A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, and can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should:
a. place him in a position of comfort, deliver oxygen via nasal cannula, and closely monitor his breathing.
b. apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.
c. force fluid from his alveoli by hyperventilating him with a bag-mask device at a rate of at least 20 breaths/min.
d. place him in a supine position and assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device and high-flow oxygen.
apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.