Therapeutic groups and interventions
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Define group content
- All that is said in the group
- The group topics
Define group process
- The dynamics of interactions among the members
- Examples: who talks to whom, facial expressions, body language and progression of group work.
Define group norms
- Expectations for behavior in the group that develop over time and provide structure
- Examples: Rules about starting on time, not interrupting
Define group themes
- Members' expressed ideas or feelings that recur and share a common thread.
- The leader may clarify a theme to help members recognize it more fully.
Group dynamics concern the ____ within a group
The power of the group lies in the ___ of each group member and the leader to the ___ ___ of the group.
- shared purpose
Contributions occur in relation to ___ and ___.
- Content: all that is said in a group
- Process: The dynamics of interactions
The level of group power depends upon the group's ___ and ___ in achieving the shared purpose.
Define cohesiveness in a group.
- The strength of the member's desire to work together towards a common goal
- Strength of motivation
General benefits of group treatment
- Situation repetition occurs in therapeutic context
- Can receive feedback
- Interactions can be observed and intervened with
- Practice skills of collaboration and cooperation
- Sense of belonging
The key to consideration in selecting group members is that they are ___ ____.
For insight-oriented groups, homogeneity of ___ and __ ___ are important
- ego strength
The leader's primary task in group is to observe and analyze __ __ in the group
Specific functions of a group leader
- Assist/determine content and purpose
- create safe environment
- keep group on task
- facilitate process
Socialization groups focus on...
Building social skills
Learning groups focus on...
- specific needs or interests
- also known as psychoeducational
Self-help groups focus on...
coping with a specific problem
Task groups focus on...
Psychotherapy groups focus on...
changing pattens of thinking and relating via insight-oriented techniques.
The two theories with evidence based practice most commonly used in psychotherapy groups
Therapeutic factor: Define instillation of hope
The leader shares optimism about successes of group treatment, and members share their improvements.
Therapeutic factor: Define universality
Members realize that they are not alone with their problems, feelings or thoughts.
Therapeutic factor: Define imparting of information
Participants receive formal teaching by the leader or advice from peers.
Therapeutic factor: Define alturism
Members gain or profit from giving support to others, leading to improved self-value
Therapeutic factor: Define corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
- Members repeat patterns of behavior in the group that they learned in their families
- with feedback from the leader and peers, they learn about their own behavior.
Therapeutic factor: Define development of socializing techniques
members learn new social skills based on others' feedback and modeling.
Therapeutic factor: Define imitative behavior
Members may copy behavior form the leader or peers and can adopt healthier habits
Therapeutic factor: Define interpersonal learning
Members gain insight into themselves based on the feedback from others during later group phases.
Therapeutic factor: Define group cohesiveness
- This powerful factor arises in a mature group when each member feels connected to the other members, the leader, ad the group as a whole
- members can accept positive feedback and constructive criticism
Therapeutic factor: Define catharsis
Through experiencing and expressing feelings, therapeutic discharge of emotions is shared
Therapeutic factor: Define existential resolution
- members examine aspects of life that affect everyone in constructing meaning
- Examples: loneliness, mortality, responsibility
- unconsciously-drive response in which a patient experiences feelings and attitudes toward others that were originally associated with other significant figures in his/her life
- Example: Don't like someone because they remind you of someone else.
Types of reactions/behaviors associated with transference (two main ones)
- dependency reactions
therapeutic impasse created by a health care provider's emotional response to a patient's characteristics
Specific task roles to keep group focused
- information seeker
- summarizes progress
- energizes the group
- initiates discussion
Specific maintenance functions to help the group stay together
- standard setter
- communication facilitator
- tension reliever
- active listener
- interpersonal problem solver
The two specific maintenance functions that are mainstays of therapeutic role
- active listener
- interpersonal problem solver
The three group phases
The usual behaviors of members in the orientation phase of groups
- questions leader about purpose of group and their qualifications
- self-protective behaviors
The usual behaviors of members in the working phase of the group
- learning to care for each otehr
- addressing conflicts oopenly
- committed to doing work of group
- supporting each other
The usual behaviors of members in the termination phase of the group
- expressing feelings about the group ending
- planning for the future
- reviewing group experiences (often recapped by leader)
Four general leadership styles
- laissez faire ("let it be"/"hands off")
The democratic style of leadership is usually used for....... and is useful for tasks which require ___.
- committee and team meetings
Limitations of democratic meetings
- personal growth is limited
- group process is only addressed if interfering
The authoritarian style of leadership is usually used for...
situations in which quick and centralized decision-making is needed.
The strengths of authoritarian leadership
- maintains organization in times of crisis
- can be useful for getting tasks done
The facilitative style of leadership is used for...
growth, therapy and psychoeducation groups
Strengths of facilitative groups
- personal growth maximized
- increased sense of cohesiveness and commitment
The limitations of authoritarian leadership
- growth of members is limited
- does not address group process
- negative outcomes when not appropriate for the task
The limitations of facilitative groups
- does not promote rapid action
- not well-matched when individuals need a higher degree of structure/direction
The laissez faire style of leadership is best used for ___
- social gatherings
- other activities in which there is no specific task
Strengths of laissez faire style of groups
- allows maximum individual expressoin
- no structure of rules or expectations
Limits of laissez faire style of groups
- lack of purpose and structure to guide members
- commitment to group is low
- decrease cohesiveness
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