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The function that the company is to perform predicates where the apparatus should be placed:
- • Engine companies: Location should allow room for aerial trucks to access the front of the structure.
- • Ladder companies: Location should allow maximum versatility.
- • Aerial trucks: Location should allow access to the best scrub area.
The scrub area is the area
that can be reached with an aerial ladder once the apparatus is set up
Keep aerial appa-ratus capable of ﬂowing
_______ streams ______ of the ﬁre
In well-involved buildings that have the potential of collapse, keep apparatus :
out of the collapse zones and as close to the corners of the structure as possible.p
Ladder companies should be placed in locations that allow the ladder to have the most ______. Aerial trucks should be placed in order to obtain the best _______.
Consider-ations for apparatus placement include the following:
- • Apparatus capabilities (e.g., a 100-foot aerial versus a 75-foot aerial)
- • SOGs (e.g., ﬁrst engine to the front, second to the rear)
- • Prearranged SOGs for staging (e.g., only ﬁrst-due engine to scene with nothing showing, all others to stage in direction of travel uncommitted)
- • Order from incident commander (e.g., “Engine 1 hook to the ﬁre department connection on side 3.”)
- • Prearranged placement based on preincident planning (e.g., according to the preplan, lad-der 1 will position on the northeast corner of the building and place the aerial to the roof )
- • Fire location and extent (e.g., defensive oper-ations may require the use of truck-mounted deck guns; however, collapse zones must be considered)
- • Apparatus staged with personnel assigned
- • Overhead hazards
Salvage duties involve saving possessions in danger of being damaged by ﬁre, smoke, and water. They begin with the ﬁre ﬁghters _________ and continue until ﬁre department operations have_______.
- arrival on the scene
The postcontrol phase of overhauling is per-formed _______. This is the time to be extremely meticulous in determining whether all ﬁre has been extinguished
after the ﬁre is under control
The precontrol stage of overhauling is performed under adverse conditions,________________.
such as high heat, heavy smoke, and limited visibility
The intent of over haul is to work from _____ back toward _____ to determine the fire’s ____.
- charred areas
- clean areas
The precontrol phase of overhauling entails ______ _____, examin-ing baseboards, _____, and so forth to determine the ﬁre’s path of ________ and _________.
- pulling ceilings
- travel and location
Portable ladders should be placed on as ___ sides of the ﬁre building and at as many windows as possible. At a minimum, _____ must be extended to each ﬂoor on which ﬁre ﬁghters are operating
The preferred portable ladder is an _______.
When forced to break double-pane or thermal-insulated windows,______of glass must be removed
Windows can be forced by placing the ___ end of a Halligan tool under the_____ of the window and exerting ____ pres-sure on the tool, popping the window lock open.
Double-hung windows should be opened ______ and______ for adequate ventilation at smaller ﬁres,
- two thirds from the top
- one third from the bot-tom
Padlocks can be attacked at either the ___,____ or point of attachment.The _____ should be attacked.
- staple, shackle
- weakest link
Outward-opening doors are usually indicative of doors to ____._____ and _____. They are usually not found as____ doors to houses and apartments.
- commercial occupancies
_______ pumps of the ram will force most inward-opening doors
Four to six
A quick way to force an inward-opening door is to place a ______ tool _____above or below the lock, with the _____ ____ of the fork against the door slightly angled up or down
- 6 inches
- bevel side
Gaining entry is also a very import-ant function of the _____ ______.
In many cases, uncon-scious victims are found behind _____ _____ or below ______, overcome while attempting to ﬂee the area.
Here are some searching tips:
- • Plan your search.
- • Check behind doors and under windows immediately.
- • If the door opens easily, then stops, there is a good chance that a victim is behind it.
- • Use caution when searching with tools to avoid injuring victims.
- • Do not let a door lock behind you. Chock it or leave a ﬁre ﬁghter at the door.
- • Conﬁne a ﬁre by closing a door, then con-tinue with the search.
- • Work around walls, probing toward the cen-ter of the room.
- • Use a tool to your advantage; it increases arm length.
- • Vent during the search, as long as it will not extend the ﬁre.
- • Listen for crying, moaning, or coughing.
- • Check all closets and cabinets.
- • Do not assume locked rooms are empty.
- • Look under beds.
- • Treat furniture as an extension of the wall. Do not move it.
- • Be aware of bunk beds. The top bunk must be checked.
- • Narrow furniture legs are found on bunk beds, cribs, and baby highchairs.
- • Search through piles of clothes thoroughly.
- • Check refrigerators, toy boxes, and dressers for children.
- • If one victim is found on a bed, check for additional victims.
- • Outward-opening doors could indicate a util-ity closet or elevator shaft.
- • Look out a window, if disoriented.
- • The primary way out is the way entry was made.
- • Plan your own escape route.p.202
In search and rescue
The incident commander should also ensure that the ﬁre ﬁghters who performed the primary search are ____ of _____ before having different ﬁre ﬁghters perform the secondary search.
out of the structure
The primary search is an immediate search for ______ occupants. The search should be performed quickly, but ______.
The secondary search can be deﬁned as a ________ thorough search by a different group of ﬁre ﬁghters to ensure that no victims were missed during the primary search. It is recommended that the ﬁre ﬁghters who perform the primary search __ ____ the secondary search
The search for life, ﬁre, and ﬁre extension are several functions of _____ _____. Along with the proper placement of hose lines, there is no greater tool than a well-developed search plan.
A potential drawback to _____ _____ _____ is that there is a good possibility of pushing smoke and ﬁre into uninvolved areas of the building, possibly extending the ﬁre or endangering occupants
positive pressure ventilation
_______ ______ is a means to remove smoke from a structure with the assistance of mechanical equipment such as smoke ejectors, positive pressure blowers/fans, exhaust fans, building ventilation systems (HVAC), and fog streams from hose lines.p.200
When performing mechanical ventilation use in fog nozzle, the nozzle team stands __ to ___ feet from a window and directs a fog stream, roughly the ___ of ___ opening, out the window. This is a proven, effective way to ventilate a room or area quickly.
____ _____ involves the opening of doors, windows, skylights, bulkheads, and any other building openings to permit smoke, heat, and ﬂames to escape through these openings with no assistance from ﬁre personnel other than by creating the opening.p.200
___ ___ is the movement of heat and smoke from the higher air pressure within a ﬁre building to all other lower air pressure areas, both within and outside the ﬁre building.
When ﬁre ﬁghters vent for ___, they are facilitating the engine company’s advance into the ___ area. When they vent for ___, they are doing so to enter an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) area where there is a known or suspected ____.
Fire ﬁghters are more frequently ﬁnd-ing ﬁres in their _________ stage, with tremendous heat and no visible ﬁre present. These conditions are prime for a _______, which can deﬁnitely be caused by improper horizontal ventilation preceding verti-cal ventilation.
This ventilation should be coordinated between the ____ and ___ ﬁre teams. If ______ _____ is performed prematurely, it could lead to rapid extension of the ﬁre and possible autoextension.
- inside and outside
- horizontal ventila-tion
______ _____ is usually performed after the engine company’s hose line is stretched, charged, and ready to begin the ﬁre attack.
If a member cuts a roof and a white paste is observed on the saw blade (indicating wet gypsum), the roof ﬁre ﬁghter should immediately notify the ___ ____ and ___ the ___.
incident commander and evacuate the roof
________ roofs that ignite can spread ﬁre rapidly across the entire roof, whereas ______ roofs can fail rapidly under ﬁre conditions and easily absorb moisture.
the following reliable signs to locate the ﬁre on a roof:
- • Melted snow
- • Steam on a wet roof
- • Bubbling tar
- • Soft areas of the roof
- • Sense of touch
- • Looking over the roof’s edge
- • Visible location of ﬁre
When cutting the roof, the hole should be cut in a way that makes it easy to ___ and should be at least ___ ____.
Scuttle covers can be removed with conventional hand tools. However, if they have been tarred over, a saw with a____ ____ blade may be necessary.
The ﬁrst thing the roof division must consider when getting on the roof is a way of ___ ____ the ____.
getting off the roof
The ﬁre ﬁghters on the roof are the eyes of the incident commander and must inform the incident commander of conditions visible at the roof level, such as:
- • Visible ﬁre and smoke, color, and volume
- • Location of shafts
- • Paths of ﬁre extension
- • Persons in immediate distress
Avoid the ______ stairs of a ﬁre building in getting to the roof because of the potential of trapped gases, smoke, and heat in the stairwell.
In which buildings does the firefighter have to used the interior stairs
high-rises or an isolated building above the reach of ladders
Getting to the rear of these large buildings to use the ﬁre escape is often both difﬁcult and time- consuming, making it the l ____ ____ method.p.196
The purpose of ______ ______ is to draw heat, smoke, and ﬁre up and out of the ﬁre building through vertical openings. Some of these openings on high rise and larger buildings can include _____, _____ and ______.
- vertical ventilation
- bulkheads, scuttles, and skylights
Beneﬁts of vertical ventilation include:
- • Prevents ﬁre gases and heat from banking down from upper ﬂoors
- • Increases survival time of victims by channel-ing gases and heat away from them
- • Clears hallways and stairwells of smoke and heat, assisting escape of occupants
- • Assists other ﬁre ﬁghters in attaining a position on the ﬂoors above the ﬁre for search and rescue
- • Assists the engine company in advancing its hose lines, allowing a rapid interior attack
The purpose of ______ ______ is to draw heat, smoke, and ﬁre up and out of the ﬁre building through vertical openings. Some of these openings oh lager or highrisecan include bulkheads, scuttles, and skylights
There are also different methods of performing ventilation—for example, ______. and _______ ventilation.
natural and mechanical
In many cases, ________ determines the outcome of a ﬁre
The major role of the ladder company at the ﬁre scene involves ______ ____, search and rescue, and________. The ladder company is also responsible for other support functions, such as laddering the ﬁre building,_______ and ________ operations and shutting off utilities to the ﬁre building, when necessary.
- forcible entry
- overhauling and salvage
For ladder company functions to be met on the ﬁre scene, various ladder company–speciﬁc tools and specialized equipment may be required, such as hand tools for ____ ____; various saws that cut through wood, _____ and ______; vehicle rescue equipment; air bags; cutting torches; and portable _____ and _____.
- forcible entry
- metal, and concrete
- lighting and generators
In the_____ _____ stage, rooms adjacent to the ﬁre area may be at the point of ﬂashover, which is the third stage. In the ﬁnal stage, the ______ or ______ stage, ﬁre ﬁghters must be ever vigilant and alert.
smoldering or decay
In the ____ _____ stage, the ﬁre produces tremendous amounts of heat and heavy ﬁre conditions.
In the________ stage, the smoke, heat, and ﬁre conditions are minimal.
When fighting an Apartment fire and progress is not being made toward extinguishment, then _____ ____ ___ ___may be the solution, or the ______ may not be enough for the volume of ﬁre. Advance only if it is safe to do so!p.193
- advancing several more feet
When ﬁghting a ﬁre in an apartment building, a ___ ____ at the _____ ____ ______ _____ may assist the engine company’s movements toward ﬁre attack.
layout of the apartment directly below the one involved
If ﬁre does not meet the engine company at the door, ﬁre ﬁghters will want to __ ____.
Before entering a door to the ﬁre area, all ﬁre ﬁghters should remain down low and should be on the same side of the ____ ___ and on the same side of the ______ opening.p.192
Prior to entering a ﬁre compartment or building involved in ﬁre, ﬁre personnel should: p.192
- • Identify the building construction type
- • Identify the occupancy
- • Identify the need for rescue
- • Identify the type of ﬁre—vent or fuel controlled
- • Identify the need to coordinate ﬁre attack with ventilation
all engine ﬁre ﬁghters should be able to perform the following procedures:
- • Lay lines from hydrant to pumper
- • Position or reposition the apparatus
- • Determine the amount of hose needed to reach the seat of the ﬁre
- • Stretch a hose line
- • Supply tank water to hose lines while awaiting hydrant supply
- • Make a hydrant connection • Make all hose connections
- • Maintain adequate pressure in hose lines using the pump
- • Utilize deck guns and/or master streams
- • Supply foam
- • Supply auxiliary protection systems
Fire extinguishment is the___ step in the sup-pression effort. Extinguishment includes putting out all visible ﬂames and any hidden pockets of ﬁre.
The search for concealed ﬁre areas and eventual total extin-guishment is called
Simply stated, __________ is keeping the ﬁre in the area, room, or building of ori-ginp.191
Conﬁning the ﬁre is the ____ _____ in ﬁre suppression.
Once the location of the main body of the ﬁre has been determined, the incident commander should ensure that dispatch is ______ and that all ______ are ________ .
notiﬁed and that all personnel are updated
A _____ _____ﬁre is one that displays high smoke volume and pressure (incomplete combustion). A ____ _____ ﬁre is one that is growth limited by the supply of combustibles. .
- vent- controlled
- fuel- controlled
Fully-involved ﬁres are an example of ___ _____ ﬁres
The three basic steps in ﬁre suppression are:
1. Locating 2. Conﬁning 3. Extinguishing
The factors that must be considered in selecting the proper hose line include the following:
ask your self
Is the hose for:
What is: COBL
Where is: FL
- • Is the hose line required for rescue, immedi-ate extinguishment, ventilation, or exposure protection?
- • What is the location of the ﬁre?
- • Is this a vent- or fuel-controlled ﬁre?
- • What is the building construction type?
- • What is the building occupancy?
- • What materials are burning—plastics or natural?
- • How much is burning (ﬁre load) and in what storage conﬁguration?
- • Where is the ﬁre extending?
- • Where is the line going to be placed or stretched?
- • What areas need immediate attention (such as a structure’s means of egress)?
- • What resources are available?
- • What are the building’s dimensions?
It is important when choosing a ____ _____ as a water supply option that the resources available match the water sup-ply need. A helpful tool in this analysis is the _____ ____ _____ (TDR) formula.
- tender shuttle
- tender delivery rate
Water tenders may carry water in amounts from ____ to ___ gallons, or greater in some cases.
1000 to 8000
As an example, tender with a capacity of 2500 gallons and it takes 20 minutes for the reﬁll cycle;
TDR is in GPM C/T = GPM
If the ﬁre requires a ﬂow rate of 750 GPM, then how manny tenders of the same size would be needed to have a continuous water supply:
Dry hydrants are installed by developers to meet various ____ _____. Dry hydrants are essentially hard suction tubes that are piped into a nearby ___ _____source.
- ﬂow requirements
- static water
In areas where hydrants are not readily available and a static source is being used, ﬁre engines must determine the most efﬁcient means of quickly mov-ing the water supply. The options available include _______ and _______ _______:
drafting and water tender shuttles
Engine companies have three options when laying hose lines to move water from a water source to the ﬁre scene:
- Forward lay
- Reverse lay
- Split lay
Water supplies generally come from either ﬁre _____ or ________.
hydrants or static sources
lakes, pools, or ponds are examples of _______ water source
The booster tank water is useful for some____ _____, ____ _____ and other small, outside ﬁres.
vehicle ﬁres, some small brush ﬁres
Engine Company Responsibilities
As with any ﬁrst-arriving unit, ______ is of utmost importance for an engine company. Size-up starts with the _____ of the alarm or, in many instances, before the alarm comes in.p.186
___ _____ should have a very good knowledge of the hose loads, types and sizes of hose, and the various nozzle types and sizes available.
The minimum requirements for a Pumper Fire Apparatus from NFPA _____ , Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, are given in the following list:• Minimum water tank of ____ gallons • Hose compartment of at least 30 cubic feet for _____ or larger supply hose and two compartments of at least ___ ___ feet for ____ or larger attack hose • Minimum pump size of per minute (GPM) Figurep.185
- 3.5 cubic
- 750 gallons
The ____ _____ is the basic building block of every ﬁre department
Initial ﬁre attack tac-tics are impacted by various factors, including:
- • Requirement for immediate rescue
- • Human and physical resources required to take immediate action safely and effectively
- • Water supply
- • Access to the subject structure or vehicle