CNS

Card Set Information

Author:
BodeS
ID:
304628
Filename:
CNS
Updated:
2015-07-02 17:12:55
Tags:
pharmacology
Folders:

Description:
central nervous system, pain, NSAIDS
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  1. transmission of pain
    • nociceptor
    • spinal chord 
    • hypothalamus
    • cortex
  2. A-fibers
    • ID: adrenergic fibers
    • fxn: secrete noradrenaline
    • sharp, fast
    • myelinated
    • ex: skin 
    • muscles
  3. C-fibers
    • ID: cholinergic fibers
    • fxn: liberate acetylcholine
    • slower, dull
    • non-myelinated 
    • ex: burning
    • bloating
  4. autonomic nervous system receptors
    • alpha 
    • beta
    • dopaminergic
  5. catecholamines
    stimulate adrenergic nervous system
  6. cholinergic agents
    stimulate parasympathetic nervous system
  7. adrenergic agents
    stimulate sympathetic nervous system
  8. opiate receptors bind naturally with _______.
    opiate peptides
  9. nociceptor
    • ID: afferent nerve ending 
    • fxn: pain sensation
    • location: skin, blood vessels, joints, subcutaneous tissue, and other tissues
  10. NSAID
    • ID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
    • fxn: pain medication
    • analgesic agent
    • prostaglandin inhibitors
  11. opiate receptors
    • ID: receptors in brain  
    • fxn: control pain 
    • location: CNS
  12. alpha receptors
    • alpha 1: vasoconstriction
    • alpha 2: mediate negative feedback, reduce noradrenaline
  13. beta receptors
    • beta 1: increase in heart rate
    • beta 2: relaxation of bronchiole smooth muscle
  14. dopamine receptors
    • increase urine output 
    • renal perfusion 
  15. morphine is an ________ to opiate receptors.
    agonist
  16. morphine is schedule ______ drug. 
    II
  17. the half-life of morphine is ________ hours.
    2-4 hrs
  18. morphine in the liver produces ________ _______. 
    active metabolites
  19. side effects of morphine
    • CNS: sedation
    • Respiratory: decrease breath rate
    • cough, depression
    • cramping, diarrhea
    • EENT: miosis, pupil dilation
    • GI: constipation (non-ceiling drug)
  20. withdrawal from morphine
    • anxiety
    • achey
    • insomnia
  21. Nursing Process for pain
    • assess patients pain: 5th vital sign
    • medicate/treat effectively
  22. opioid analgesics
    agonist drugs
  23. other agonist prototype of opioids
    • ID: meperidine (Demerol)
    • adverse effects: active metabolite "Normeperidine"
    • risk: excitation, tremors, and seizures
  24. opioid antagonist
    • ID: naloxone (Narcan)
    • fxn: reverse respiratory depression
  25. levodopa/carbidopa
    • brand name: Sinemut 
    • ID: antiparkinsons
    • dopamine agonist
    • fxn: levodopa converts to dopamine in CNS
    • carbidopa protects levodopa in PNS
    • target: increase dopamine receptors
    • inhibit acetycholine 
    • treat: Parkison's Disease
    • risk: cross-hypersensitivity
    • tolerance
    • resistance (on/off switch)
  26. fluoxetine
    • brand name: Prozac
    • ID: anti-depressant
    • anti-anxiety
    • SSRI
    • fxn: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    • target: blocks reabsorption of Serotonin
    • stays in synapse
    • rebinds to receptors
    • treat: depession
    • anxiety
    • neuorpathic pain
    • risk: acute schizophrenia
    • suicidal ideation
    • seizure
  27. diazepam
    • brand name: Valium
    • ID: anti-anxiety
    • anti-convulsant
    • skeletal muscle relaxer
    • fxn: highly lipid-soluble
    • highly protein bound
    • target: binds w/ benzodiazepine receptors 
    • complex w/ GABA binding sites
    • inhibit GABA receptors
    • treat: anxiety disorder
    • risk: short half-life
    • must taper off 
    • adverse effect: epilepticus withdrawal
    • reaction fatal
  28. ibuprofen
    • ID: analgesic
    • anti-inflammatory
    • fxn: anti-prostaglandin
    • NSAID
    • target: inhibits prostaglandins synthesis
    • inactivate cyclooxygenases
    • treat: fever
    • aches
    • inflammation
    • risk: peptic ulcer
    • hypertension
    • renal failure
    • hepatitis
    • cross-hypersensitivity to alcohol
  29. morphine
    • ID: opioid
    • analgesics 
    • fxn: reduce pain
    • non-ceiling drug
    • target: binds to opiate receptors in CNS/brain  
    • risk: sedation
    • respiratory depression 
    • constipation
  30. SSRI-MAO
    • ID: anti-depressants
    • fxn: treat mood disorder
    • risk: cross-hypersensitivity
    • adverse reaction: reaction fatal
  31. list 3 symptoms of opiate overdose.
    • coma
    • respiratory oversode
    • miosis
  32. non-ceiling drug
    no limit of dosage strength to high-tolerance patients
  33. naloxone
    • brand name: Narcan
    • ID: opioid antagonist

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