Parasitology lecture: Section 6 Trematodes

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Parasitology lecture: Section 6 Trematodes
2015-07-02 16:11:27

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  1. Trematodes nickname
  2. Order of flukes
  3. Trematode facts
    • Indirect and direct life cycles
    • Hermaphroditic 
    • Most common in TX is cattle flukes
    • Most common in small animal: Paragonimus kellicotti
    • Must have water to complete life cycle
  4. Trematode life cycle
    • Egg hatches to miracidium with cilia and swims
    • Miracidium penetrates body of snail
    • Miracidium becomes sporocyst inside snail
    • Sporocyst (asexual) becomes 10 rediae
    • 10 rediae (asexual) become 100 cercariae
    • Cercariae leaves snail and swims to grass, consumed by ruminant where metamorphoses occurs and adult emerges in the host (sexual)
    • If cold cercariae becomes metacercariae stays attached to grass until it becomes warm, then is consumed and undergoes metamorphoses and becomes adult that migrates to liver by burrowing through intestines
  5. Trematodes life cycle stages
    • Egg
    • Miracidium
    • Sporocyst
    • Rediae
    • Cercariae ( can become metacercariae)
    • Adult
  6. 2 fluke diseases in ruminants
    • Fascioliasis
    • Dicrocoeliasis
  7. 3 causes of fascioliasis
    • Fasciola gigantica- giant
    • Fasciola magna- large
    • Fasciola hepatica- common
  8. Cause of dicrocoeliasis
    Dicrocoelium lanceatum- lancet
  9. Fasciola hepatica life cycle
    • Adult lives in bile ducts
    • Sexual and asexual reproduction releases egg
    • Egg pass through bile duct to duodenum 
    • Eggs deposited in feces 
    • Egg- miracidium-snail-sporocyts- rediae- cercariae- metacercariae (bad weather)- consumption by host- penetrate bowel-liver migration and disruption of parenchyma
  10. 2 opercule parasites
    • Paragonimus kellicotti
    • Alaria canis
  11. Etiology of Blacks disease
    Toxins from Clostridium novyi
  12. Blacks disease
    • Clostridium novyi (gram positive) inhabits liver in vegetative form (active) and assumes spore form (dormant)
    • As a fluke migrates through parenchyma disturbs dormant clostridium and it becomes active releasing toxins that kill within days/hrs
    • Animal will go off feed, tucked up appearance, non mobile, shock and death
  13. Dog flukes
    • Paragoniums kellicotti
    • Nanophytes salmincola
    • Alaria canis
  14. Intermediate host for Paragoniumus kellicotti
  15. Most common fluke in dogs in US
    Alaria canis
  16. Salmon poisoning
    Nanophytes salmincola carries rickettsial organism Neorickettsia helminthoeca
  17. Cat fluke
    • Platynosomum concinnum 
    • Inhabits gall bladder and bile ducts
    • Intermediate host: Amphibians
  18. Flukacides
    • Valbazen (albendazole)- Zoetis
    • Ivomec F or Ivomec Plus (Ivermectin/Clorsulon) (Merial) 
    • Curatrem (Merial)
  19. Best time to deworm cattle
    • First time: Easter/1st day of spring (flies)
    • Second: July 4th
    • Third: Thanksgiving
  20. How many states have liver flukes been diagnosed in?
  21. One of the top 10 quality issues in beef industry
    Liver flukes
  22. Liver fluke research at LSU
    • If cattle has flukes
    • 1) Reduced pregnancy rates
    • 2) Weaning weights
    • 3) Rate of weight gain 
    • 4) Bull infertility
    • $363/yr= cost of keeping open cow