antibiotics

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
304491
Filename:
antibiotics
Updated:
2015-07-02 16:43:26
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
anti-infectives
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  1. anti-infective
    antimicrobial
  2. nosocomial
    hospital-acquired infection
  3. culture and sensitivity
    • ID infective organism
    • select most effective antibiotic
  4. antimicrobial
    eliminates pathogens
  5. antibiotic
    antibacterial derived from microorganisms chemically modified
  6. broad spectrum
    • antibiotic regimen precluding culture and sensitivity
    • both gram poz/neg
  7. prophylaxis
    preventative antibiotic treatment
  8. pathogen
    toxic organisms
  9. bactericidal
    destroy bacteria
  10. bacteriostatic
    reduce bacteria
  11. superinfection
    secondary growth from foreign bacteria to specific area
  12. microbe life span
    • lag
    • log 
    • stationary death
  13. what stage of microbe life do you take drug?
    log: target rapidly dividing cells 
  14. what stages in mircobes life are in equilibrium?
    stationary and death, grow and die
  15. microorganism-types
    • aerobic
    • anaerobic
    • shape
    • gram stains
  16. normal microbial flora
    • ID: non-pathogenic colonies of organism in non-sterile areas
    • fxn: protect host
  17. labratory ID of pathogens
    • gram stain
    • culture and sensitivity
  18. gram stain
    • blue: poz
    • red: neg
  19. empiric therapy
    • 1) signs/symptoms
    • 2) culture sensitivity
    • 3) broad spectrum
    • 4) lab results
    • 5) possible change of drugs (optional)
  20. infection
    colonization of infectious bacteria
  21. opportunistic infection
    • requires an compromised host
    • ex: AIDS
    • antibiotic superinfection
  22. penicillin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combo
    target enzyme while penicillin targets cell wall of bacteria
  23. penicillin resistance
    enzyme/bacteria "pump" drop out
  24. bactericidal
    kill bacteria
  25. hypersensitivity
    10% of penicillin adverse effects also respond to cephalosporins
  26. penicillin
    • ID: beta-lactam
    • fxn: prototype
    • anti-infection
    • gram poz infection
    • target: binds to cell wall lipid-layer
    • treat: opportunistic infection
    • risk: penicillin-ase resistance
  27. synthetic penicillin
    gram +-
  28. augmentin unasyn 
    amoxicillin w/ beta lactamase inhibitors
  29. cephalosporins
    1st generation
    • brand name: cefadroxil, cephalexin
    • ID: beta-lactam
    • cephalosporins
    • fxn: stronger additive to pencillin
    • treat gram -+ infections
    • target: bind to cell wall of bacteria
    • treat: mrsa
    • pneumonia
    • risk: superinfection
  30. cephalosporins
    2nd generation
    • brand name: Cefaclor
    • ID: bactericidal anti-infective
    • route: PO
    • target: bind to bacteria cell wall, cause cell death
    • treat: respiratory
    • skin
    • bone, joint
    • UTI
    • risk: renal impairment
  31. gentamicin
    • ID: aminoglycocides
    • anti-infective
    • fxn: narrow spectrum [gram neg]
    • bactericidal
    • target: protein synthesis
    • inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis
    • treat: drug-resistant TB
    • intestinal flora
    • [penicillin-resistant] staph infections
    • [w/penicillin] enterococcal infections
    • risk: hypersensitivity to aminoglycocides
    • nephrotoxic
    • ototoxic
  32. tetracyclines
    • ID: lipid-soluble drug
    • bactericidal
    • anti-infective
    • prototype
    • fxn: broad spectrum
    • bacteriostatic
    • target: protein synthesis
    • treat: peptic ulcer
    • chlamydia 
    • acne
    • traveler's diarrhea
    • risk: resistance
    • nephrotoxicity
    • adverse effects: photosensitivity
    • [kids] brown teeth
    • dairy
    • hormonal contraceptives
  33. trimethaprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • ID: folate antagonist
    • anti-infective
    • fxn: bacteriostatic
    • broad spectrum 
    • target: inhibits metabolism of folic acid
    • PABA pathways
    • treat: UTI
    • pneumonia
    • [topical ]burn
    • wounds
    • risk: crystalluria
    • hypersensitivity to sulfonamides
    • hepatic impairment
    • nephrotoxicity
  34. heliobacteria pylori
    • ID: peptic ulcer
    • fxn: infect mucus membrane
    • treat: tetracycline
    • amoxicillin-clavulanate
    • cause: anti-prostaglandin (ibuprofen)
  35. clostridium difficile
    • ID: [mouth] superinfection
    • target: enamel 
    • risk: MRSA, VRE
    • cause: mainly beta-lactam drugs
    • also flouroquinolones
    • tetracycline
    • sulfonamides
  36. vancomycin
    • ID: anti-infective
    • fxn: narrow spectrum [gram poz]
    • bactericidal
    • target: binds to cell wall
    • treat: [oral] C. difficile
    • [parenteral] MRSA
    • nosocomial infections
    • risk: resistance [VRE]
    • superinfection
    • hypersensitivity
    • ototoxicity
    • nephrotoxicity
    • adverse effects: phlebitis
    • extravasation
    • red man syndrome
  37. contraindication
    precaution
  38. photosensitivity
    adverse reaction to sunlight
  39. UTI
    trim-sulfa
  40. ciprofloxacin
    • ID: fluoroquinolones
    • target: protein synthesis
    • penicllin-resistant bacteria
    • treat: UTI
    • STI
    • MRSA
    • pneunomia
    • risk: superinfection
    • hypersensitivity
  41. pencillin resistant treatment
    • gentamicin
    • [oral] augmentin 
    • [parenteral] unasyn
    • cephalosporins
    • macrolides
  42. MRSA treatment options
    • cephalosporins
    • ciprofloxacin
    • vancomycin
  43. synergists
    • gentamicin w/ penicillin
    • ex: enterococcal infection

    • amoxicillin w/ clavulanate
    • ex: h. pylori

    • trimethoprim w/ sulfamethoxazole 
    • ex: burns
    • pseudomonas wound infections
  44. aminoglycocide
    • gentamicin
    • risk: hypersensitivity
  45. drug resistant TB treatment
    gentamicin (aminoglycocide)
  46. risk of superinfection
    • cephalosporins (generations)
    • pencillins
    • cephalosporins
    • flouroquinolones
    • tetracycline
  47. target protein synthesis
    • ciprofloxacin
    • tetracycline
    • gentamicin
    • macrolides
  48. amoxicillin
    • ID: amoxicillin-clavulanate
    • semi-synthetic
    • anti-ulcer
    • anti-infective
    • aminopenicillin
    • beta-lactamase inhibitor
    • fxn: bactericidal
    • broad spectrum greater than penicillin
    • target: bacterial cell wall 
    • treat: h. pylori
    • peptic uler
    • risk: superinfection
    • hypersensitivity
    • resistance
  49. hypersensitivity
    • risk of allergic reaction
    • ex: penicillins
    • cephalosporins
    • flouroquinolones
    • aminoglycocides
  50. additives
    • trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • ex: folic acid metabolism
  51. peptic ulcer 
    • ID: h. pylori
    • cause: anti-prostaglandin (ibuprofen)
    • treat: amoxicillin-clavulanate
    • tetracycline
  52. beta-lactam drugs
    • penicillin G
    • amoxicillin
    • cephalosporins

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