Pharmacology Gastrointestinal

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Pharmacology Gastrointestinal
2015-06-29 11:01:02
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  1. Name 12 classes of meds that fall under Gastrointestinal system
    • H2 receptor antagonist
    • PPI
    • Antibiotics
    • Mucosal Protectants
    • Antacids
    • Prostaglandin E Analog
    • Antiemetics
    • Laxatives
    • Antidiarrheals
    • Prokinetic Agents
    • IBS-D
    • IBS-C
    • 5-Aminosalicylates
  2. What medication class assists with ELIMINATING H. Pylori bacteria
  3. Name 2 drugs that fall under the class H2 receptor antagonist
    • Ranitidine
    • Cimetidine
  4. What is the MOA of ranitidine
    suppress secretion of gastric acid
  5. Name a medication that falls under the class PPI
    omeprazole (prazole)
  6. What can long-term use of PPI put a person at risk for
  7. When should you instruct a patient to take omeprazole
    once a day prior to eating in the morning
  8. How long should the patient take omeprazole and antibiotics in the treatment of active ulcers
    4-6 weeks
  9. Name a medication that falls under the class mucosal protectant
  10. What is an adverse effect of sucralfate
  11. Name 4 sub-classes of antacids
    • Mg
    • Ca
    • Na
    • Aluminum
  12. What class of GI drugs neutralizes gastric acid and inactivates pepsin
  13. What are side effects of antacids
    • mg - diarrhea
    • Aluminum & Calcium - constipation
    • Na - fluid retention
  14. When should antacids NOT be administered
    If the patient has a GI obstruction or perforation
  15. How should clients be educated to take antacid tablets
    Chew thoroughly and then drink 8 oz of water or milk
  16. What is a medication that falls under the class Prostaglandin E analog
  17. When should a patient be educated to take misoprostol
    with meals and at bedtime
  18. What population is misprostol contraindicated in
    pregnant women
  19. Name 4 most common effects of dopamine antagonist
    • Hypotension
    • EPS
    • Sedation
    • Anticholinergic effect
  20. Name 3 drugs that fall under dopamine antagonist class
    • metoclopramide
    • promethazine
    • prochlorperazine
  21. What two meds can be used to treat EPS
    Anticholinergic (diphenhydramine) or benztropine
  22. Name 4 subclasses of laxatives
    • Osmotic
    • Stimulant
    • Surfacant
    • Bulk-forming
  23. Name a medication that falls under an osmotic laxative
    Magnesium hydroxide
  24. Name a medication that falls under bulk-forming laxative
  25. Name a medication that falls under stimulant laxative
  26. Name a medication that falls under Surfacant laxative
    Docusate sodium
  27. What is an adverse effect of osmotic laxative
  28. What is an adverse effect of Magnesium hydroxide laxative
    risk for mg toxicity
  29. What is an adverse effect of docusate sodium
    fluid retention
  30. Name two common adverse effects of ALL laxatives
    • GI irritation
    • Rectal burning sensation leading to proctitis
  31. How should bulk forming and surfactant laxatives be taken
    with a glass of water
  32. What can chronic laxative use lead to
    fluid & electrolyte imbalance
  33. Name 2 medications that fall under anti-diarrheals
    • Diphenoxylate plus atropine
    • Loperamide
  34. What is the maximum amount of diphenoxylate plus atropine a person can take daily
    <16 mg
  35. What type of solution is given to an individual with severe dehydration due to diarrhea
    0.45% NaCl (hypotonic)
  36. What is an adverse effect of diphenoxylate plus atropine
    euphoria or CNS depression plus anticholinergic effects
  37. Name 3 side effects of metoclopramide
    • EPS
    • Sedation
    • Diarrhea
  38. What medication is used to treat IBS-D
  39. What is a side effect of Alosetron
  40. What medication is used to treat IBS-C
  41. What are 2 side effects of lubiprostone
    • diarrhea
    • nausea
  42. Name 2 drugs that fall under 5-aminosalicylates
    • Sulfasalazine
    • Mesalamine
  43. What are adverse effects of 5-aminosalicylates
    • Blood disorders
    • Nausea, cramp, rash, arthralgia
  44. Name 5 vitamins/minerals used to treat GI disorders
    • Iron
    • Vit. B12
    • Folic acid
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium Sulfate
  45. Name 5 side effects of Iron
    • GI upset (constipation)
    • Teeth/body stains
    • Hypotension
    • Toxicity
    • Black or green tarry stools
  46. How should iron be taken
    without food
  47. What are symptoms of iron toxicity
    • GI
    • Shock
    • Acidosis
    • Liver/heart failure
  48. What vitamin increases absorption of iron
    Vitamin C
  49. What is the main adverse effect of taking B12
  50. What are signs of vitamin B12 deficiency
    beefy red tongue, pallor, neuropathy
  51. When administering potassium IV what should the nurse do? Not do?
    Give no faster than 10 mEq/hr!

  52. Name some side effects of magnesium sulfate
    • Muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, painful muscle contractions, respiratory depression
    • Diarrhea
  53. What are signs of magnesium toxicity in relation to DTR
    They will be depressed or absent
  54. What is administered to counteract magnesium toxicity
    Calcium gluconate
  55. Name 13 herbal supplements
    • Aloe
    • Black Cohosh
    • Echinacea
    • Feverfew
    • Garlic
    • Ginger Root
    • Ginko Biloba
    • Glucosamine
    • Kava
    • Ma Huang
    • St Johns Wort
    • Saw Palmetto
    • Valerian
  56. What herbal supplement acts as an antimicrobial
  57. What herbal supplement acts as an estrogen substitute
    Black cohosh
  58. What herbal supplement acts to stimulate the immune system (increase T cells, TNF, & Interferon)?
  59. What herbal supplement blocks platelet aggregation and assists in relieving migraines
  60. What herbal supplement acts to lower LDL and triglycerides and increase HDL
  61. What herbal supplement assists GI issues
    Ginger root
  62. What herbal supplement acts to promote vasodilation, platelet aggregation, bronchospasm, and IMPROVE MEMORY
    Ginko Biloba
  63. What herbal supplement stimulates cartilage and synovial fluid
  64. What herbal supplement should be AVOIDED to to LIVER INJURY
  65. What herbal supplement is used to assist in weight loss by suppressing appetite
    Ma Huang
  66. What herbal supplement affects serotonin producing anti-depressant effects
    St. John's Wort
  67. What herbal supplement decreases prostate symptoms of hyperplasia
    Saw Palmetto
  68. What herbal supplement increases GABA to prevent insomnia (reduce anxiety and restlessness)