected value for a feature-
[voice] has umarked value of positive for sonorants but negative for obstruents because sonorants are generally voiced while obstruents are typically voiceless.
Unmarked Category, Marked Category
Marked is the category that is unusal - voiced stops are the marked category when compared with voiceless stops, unmarked
Unobstructed sound that functions as part of the nucleus of a syllable
Morpheme or combination of morphemes that is stored in the lexicon as a unit that can be used in the construction of phrases.