Card Set Information

2015-07-24 11:49:38

neurology pass
Show Answers:

  1. What is the central
    nervous system?
    Brain and spinal cord; oligodenclrocytes
  2. What is the peripheral nervous system?
    Everything else; Schwann cells
  3. What is the autonomic nervous system?
    Automatic stuff
  4. What is the somatic nervous system?
    Moving your muscles
  5. What is the parasympathetic system?
    Rest-and-Digest => slows stuff down
  6. How does the parasympathetic
    system behave?
    • "DUMBBELLS":
    • Diarrhea Urination
    • Miosis "constrict"
    • Bradycardia
    • Bronchoconstrict
    • Erection ''point"
    • Lacrimation
    • Salivation
  7. What is the sympathetic system?
    Fight-or-Flight => speeds stuff up
  8. How does the sympathetic system behave?
    • Opposite of Parasympathetics:
    • Constipation
    • Urinary retention
    • Mydriasis "dilation"
    • Tachycardia
    • Bronchoclilate
    • Ejaculation "shoot"
    • Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
    • Xerostomia (dry mouth)
  9. What is Cushing's triad?
    HTN, bradycardia, irregular breathing
  10. What is Budd-Chiari?
    Hepatic vein obstruction
  11. What is Arnold-Chiari?
    Foramen  magnum obstruction
  12. what is Anencephaly? 
    Notochord did not make contact w / brain => only have medulla
  13. What is an Encephalocele?
    Brain tissue herniation
  14. What is a Dandy Walker malformation?
    No cerebellum., distended 4th lateral ventricles
  15. What  is an Arnold-Chiari malformation?
    • Herniation of cerebellum through foramen magnum
    • Type I: cerebellar tonsils (asymptomatic)
    • Type II: cerebellar vermis/ medulla=>
    • hydrocephalus, syringomylia (loss of pain /
    • temp)
  16. What is Spina bifida occulta?
    Covered by skin w/ tuft of hair
  17. What is Spina bifida aperta?
    Has opening (high AFP)
  18. What is a Meningocele?
    Sacral pocket w/ meninges in it
  19. What is a Meningomyelocele?
    Sacral pocket w/ meninges and nerves in it
  20. What  is  Open-angle glaucoma?
    Overproduction of fluid => painless ipsilateral dilated pupil, gradual tunnel vision, optic disc cupping
  21. What is Closed-angle  glaucoma?
    Obstruction of canal of Schlemm => sudden onset, pain, emergency
  22. What  are the Watershed  areas?
    Hippocampus, splenic flexure
  23. What bug loves the frontal lobe?
  24. What bug loves the temporal lobe?
  25. What bug loves the parietal lobe?
  26. What bug loves the hippocampus?
  27. What bug loves the posterior fossa?
  28. What bug loves the DCML tract?
  29. How do migraines present?
    Aura, photophobia, numbness and tingling, throbbing HA, nausea
  30. How do tension headaches present?
    "Band-like" pain starts in posterior neck, worse as day progresses, sleep disturbance
  31. How do cluster headaches present?
    Rhinorrhea , unilateral orbital pain, suicidal, facial flushing, worse w/ lying down
  32. How does  temporal  arteritis  present?
    Pain with chewing, blind in one eye
  33. How  does trigeminal neuralgia present?
    Sharp, shooting face pain
  34. What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?
    Simple (aware), Complex(not aware)
  35. What are the 3 kinds of generalized seizures?
    • •Tonic-Clonic "Grand mal"
    • •Absence "Petit mal"
    • •Status Epilepticus
  36. How does an epidural hematoma present?
    Intermittent consciousness, "lucid interval"
  37. How does a subdural hematoma present?
    Headache 4wks after trauma, elderly (loose brain)
  38. How does a subarachnoid  hemorrhage present?
    "Worst headache of my life", h/o berry aneurysm
  39. What is an Astrocytoma?
    Rosenthal fibers, # 1 in kids w/ occipital headache
  40. What is  an Ependymoma?
    Rosettes, in 4'" ventricle, hydrocephalus
  41. What is a Craniopharyngioma?
    • Motor oil biopsy, tooth
    • enamel, Rathke's pouch, ADH problem, bitemporal hemianopsia
  42. What is Glioblastoma multiforme?
    Pseudopalisading, necrosis, worst prognosis, intralesional hemorrhage
  43. What is a Hemangioblastoma?
    Cercbellum, von-Hippel-Lindau
  44. What is a Medulloblastoma?
    Pseudorosettes, com presses brain, early morning vonuting
  45. What is a Meningioma?
    Parasagittal, psammoma  bodies, whorling pattern, best prognosis
  46. What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?
    From lung, breast, skin; see at white-grey junction
  47. What is an Oligodendroglioma?
    Fried-egg appearance, nodular calcification
  48. What is a Pinealoma?
    • Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian
    • rhytluns => precocious puberty
  49. What is a Schwannoma?
    CN8 tumor, unilateral deafness
  50. What is Neurofibromatosis?
    • Cafe au lait spots (hyperpigmentation) => peripheral nerve tumors, axillary freckle
    • •Type 1 "Von Recklinghausen's": Peripheral
    • (Chr# 17), optic glioma, Lisch nodules,
    •  scoliosis
    • •Type 2 "Acoustic Neuroma ": Central (Chr:#22), cataracts, bilateral deafness
  51. What is Sturge-Weber?
    Port wine stain (big purple spot) on forehead, angioma of retina
  52. What is Tuberous Sclerosis?
    • Ashen leaf spots (hypopigmentation),  1o
    • brain tumors, Heart rhabdomyolsis, Renal cell CA, Shagreen spots (Leathery)