The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing' and analyzing information in order to draw conclusions, or answer questions. Provides a measure of confidence in any conclusion.
Population
An entire group of individuals being studied
Individual
Person or object that make up a population that is being studied
Sample
A subset of the population being studied
Statistic
The numerical summary of a sample
Descriptive Statistics
Consist of Organizing and Summarizing data
Inferential Statistics
Uses methods that take a result from a sample, extend it to the population, and measure the reliability of the result
Parameter
A numerical summary of a population
Variable
The characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed.
Random Sampling
The process of using chance to select individuals from a population to be included in the sample
Simple Random Sampling
A sample of size n from a population of size N is obtained through simple random sampling, if every possible sample of size n has a equally likely chance of occuring
Bias
If the result of the sample are not representative of the population
Sampling Error
Error that results from using a sample to estimate information about a population. This type of error occurs BC a sample gives incomplete information about a population
Frequency Distribution
Lists each category of data and the number of occurrence for each category of data
Histogram
Constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data. The height of each rectangle is the frequency or relative frequency of the class. The width of each rectangle is the same and the rectangles touch
Variance
Based on the deviation about the mean (Measure of deviations are meant to describe how spread out data are)
Standard Deviation
A measure of variation of values about the mean. It is a type of average deviation of values from the mean.
Z-score
Standardized value- the number of standard deviation that a given value,x, is above or below the mean.