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What is the central
Brain and spinal cord; oligodenclrocytes
What is the peripheral nervous system?
Everything else; Schwann cells
What is the autonomic nervous system?
What is the somatic nervous system?
Moving your muscles
What is the parasympathetic system?
Rest-and-Digest => slows stuff down
How does the parasympathetic
- Diarrhea Urination
- Miosis "constrict"
- Erection ''point"
What is the sympathetic system?
Fight-or-Flight => speeds stuff up
How does the sympathetic system behave?
- Opposite of Parasympathetics:
- Urinary retention
- Mydriasis "dilation"
- Ejaculation "shoot"
- Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
- Xerostomia (dry mouth)
What is Cushing's triad?
HTN, bradycardia, irregular breathing
What is Budd-Chiari?
Hepatic vein obstruction
What is Arnold-Chiari?
Foramen magnum obstruction
what is Anencephaly?
Notochord did not make contact w / brain => only have medulla
What is an Encephalocele?
Brain tissue herniation
What is a Dandy Walker malformation?
No cerebellum., distended 4th lateral ventricles
What is an Arnold-Chiari malformation?
- Herniation of cerebellum through foramen magnum
- Type I: cerebellar tonsils (asymptomatic)
- Type II: cerebellar vermis/ medulla=>
- hydrocephalus, syringomylia (loss of pain /
What is Spina bifida occulta?
Covered by skin w/ tuft of hair
What is Spina bifida aperta?
Has opening (high AFP)
What is a Meningocele?
Sacral pocket w/ meninges in it
What is a Meningomyelocele?
Sacral pocket w/ meninges and nerves in it
What is Open-angle glaucoma?
Overproduction of fluid => painless ipsilateral dilated pupil, gradual tunnel vision, optic disc cupping
What is Closed-angle glaucoma?
Obstruction of canal of Schlemm => sudden onset, pain, emergency
What are the Watershed areas?
Hippocampus, splenic flexure
What bug loves the frontal lobe?
What bug loves the temporal lobe?
What bug loves the parietal lobe?
What bug loves the hippocampus?
What bug loves the posterior fossa?
What bug loves the DCML tract?
How do migraines present?
Aura, photophobia, numbness and tingling, throbbing HA, nausea
How do tension headaches present?
"Band-like" pain starts in posterior neck, worse as day progresses, sleep disturbance
How do cluster headaches present?
Rhinorrhea , unilateral orbital pain, suicidal, facial flushing, worse w/ lying down
How does temporal arteritis present?
Pain with chewing, blind in one eye
How does trigeminal neuralgia present?
Sharp, shooting face pain
What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?
Simple (aware), Complex(not aware)
What are the 3 kinds of generalized seizures?
- •Tonic-Clonic "Grand mal"
- •Absence "Petit mal"
- •Status Epilepticus
How does an epidural hematoma present?
Intermittent consciousness, "lucid interval"
How does a subdural hematoma present?
Headache 4wks after trauma, elderly (loose brain)
How does a subarachnoid hemorrhage present?
"Worst headache of my life", h/o berry aneurysm
What is an Astrocytoma?
Rosenthal fibers, # 1 in kids w/ occipital headache
What is an Ependymoma?
Rosettes, in 4'" ventricle, hydrocephalus
What is a Craniopharyngioma?
- Motor oil biopsy, tooth
- enamel, Rathke's pouch, ADH problem, bitemporal hemianopsia
What is Glioblastoma multiforme?
Pseudopalisading, necrosis, worst prognosis, intralesional hemorrhage
What is a Hemangioblastoma?
What is a Medulloblastoma?
Pseudorosettes, com presses brain, early morning vonuting
What is a Meningioma?
Parasagittal, psammoma bodies, whorling pattern, best prognosis
What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?
From lung, breast, skin; see at white-grey junction
What is an Oligodendroglioma?
Fried-egg appearance, nodular calcification
What is a Pinealoma?
- Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian
- rhytluns => precocious puberty
What is a Schwannoma?
CN8 tumor, unilateral deafness
What is Neurofibromatosis?
- Cafe au lait spots (hyperpigmentation) => peripheral nerve tumors, axillary freckle
- •Type 1 "Von Recklinghausen's": Peripheral
- (Chr# 17), optic glioma, Lisch nodules,
- •Type 2 "Acoustic Neuroma ": Central (Chr:#22), cataracts, bilateral deafness
What is Sturge-Weber?
Port wine stain (big purple spot) on forehead, angioma of retina
What is Tuberous Sclerosis?
- Ashen leaf spots (hypopigmentation), 1o
- brain tumors, Heart rhabdomyolsis, Renal cell CA, Shagreen spots (Leathery)
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