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What PSI IS THe minimal flow for the furthest sprinkler
Often, a second-ary means of water supply is required. The ﬂow must be able to provide a minimal residual water pressure of 15 pounds per square inch (psi) to the highest and farthest sprinkler head.
When the alarm is electronic, water movement presses against a ________ that activates a switch to operate the alarm.
There are four main types of sprinkler systems:
- 1. Wet pipe systems
- 2. Dry pipe systems
- 3. Deluge systems
- 4. Preaction systems
According to statistics from the National Fire Pro-tection Association (NFPA), about______ of ﬁres in sprinklered buildings are either extinguished by the sprinklers or held in check until they can be com-pletely extinguished by the ﬁre department
All sprinkler systems have some form of __________.
main water control valve
There are three common types of main water con-trol valve.
outside screw and yoke (OS&Y)
the post indicator valve (PIV).
wall post indicator valve (WPIV).
The most common type of a main control Value is
the outside screw and yoke (OS&Y)
Other common components of sprinkler systems include a pressure gauge and valving such as
stop-cock valves, globe valves, check or clapper valves, automatic drain valves, and alarm test/inspector test valves
Stopcock valves are for both ____________, likewise globe valves are used for system drainage and as _____ . These valves are manually operated, but unlike the main control valve, they are of the _______.
- 1. system drainage and alarm silencing;
- 2. test valves
- 3. non-indicating type
Automatic drain valves are used to drain the sprinkler system automatically once the ______________.
pres-sure on the system has been relieved.
the water ﬂow alarm indicates water ﬂow and is activated either _________ or ___________.
hydraulically or electronically.
Every sprinkler system must have a water supply that is ___________.
reliable, automatic, and of adequate volume and pressure.
An indication that a ﬁre pump is present is a ______.
A test header looks like a wall hydrant with multiple ________ that are used for ________.
- 1. 2½-inch outlets
- 2. testing the ﬁre pump.
In either case, there are _________ in the piping to ensure that through the FDC the domestic supply cannot be contaminated or ___________ and no harm could be caused to the gravity and/or pressure tanks.
- 1. check valves
- 2. back-pressured
When the ﬁre department connects to the FDC, it should ensure that the water supply for ﬁreﬁghting operations is taken from a source other than the one supplying __________.
the building’s ﬁre protection
Difference between Wet & Dry sprinkler system
A wet pipe sprinkler system constantly has water throughout the system. In contrast, a dry pipe sprinkler system has no water in the system beyond the check valve.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems replaces the water with ____ that is under pressure to keep water from entering the system until a sprinkler head is acti-vated. Only a ______ amount of air pressure is needed to hold the check valve closed.
Dry pipe systems are typically used in buildings in which the water in the piping _____________capabil-ities or exposure of some of the piping to the outside elements.
could freeze due to insufﬁcient heating
What is used to speed up the dry pipe system in delivering water onto the ﬁre quicker ?
accelerators or exhausters
A preaction sprinkler system is basically set up the same as a _________ but incorporates separate additional alarm equipment.
dry pipe system
Preaction Sprinkler Systems typically used in locations where ______________.
water damage must be prevented.
A deluge system is typically used in locations where the occupancy is __________. In this system, the heads _________, and once the separate ﬁre/smoke detection equipment is activated, the water begins to ﬂow, discharging from ___________ at once.
- 1. extra hazardous.
- 2. are all open
- 3. all of the open heads
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes.
When connecting to a FDC on a Residential Sprinkler System it is imperative that the sys-tem be pumped _______________.
at whatever the standard domestic pressure is.
Standpipe systems are divided into three class-es, each depending on the intended use of the system:
Class I is for use by ﬁre departments and those trained in handling heavy ﬁre streams
is for use primarily by building occu-pants Figure
Class III is for use by ﬁre departments and those trained in handling heavy streams, or for use by the building occupant
A Class I system must have a water supply adequate to ﬂow _________ for at least ___ minutes.
The supply must provide a minimum residual pressure of ____ at the highest/ farthest outlet while ﬂowing the required ____.
- 1. 500 gallons per minute (GPM)
- 2. 30
- 3. 65 psi
- 4. 500 GPM
In class I systems that require more than one standpipe ris-er, the system is still required to ﬂow the 500 GPM for at least 30 minutes for the ﬁrst standpipe in the system, and each additional standpipe must ﬂow a minimum of ____ for at least__ minutes.
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Class II systems must have a water supply adequate to ﬂow _____ for at least 30 minutes. This standpipe class must also be able to provide a minimum residual pressure of ___ at the highest/farthest outlet while at the same time ﬂowing the required ___ GPM.
- 1. 100 GPM
- 2. 65 psi
- 3. 100
The Class III system must be capable of ﬂowing the same required minimums as the___ system.
ﬁre ﬁghters must be aware of the possible pres-ence of pressure-reducing devices on standpipe systems. speciﬁcally in ____ system
Any system that has ﬂow pressures of ____ psi or more should be tagged or marked to indicate the higher pressures.
Standpipe systems can be either wet or dry sys-tems and are broken down into four types,
1. A wet standpipe system that has water through-out the system at all times. When an outlet is opened, water immediately begins to ﬂow.
2. A dry standpipe system that is under no air pressure, much like a deluge-type sprinkler system. It must be activated by manual oper-ation of a valve at the beginning of the system or by a remote control located at each stand-pipe outlet.
3. A dry standpipe system that is ﬁlled with air under pressure, much like a dry sprin-kler system. When a standpipe connection is opened, air is allowed to escape the system while water enters.
4. A dry standpipe system that has no water supply. Water must be supplied by the ﬁre department.
The installation, maintenance, and minimum requirements of standpipe systems are covered within
NFPA 14 mandates that stand-pipe systems be limited to a maximum height of ___ feet.
When a structure is higher than the ___ limit, an additional zone or zones must be installed; however, no two zones are allowed to exceed a height of ___.
Fire Department Connection Color Coding
1. Red. 2. Green. 3. Silver. 4. Yellow
- 1. StandPipe system
- 2. Automatic Spinkler System
- 3. Non- Automatic sprinkler system
- 4. Combination sprinkler and standpipe system
the most common special extinguishing system that ﬁre ﬁghters will encounter, in-cluding
- * Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems
- • Halogenated agent extinguishing systems
- • Dry chemical extinguishing systems
- • Wet chemical extinguishing systems
Extinguishers that are typically found in com-puter rooms, spray booths, areas of intricate electrical equipment, or areas of ﬂammable liquid storage, to name a few locations are:
The carbon dioxide and halogenated agent types of extinguishing systems
A carbon dioxide system works by _____ the air in the room to ____.
Halogenated extinguishing agents, which are used in many of the same areas as carbon dioxide systems, work by interfering with and interrupting the _______ of ﬁre.
chemical chain reaction
Dry chemical systems are used to control ﬁres involv-ing _______________.
ﬂammable liquids, ﬂammable gases, grease, and electrical equipment.
Dry chemical systems work by interrupting the __________of ﬁre.
chemical chain reaction
Wet chemical, or _____, extinguishing systems are used in many of the same locations as the dry chemical systems but have an added beneﬁt. The wet chemical system has the extra ability of cooling and removing the fuel by coating it.
When Wet chemical, or class K is discharged on a ﬁre and comes in contact with grease, fat, and the like, a soaplike substance is created. This process is called ________.
Recommended Practice for Fire Department Operations in Properties Protected by Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
An SOG should include the following guidelines:
- • Mandate that the ﬁrst- or second-arriving engine company report directly to the FDC and prepare to support the system.
- • Secure a water supply. This supply should not rob the system of its water supply.
- • Maintain contact with interior crews and command to monitor when the system is to be charged.
- • Initially develop and maintain a pump pres-sure of 150 psi. Depending on the system, such as a deluge-type sprinkler system or a multizone standpipe system in a high-rise, the pump pressure may need to be increased anywhere from 175 psi to 200 psi.
- • Mandate that a minimum of two 2½-inch hose lines supply the sprinkler or standpipe system. When more than two hose lines are utilized, the pump pressure may also need to be increased from 175 psi to 200 psi.
- • Mandate that a ﬁre ﬁghter be assigned to locate the main water control valve and ensure it is open. This ﬁre ﬁghter must stay assigned to the main control valve to ensure no one turns it off, and to turn it off when advised by the incident commander.
- • Mandate that only the incident commander may order that the main water control valve be shut down.
In general, a high-rise kit should be capable of ﬂowing at least ____.
Equipment typically carried in a high-rise or standpipe pack:
- • Minimum of 100 feet of 1¾-inch or 2-inch hose (more if long hallways are present) (Note that 2½-inch hose is preferred due to higher ﬂow rates.)
- • Water thief or gated Y, either 2½ to 1½ inches or 2½ to 2 inches (depending on the size hose line being utilized)
- • Correct sizes of spanner wrenches
- • Pipe wrench
- • Hand wheel for standpipe outlet
- • A nozzle (smooth-bore nozzle is preferred due to higher ﬂow potential, lower pres-sure needed, and reduced chance of nozzle becoming clogged)
- • Door wedges
- • Typical hand tools and carried equipment such as hand lights and forcible entry tools
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