- Was the matter defamatory
- (TRAD) exposes P to public hatred, contempt, ridicule
- (RSTMT 2) Adversely affects P's reputation - if not defamatory on its face, P must explain why
Did D publish intentionally or negligently to 3rd party - Uniform Single Publication Rule - a single edition of magazine, paper or book is one ublication
Was defamatory matter subjectively understood by at least one 3rd person to be of and concerning P or an exclusive group P is a part of?
Must have damages unless Slander per se or if libel