Parasitology lecture: Protozoans

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Kristenwilliams
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304711
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Parasitology lecture: Protozoans
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2015-07-02 16:57:18
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Protozoans
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Protozoans
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  1. Associated diseases with protozoans
    • Malaria
    • Piroplasmosis
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Coccidiosis
    • Giardiasis
  2. Most common Genus with protozoans
    Isospora
  3. Flagellates class of protozoans
    Mastigophora
  4. 2 groups of Mastigophora
    • Hemoflagellates
    • Mucoflagellates
  5. Hemoflagellates live where
    • In blood, lymph, tissue spaces and transmitted by blood sucking flies 
    • EX: Stomoxys calcitrans
  6. Mucoflagellates live where
    Intestinal or genital tracts, spread through feces or genital discharges
  7. Families of hemoflagellates
    • Trypanosoma 
    • Leishmaniasis
  8. Trypanosoma AKA
    African sleeping sickness
  9. 3 species of Trypanosoma
    • Trypanosoma brucci
    • Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
  10. Trypanosoma brucci facts
    • Effects ruminants in south africa
    • Causes Nagana using tsetse fly as a mechanical vector
  11. Trypanosoma equiperdum facts
    • No intermediate host
    • Uses direct sexual contact in horses causing Dourine (Silver dollar plaques)
  12. Trypanosoma cruzi facts
    • Dogs
    • Transmitted by blood feeding arthropods (assassin bugs), flying arthropods, and infected feces from insects
    • Has resting cyst stage that encyst in cardiac muscle
    • Zoonotic "Chagas disease" causing heart failure and pyrexia
  13. Leishmaniasis facts
    Found in blood vessels, spleen, liver, and other organs when sand fly injects
  14. 2 hemo-apicomplexans
    • Piroplasmosis- RBC in dogs
    • Cytauxzoon felis- RBC in cats, ring shaped
  15. 3 families of mucoflagellates
    • Trichomonads
    • Giardiasis
    • Sporozoa
  16. 2 Trichomonads
    • Trichomonas fetus
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
  17. Trichomonas fetus facts
    • Lives in cecum and colon multiplying in fluid feces and blamed for diarrhea 
    • Appears after stress
    • Causes abortion, pyometra, and sterility
  18. Trichomonas vaginalis facts
    • Commen in women
    • Also seen with bacteria in Vincents Angina (trench mouth) producing pyorrhea and gingival problems
    • Treatment: Metronidazole
  19. Most common antibiotic used in cats
    Metronidazole
  20. Giardiasis facts
    • Small intestines, attach sucking disc to mucosal cells
    • Zoonotic
    • Symptoms: diarrhea and enteritis
    • Most common intestinal protozoan infection in US
  21. Most common intestinal protozoan infection in US?
    Giardia
  22. If temperature remains elevated after antibiotics what are the 2 causes?
    • Systemic fungal infection
    • Protozoan infection
  23. Class of sporozoa
    Coccidia
  24. Genuses of coccidia
    • Eimera
    • Isospora
    • Toxoplasma
    • Cryptosporidium
  25. Intermediate host for Isospora felis
    Mice
  26. Definitive host for Toxoplasma
    Cat
  27. Coccidian life cycle
    • Sporozoite swallowed and invade cells of mucosa and divide to form merozoites
    • Merozoites leave cells and enter new cells, develop into male/female gamonts
    • Gamonts mature to macrogametes
    • Male macrogamete divides into microgamete which fertilize female macrogametes
    • Female give rise to zygotes
    • As food materials accumulate around zygote it becomes an oocysts
    • Oocysts released at death of mucosa cell
    • Dog consumes oocysts- 2-4 sporocysts- 4 sporozoites and process starts again
  28. Coccidian life cycle stages
    • Sporozite
    • Merozoites
    • Male/female gamonts
    • Macrogametes
    • Male microgamete
    • Female zygotes
    • Oocysts
    • Sporocysts
    • REPEATS
  29. Toxoplasma life cycle
    • Eggs passed in feces from cats
    • Oocycts, sporocysts or sporozoites picked up by intermediate host (bird, baby, dog, etc)
    • Sporozoite migrates into tissues, encyst or pass to placenta in humans causing abortion
    • Cat eats intermediate host, picks up sporozoite
  30. Toxoplasma gondii
    • Infects all warm blooded vertebrates
    • Definitive host: Cat
    • 33% of population is +
  31. Toxoplasma symptoms in suppressed immune system humans and cats
    • Humans: Asymptomatic or flu like
    • Cats: Dyspnea, tachypnea, icterus, abdominal disorder and persistent pyrexia (105-106)
  32. 4 less common mucoflagellates in dogs/cats
    • Amoebae
    • Ciliates
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Sarcocystis
  33. Etiology for amebic dysentery in humans
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • Treatment: Metronidazole
  34. Ciliates parasite
    • Balantidium coli- cecum/colon of dogs
    • Most common in pigs
  35. Protozoans in feces of dogs and cats
    • Isospora
    • Toxoplasma
    • Giardia
    • Trichomonas
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  36. Protozoans in blood of dogs and cats
    • Babesia canis
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Haemobartonella
  37. Protozoans in tissues of dogs and cats
    • Toxoplasma cysts
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  38. Protozoans of intestines of dogs and cats
    • Isospora
    • Toxoplasma
    • Entamoeba
  39. Common protozoan diseases of dogs and cats
    • Coccidiosis
    • Giardiasis
    • Intestinal Trichomonosis
    • Babesiosis
    • Haemobartonellosis
  40. Protzoan in feces/ intestines of cattle
    Eimeria
  41. Protozoans in blood of cattle
    • Anaplasma marginale
    • Anaplasma centrale
  42. Protozoan in reproductive tract of cattle
    Trichomonas fetus
  43. Protozoan in tissues of cattle
    Toxoplasma cysts
  44. Common protozoan diseases of cattle
    • Coccidiosis
    • Anaplasmosis
    • Genital Trichomonosis
  45. Protozoan in feces/intestines of sheep/goats
    Eimeria
  46. Protozoan in tissues of sheep/goat
    Toxoplasma cysts
  47. Common protozoan disease in sheep/goats
    Coccidiosis
  48. Protozoan in feces of horses
    Trichomonas equi
  49. Protozoans in blood of horses
    • Babesia caballi
    • Babesia equi
  50. Common protozoan diseases in horses
    • Intestinal trichomonosis
    • Babesiosis
  51. Domestic animal infected with most protozoans?
    Birds
  52. Animal infected most with protozoans?
    Cattle
  53. Protozoans in feces/intestines of pigs
    • Balantidium coli
    • Eimeria
    • Isospora
  54. Protozoan in blood of pigs
    Eperythrozoon suis
  55. Protozoan in tissues of pigs
    Toxoplasma
  56. Common protozoan disease in pigs
    Eperythrozoonosis
  57. Eperythrozoonosis facts
    • Number one cause of pig fatalities
    • Sliter records kept based on blood tests
    • Shows total exposure of disease to RBC
  58. Protozoan in crop content of poultry
    Trichomonas
  59. Protozoans in intestines of poultry
    • Eimeria
    • Hexamita
  60. Protozoans in cecal of poultry
    • Histomonas 
    • Eimeria
  61. Protozoans in blood of poultry
    • Leucocytozoon
    • Haemoproteus
  62. Protozoans in tissues of poultry
    • Histomonas
    • Toxoplasma cysts
  63. Common protozoan diseases in poultry
    • Coccidiosis
    • Histomonosis
    • Crop trichomonosis
    • Hexamitosis
    • Leucocytozoonosis

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