chapter 10

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chapter 10
2015-07-18 23:48:33

statergies and tactics
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  1. The function that the company is to perform predicates where the apparatus should be placed:
    • • Engine companies: Location should allow room for aerial trucks to access the front of the structure.
    • • Ladder companies: Location should allow maximum versatility.
    • •  Aerial trucks: Location should allow access to the best scrub area.
  2. The scrub area is the area
    that can be reached with an aerial ladder once the apparatus is set up
  3. Keep aerial appa-ratus capable of flowing
    _______ streams ______ of the fire
    • elevated
    • ahead
  4. In well-involved buildings that have the potential of collapse, keep apparatus :
    out of the collapse zones and as close to the corners of the structure as possible.p
  5. Ladder companies should be placed in locations that allow the ladder to have the most ______. Aerial trucks should be placed in order to obtain the best _______.
    • versatility
    • scrub area
  6. Consider-ations for apparatus placement include the following:
    • • Apparatus capabilities (e.g., a 100-foot aerial versus a 75-foot aerial)
    • • SOGs (e.g., first engine to the front, second to the rear)
    • • Prearranged SOGs for staging (e.g., only first-due engine to scene with nothing showing, all others to stage in direction of travel uncommitted)
    • • Order from incident commander (e.g., “Engine 1 hook to the fire department connection on side 3.”)
    • • Prearranged placement based on preincident planning (e.g., according to the preplan, lad-der 1 will position on the northeast corner of the building and place the aerial to the roof )
    • • Fire location and extent (e.g., defensive oper-ations may require the use of truck-mounted deck guns; however, collapse zones must be considered)
    • • Apparatus staged with personnel assigned
    • • Overhead hazards
  7. Salvage duties involve saving possessions in danger of being damaged by fire, smoke, and water. They begin with the fire fighters   _________ and continue until fire department operations have_______.
    • arrival on the scene
    •  concluded
  8. The postcontrol phase of overhauling is per-formed  _______. This is the time to be extremely meticulous in determining whether all fire has been extinguished
    after the fire is under control
  9. The precontrol stage of overhauling is performed under adverse conditions,________________.
    such as high heat, heavy smoke, and limited visibility
  10. The intent of over haul is to work from _____ back toward _____ to determine the fire’s ____.
    • charred areas
    • clean areas
    • extent
  11. The precontrol phase of overhauling entails ______  _____, examin-ing baseboards, _____, and so forth to determine the fire’s path of ________ and  _________.
    • pulling ceilings
    • shafts
    • travel and location
  12. Portable ladders should be placed on as ___ sides of the fire building and at as many windows as possible. At a minimum, _____ must be extended to each floor on which fire fighters are operating
    • many
    • one ladder
  13. The preferred portable ladder is an _______.
    extension ladder
  14. When forced to break double-pane or thermal-insulated windows,______of glass must be removed
    both panes
  15. Windows can be forced by placing the ___ end of a Halligan tool under the_____ of the window and exerting ____ pres-sure on the tool, popping the window lock open.
    • fork
    • bottom
    • downward
  16. Double-hung windows should be opened ______ and______ for adequate ventilation at smaller fires,
    • two thirds from the top
    • one third from the bot-tom
  17. Padlocks can be attacked at either the ___,____ or point of attachment.The _____ should be attacked.
    • staple, shackle
    • weakest link
  18. Outward-opening doors are usually indicative of doors to ____._____ and _____. They are usually not found as____ doors to houses and apartments.
    • commercial occupancies
    • elevators
    • closets
    • entrance
  19. _______ pumps of the ram will force most inward-opening doors
    Four to six
  20. A quick way to force an inward-opening door is to place a ______ tool _____above or below the lock, with the _____ ____ of the fork against the door slightly angled up or down
    • Halligan  
    • 6 inches
    • bevel side
  21. Gaining entry is also a very import-ant function of the _____ ______.

    ladder company
  22. In many cases, uncon-scious victims are found behind _____  _____ or below ______, overcome while attempting to flee the area.

    • entrance doors 
    • windows
  23. Here are some searching tips:
    •  • Plan your search.
    • • Check behind doors and under windows immediately.  
    • • If the door opens easily, then stops, there is a good chance that a victim is behind it.
    • • Use caution when searching with tools to avoid injuring victims.
    • • Do not let a door lock behind you. Chock it or leave a fire fighter at the door.
    • • Confine a fire by closing a door, then con-tinue with the search.
    • • Work around walls, probing toward the cen-ter of the room.
    • • Use a tool to your advantage; it increases arm length.
    • • Vent during the search, as long as it will not extend the fire.
    • • Listen for crying, moaning, or coughing.
    • • Check all closets and cabinets.
    • • Do not assume locked rooms are empty.
    • • Look under beds.
    • • Treat furniture as an extension of the wall. Do not move it.
    • • Be aware of bunk beds. The top bunk must be checked.
    • • Narrow furniture legs are found on bunk beds, cribs, and baby highchairs.
    • • Search through piles of clothes thoroughly.
    • • Check refrigerators, toy boxes, and dressers for children.
    • • If one victim is found on a bed, check for additional victims.
    • • Outward-opening doors could indicate a util-ity closet or elevator shaft.
    • • Look out a window, if disoriented.
    • • The primary way out is the way entry was made.
    • • Plan your own escape route.p.202
  24. In search and rescue

    The incident commander should also ensure that the fire fighters who performed the primary search are ____ of _____ before having different fire fighters perform the secondary search.

    out of the structure
  25. The primary search is an immediate search for ______ occupants. The search should be performed quickly, but ______.

    • trapped
    • thoroughly
  26. The secondary search can be defined as a ________ thorough search by a different group of fire fighters to ensure that no victims were missed during the primary search. It is recommended that the fire fighters who perform the primary search __ ____ the secondary search
    • meticulously 
    • not perform
  27. The search for life, fire, and fire extension are several functions of _____ _____. Along with the proper placement of hose lines, there is no greater tool than a well-developed search plan.

    ladder companies
  28. A potential drawback to _____ _____ _____ is that there is a good possibility of pushing smoke and fire into uninvolved areas of the building, possibly extending the fire or endangering occupants
    positive pressure ventilation
  29. _______ ______ is a means to remove smoke from a structure with the assistance of mechanical equipment such as smoke ejectors, positive pressure blowers/fans, exhaust fans, building ventilation systems (HVAC), and fog streams from hose lines.p.200
    mechan-ical ventilation
  30. When performing mechanical ventilation use in fog nozzle, the nozzle team stands __ to ___ feet from a window and directs a fog stream, roughly the ___ of ___ opening, out the window. This is a proven, effective way to ventilate a room or area quickly.

    • 6 to 8
    • size of the window
  31. ____ _____ involves the opening of doors, windows, skylights, bulkheads, and any other building openings to permit smoke, heat, and flames to escape through these openings with no assistance from fire personnel other than by creating the opening.p.200
    Natural ventilation
  32. ___ ___ is the movement of heat and smoke from the higher air pressure within a fire building to all other lower air pressure areas, both within and outside the fire building.

    flow path
  33. When fire fighters vent for ___, they are facilitating the engine company’s advance into the ___ area. When they vent for ___, they are doing so to enter an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) area where there is a known or suspected ____.

    • fire
    • fire
    • life
    • victim
  34. Fire fighters are more frequently find-ing fires in their _________ stage, with tremendous heat and no visible fire present. These conditions are prime for a _______, which can definitely be caused by improper horizontal ventilation preceding verti-cal ventilation.

    • smoldering
    • backdraft
  35. This ventilation should be coordinated between the ____ and ___ fire teams. If ______ _____ is performed prematurely, it could lead to rapid extension of the fire and possible autoextension.

    • inside and outside
    • horizontal ventila-tion
  36. ______ _____ is usually performed after the engine company’s hose line is stretched, charged, and ready to begin the fire attack.

    Horizontal ventilation
  37. If a member cuts a roof and a white paste is observed on the saw blade (indicating wet gypsum), the roof fire fighter should immediately notify the ___ ____ and ___ the ___.

    incident commander and evacuate the roof
  38. ________ roofs that ignite can spread fire rapidly across the entire roof, whereas ______ roofs can fail rapidly under fire conditions and easily absorb moisture.

    • Membrane
    • gypsum
  39. the following reliable signs to locate the fire on a roof:

    • • Melted snow
    • • Steam on a wet roof
    • • Bubbling tar
    • • Soft areas of the roof
    • • Sense of touch
    • • Looking over the roof’s edge
    • • Visible location of fire
  40. When cutting the roof, the hole should be cut in a way that makes it easy to ___ and should be at least ___ ____.

    • pull
    • 4 feet by 4 feet
  41. Scuttle covers can be removed with conventional hand tools. However, if they have been tarred over, a saw with a____ ____ blade may be necessary.

    carbide tip
  42. The first thing the roof division must consider when getting on the roof is a way of ___ ____ the ____.

    getting off the roof
  43. The fire fighters on the roof are the eyes of the incident commander and must inform the incident commander of conditions visible at the roof level, such as:
    • • Visible fire and smoke, color, and volume
    • • Location of shafts
    • • Paths of fire extension
    • • Persons in immediate distress

  44. Avoid the ______ stairs of a fire building in getting to the roof because of the potential of trapped gases, smoke, and heat in the stairwell.

  45. In which buildings does the firefighter have to used  the interior stairs

    high-rises or an isolated building above the reach of ladders
  46. Getting to the rear of these large buildings to use the fire escape is often both difficult and time- consuming, making it the  l ____ ____ method.p.196
    east preferred
  47. The purpose of ______ ______ is to draw heat, smoke, and fire up and out of the fire building through vertical openings. Some of these openings on high rise and larger buildings can include _____, _____ and ______.

    • vertical ventilation
    • bulkheads, scuttles, and skylights
  48. Benefits of vertical ventilation include:
    • • Prevents fire gases and heat from banking down from upper floors
    • • Increases survival time of victims by channel-ing gases and heat away from them
    • • Clears hallways and stairwells of smoke and heat, assisting escape of occupants
    • • Assists other fire fighters in attaining a position on the floors above the fire for search and rescue
    • • Assists the engine company in advancing its hose lines, allowing a rapid interior attack

  49. The purpose of ______ ______ is to draw heat, smoke, and fire up and out of the fire building through vertical openings. Some of these openings oh lager or highrisecan include bulkheads, scuttles, and skylights

    vertical ventilation
  50. There are also different methods of performing ventilation—for example, ______. and _______ ventilation.

    natural and mechanical
  51. In many cases, ________ determines the outcome of a fire

  52. The major role of the ladder company at the fire scene involves ______ ____, search and rescue, and________. The ladder company is also responsible for other support functions, such as laddering the fire building,_______ and ________ operations and shutting off utilities to the fire building, when necessary.

    • forcible entry 
    • ventilation
    • overhauling and salvage
  53. For ladder company functions to be met on the fire scene, various ladder company–specific tools and specialized equipment may be required, such as hand tools for ____ ____; various saws that cut through wood, _____ and ______; vehicle rescue equipment; air bags; cutting torches; and portable _____ and _____.

    • forcible entry
    • metal, and concrete
    • lighting and generators
  54. In the_____ _____ stage, rooms adjacent to the fire area may be at the point of flashover, which is the third stage. In the final stage, the ______ or ______ stage, fire fighters must be ever vigilant and alert.


    smoldering or decay
  55. In the ____ _____ stage, the fire produces tremendous amounts of heat and heavy fire conditions.

  56. In the________ stage, the smoke, heat, and fire conditions are minimal.

  57. When fighting an Apartment fire and progress is not being made toward extinguishment, then _____ ____ ___ ___may be the solution, or the ______ may not be enough for the volume of fire. Advance only if it is safe to do so!p.193
    • advancing several more feet
    • flow
  58. When fighting a fire in an apartment building, a ___ ____ at the _____ ____ ______ _____ may assist the engine company’s movements toward fire attack.

    quick look

    layout of the apartment directly below the one involved
  59. If fire does not meet the engine company at the door, fire fighters will want to __ ____.
    stay low
  60. Before entering a door to the fire area, all fire fighters should remain down low and should be on the same side of the ____ ___ and on the same side of the ______ opening.p.192
    • hose line
    • doorway
  61. Prior to entering a fire compartment or building involved in fire, fire personnel should: p.192
    • • Identify the building construction type
    • • Identify the occupancy
    • • Identify the need for rescue
    • • Identify the type of fire—vent or fuel controlled
    • • Identify the need to coordinate fire attack with ventilation
  62. all engine fire fighters should be able to perform the following procedures:

    • • Lay lines from hydrant to pumper
    • • Position or reposition the apparatus
    • • Determine the amount of hose needed to reach the seat of the fire
    • • Stretch a hose line
    • • Supply tank water to hose lines while awaiting hydrant supply
    • • Make a hydrant connection • Make all hose connections
    • • Maintain adequate pressure in hose lines using the pump
    • • Utilize deck guns and/or master streams
    • • Supply foam
    • • Supply auxiliary protection systems
  63. Fire extinguishment is the___ step in the sup-pression effort. Extinguishment includes putting out all visible flames and any hidden pockets of fire.

  64. The search for concealed fire areas and eventual total extin-guishment is called
  65. Simply stated, __________ is keeping the fire in the area, room, or building of ori-ginp.191
  66. Confining the fire is the ____ _____ in fire suppression.

    second step
  67. Once the location of the main body of the fire has been determined, the incident commander should ensure that dispatch is ______ and that all ______ are ________ .
    notified and that all personnel are updated
  68. A _____ _____fire is one that displays high smoke volume and pressure (incomplete combustion).  A ____ _____ fire is one that is growth limited by the supply of combustibles. .

    • vent- controlled
    • fuel- controlled
  69. Fully-involved fires are an example of ___ _____ fires
  70. The three basic steps in fire suppression are:

    1. Locating 2. Confining 3. Extinguishing
  71. The factors that must be considered in selecting the proper hose line include the following:

    ask your self
    Is the hose for:
    What is: COBL
    Where is: FL
    • • Is the hose line required for rescue, immedi-ate extinguishment, ventilation, or exposure protection?
    • • What is the location of the fire?
    • • Is this a vent- or fuel-controlled fire?
    • • What is the building construction type?
    • • What is the building occupancy?
    • • What materials are burning—plastics or natural?
    • • How much is burning (fire load) and in what storage configuration?
    • • Where is the fire extending?
    • • Where is the line going to be placed or stretched?
    • • What areas need immediate attention (such as a structure’s means of egress)?
    • • What resources are available?
    • • What are the building’s dimensions?
  72. It is important when choosing a ____ _____ as a water supply option that the resources available match the water sup-ply need. A helpful tool in this analysis is the _____ ____ _____ (TDR) formula.

    • tender shuttle
    •  tender delivery rate
  73. Water tenders may carry water in amounts from ____ to ___ gallons, or greater in some cases.

    1000 to 8000
  74. As an example,  tender with a capacity of 2500 gallons and it takes 20 minutes for the refill cycle;
    TDR is in GPM  C/T = GPM 

    If the fire requires a flow rate of 750 GPM, then how manny  tenders of the same size would be needed to have a continuous water supply:

  75. Dry hydrants are installed by developers to meet various ____ _____. Dry hydrants are essentially hard suction tubes that are piped into a nearby ___ _____source.

    • flow requirements
    • static water
  76. In areas where hydrants are not readily available and a static source is being used, fire engines must determine the most efficient means of quickly mov-ing the water supply. The options available include  _______ and  _______ _______:

    drafting and water tender shuttles
  77. Engine companies have three options when laying hose lines to move water from a water source to the fire scene:

    • Forward lay
    • Reverse lay
    • Split lay
  78. Water supplies generally come from either fire _____ or ________.
    hydrants or static sources
  79. lakes, pools, or ponds are examples of _______ water source

  80. The booster tank water is useful for some____ _____, ____ _____ and other small, outside fires.

    vehicle fires, some small brush fires
  81. Engine Company Responsibilities 

    As with any first-arriving unit, ______ is of utmost importance for an engine company. Size-up starts with the _____ of the alarm or, in many instances, before the alarm comes in.p.186
    • size-up
    • receipt
  82. ___ _____ should have a very good knowledge of the hose loads, types and sizes of hose, and the various nozzle types and sizes available.

    Fire fighters
  83. The minimum requirements for a Pumper Fire  Apparatus from NFPA _____ , Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, are given in the following list:• Minimum water tank of ____ gallons • Hose compartment of at least 30 cubic feet for _____ or larger supply hose and two compartments of at least ___ ___ feet for ____ or larger attack hose  • Minimum pump size of per minute (GPM) Figurep.185
    • 1901
    • 300
    • 2½-inch
    • 3.5 cubic
    • 1½-inch
    • 750 gallons
  84. The ____ _____ is the basic building block of every fire department

    engine company
  85. Initial fire attack tac-tics are impacted by various factors, including:

    • • Requirement for immediate rescue
    • • Human and physical resources required to take immediate action safely and effectively
    • • Water supply
    • • Access to the subject structure or vehicle