Pharmacology Cardiac

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Author:
jwhughes
ID:
304524
Filename:
Pharmacology Cardiac
Updated:
2015-06-28 20:07:26
Tags:
nurse
Folders:
ATI
Description:
Cardiac
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  1. Name 12 main cardiac drug classes
    • ARBs
    • Ace Inhibitor
    • HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
    • Diuretics
    • Vasodilator
    • Anti-dysrhythmic
    • Cardiac glycosides
    • Beta blocker
    • Alpha blocker
    • Alpha 2 Agonist
    • Adrenergic Agonist
    • CCB
  2. Name a drug from the ARBs class
    Losartan
  3. Name a drug from the Ace Inhibitor class
    Captopril
  4. Name 4 types of Diuretics and a drug for each
    • Thiazide - Hydrochlorothiazide
    • K+ sparing - Spiranolactone
    • Osmotic - Mannitol
    • High Ceiling loop - Furosemide
  5. Name 2 drugs from the vasodilator class
    • Nitroprusside
    • Nitroglycerin
  6. Name a drug from the anti-dysrhythmic class
    Procainamide
  7. Name a drug from the beta blocker class
    Propranolol (OLOL)
  8. Name a drug that blocks Beta 1 specifically
    Dobutamine
  9. Name a drug that blocks beta 2 specifically
    Albuterol
  10. What drug should not be used for patients with asthma that is a beta blocker and what alternative drug should be given
    • Propranolol-NOOOO
    • Metoprolol
  11. Name the suffix of the drugs in the Alpha blocker class
    ZOSIN
  12. Name 2 drugs that are Alpha 2 agonists
    • Clonidine
    • Guaficine
  13. Name the HMG-Reductase inhibitor drug suffix
    STATINS
  14. Name 3 CCB
    • Nifidipine
    • Verapamil
    • Diltiazem
  15. Name four common side effects of High-ceiling loop diuretics?
    • Ototoxicity
    • Dehydration & Hypotension
    • HypoNA/HypoCl/HypoK
    • Hyperglycemia/Hyperuricemia
  16. Name 3 common side effects of Thiazide diuretics
    • Dehydration
    • Hypokalemia
    • Hyperglycemia
  17. Name THE MAIN side effect of Spiranolactone
    Hyperkalemia
  18. Name 3 common side effects/risks of osmotic diuretics
    • HF/pulmonary edema
    • Kidney failure
    • Fluid/electrolyte imbalance
  19. Name a rare side effect of Captopril that can be deadly
    neutropenia
  20. Name 4 common side effects of ACE inhibitors
    • DRY COUGH
    • First-dose orthostatic hypotension
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Angioedema
  21. MAIN SIDE EFFECT OF ACE INHIBITORS
    Dry, hacking cough
  22. MAIN 2 SIDE EFFECTS OF HIGH CEILING LOOP DIURETICS THAT IS NOT FOUND IN THIAZIDE DIURETICS
    • Ototoxicity
    • Hyperuricemia
  23. MAIN side effect of ARBs
    Angioedema
  24. Name 3 common side effects of Nifedipine
    • Reflex Tachycardia
    • Peripheral edema
    • Acute toxicity
  25. Name 2 common side effects of Verapamil and Diltiazem
    • Constipation
    • widened QRS, prolonged QT interval
  26. Name 3 side effects of Alpha 2 Agonists
    • Drowsiness
    • Dry mouth
    • Rebound HTN
  27. Name 2 common side effects of vasodilators
    • HA
    • Excessive Hypotension
  28. Name 4 common side effects of cardiac glycosides and what is the first sign of toxicity
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Cardiotoxicity > bradycardia
    • GI: ANOREXIA FIRST SYMPTOM, n/v, abd pain
    • CNS: vision changes, fatigue, weakness
  29. Name the 3 main side effects of Na+ channel blockers used for dysrhythmias
    • LUPUS
    • Neutro/thrombopenia
    • Widened QRS, increased QT, prolonged PR
  30. Name the drug used that falls in the potassium channel blocker class
    Amiodarone
  31. What are the MAIN 2 side effects of Amiodarone
    • Pulmonary toxicity
    • Sinus bradycardia/heart block (HF)
  32. Name common side effects of Adenosine
    • Sinus bradycardia
    • Dyspnea
    • FLUSHING OF FACE
  33. Name common side effects of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
    • INCREASED AST (hepatotoxic)
    • Myopathy (muscle aches)
    • Peripheral neuropathy
  34. Niacin side effects
    • Facial flushing
    • GI upset
    • Hyperuricemia/glycemia
    • Hepatotoxic
  35. What time should you instruct the patient to take their diuretics
    between 8 am - 12 pm. Avoid later in the day to prevent nocturia
  36. What foods do you instruct patients to avoid while taking spironolactone
    foods high in potassium
  37. When administering mannitol, what type of needle and tubing would you use and why
    FILTERS to prevent microscopic crystals
  38. What would you give a patient who has angioedema
    epinephrine
  39. What do you give a patient with reflex tachycardia?
    Beta blocker
  40. What drink should a patient avoid when on CCB
    grapefruit juice
  41. How should verapamil be administered?
    IV, slowly over 2-3 min
  42. What electrolyte imbalance can occur with digoxin toxicity
    hypokalemia
  43. Name 5 steps when responding to digoxin toxicity
    • STOP digoxin & K+ sparing meds
    • Monitor K+, administer if necessary
    • Phenytoin or lidocaine for dysrhythmias
    • Atropine for bradycardia
    • Excessive: Digibind
  44. Signs of Digoxin toxicity
    ANOREXIA, weakness, vision, GI
  45. What is the MOA of Dopamine and what will be different if its a high dose
    Renal BV dilation, Increased HR/contractility, & rate of conduction through AV node

    AT HIGHER DOSES, RENAL BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT NOT DILATE (HF or shock)
  46. How should dopamine be administered and what should be monitored
    • IV continuously (PUMP)
    • Titrate dose based on respeonse
    • Decreased kidney perfusion, ECG, chest pain
  47. What is nitroglycerin contraindicated in
    Traumatic head injury due to ICP
  48. How should nitroglycerin tablets be stored
    in a DARK, cool place
  49. What would you educate a patient on about how to use nitroglycerin patches
    • Remove patch at night
    • Be medication free for 10-12 hrs/day
  50. What baseline tests should be done before taking Amiodarone
    Pulmonary function and x ray
  51. What is the therapeutic level of digoxin
    Therapeutic: 0.5-2.0

    (HF: 0.5-0.8)
  52. What are the main labs needing to be monitored for a patient on statins
    AST, CK, cholesterol
  53. How would you educate the patient to take Niacin
    • With food
    • Take Aspirin 30 min prior
  54. What would be administered for a patient with increased uric acid levels
    Allopurinol
  55. What are signs of hypokalemia
    • n/v
    • weakness
  56. What medication can reduce the effect of diuretics due to the decrease of blood flow to the kidneys
    NSAIDS
  57. What do you educate the client to do when taking thiazide diuretics
    take with food
  58. What electrolyte imbalance can be a side effect of ACE inhibitors
    Hyperkalemia
  59. What is the major difference between ARBs and ACE inhibitors
    ARBs does not cause a cough or hyperkalemia
  60. What CCB can increase the risk of digoxin toxicity
    Verapamil or diltiazem
  61. When can you instruct the patient to take Alpha adrenergic blockers to decrease first dose hypotension effect
    at night
  62. What are 3 side effects of nitroprusside
    • Excessive hypotension
    • CYANIDE poisoning
    • thiocyanate toxicity
  63. What are symptoms of cyanide poisoning as a result of taking nitroprusside
    HA, drowsiness (can lead to cardiac arrest)
  64. What do you educate the patient to do diet wise when taking verapamil
    increase fiber and fluids
  65. What are signs of thiocyanate poisoning
    CNS (delirium, psychosis)
  66. What should the level of thiocyanate be
    <10 mg/dL
  67. What do you monitor for a patient on dopamine
    • dysrhytmias
    • change in HR
    • Angina
  68. What organ and gland can become dysfunctional when on amiodarone
    liver and thyroid
  69. What is one sign of toxicity from amiodarone?
    lung damage after medication is stopped
  70. What IV medication should a nurse give to a patient with severe hypotension following verapamil
    calcium gluconate
  71. 4 common side effects of verapamil
    • bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • HF
    • constipation
  72. What two organs need to have periodic tests to ensure there is no impairment when a client is on verapamil
    kidney and liver
  73. When is the best time to take statins
    night

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