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  1. Bounded by the chest wall and below by the diaphragm, it extends upward into the root of the neckabout one fingerbreadth above the clavicle on each side
    Chest cavity
  2. the only structure (apart from the pleura and the peritoneum)that separates the chest from the abdominal viscera
  3. a median partition
  4. a movable partition that extends superiorly to the thoracic outlet and the root of the neck and inferiorly to the diaphragm
  5. The mediastinum is divided into
    superior and inferior mediastinum
  6. The inferior mediastinum is further subdivided into the ________,which consists of the pericardium and heart; the ________, which is a space between the pericardium and the sternum; and the ________, which lies between the pericardium and the vertebral column
    • middle mediastinum
    • anterior mediastinum
    • posterior mediastinum
  7. Consist the superior mediastinum
    • Thymus
    • large veins
    • large arteries
    • trachea
    • esophagus and thoracic duct
    • sympathetic trunks.
  8. composes the inferior mediastinum
    • Thymus
    • Heart within the pericardium with the phrenic nerves on each side
    • esophagus and thoracic duct
    • descending aorta
    • sympathetic trunks
  9. bounded in front by the manubrium sterni and behind by the first four thoracic vertebrae
    superior mediastinum
  10. bounded in front by the body of the sternum and behind by the lower eight thoracic vertebrae
    inferior mediastinum
  11. 2 parts of a pleura
    • parietal layer
    • mediastinal layer
  12. lines the thoracic wall, covers the thoracic surface of the diaphragm and the lateral aspect of the mediastinum
    parietal layer
  13. covers the outer surfaces of the lungs and extends into the depths of the interlobar fissures
    visceral layer
  14. a loose fold that allow for movement of the pulmonary vessels and large bronchi during respiration
    pulmonary ligament
  15. a slit like space that separate he parietal and visceral layers of pleura are from one another
    pleural cavity/ pleural space
  16. covers the surfaces of the pleura as a thin film and permits the two layers to move on each other with the minimum of friction
    pleural fluid
  17. extends up into the neck, lining the under surface of the suprapleural membrane (see Fig. 2.13). It reaches a level 1 to 1.5 in. (2.5 to 4 cm) above the medial third of the clavicle.
    cervical pleura
  18. lines the inner surfaces of the ribs, thecostal cartilages, the intercostal spaces, the sides of the vertebralbodies, and the back of the sternum
    costal pleura
  19. covers the thoracic surface ofthe diaphragm
    diaphragmatic pleura
  20. This lower area of the pleural cavity into which the lung expands on inspiration is referred to as the ________
    costodiaphragmatic recess
  21. covers and forms the lateral boundary of the mediastinum
    mediastinal pleura
  22. where the mediastinal pleura is attached to the blood vessels and bronchi that constitute the lung root
  23. are slitlike spaces between the costal and diaphragmatic parietal pleurae that are separated only by a capillary layer of pleural fluid
    Costodiaphragmatic Recesses
  24. are situated along the  anterior
    margins of the pleura
    Costomediastinal Recesses
  25. They are slitlike spaces between the costal and mediastinal parietal pleurae, which are separated by a capillary layer of pleural fluid
    Costomediastinal Recesses
  26. The costal pleura is segmentally supplied by what nerve
    Intercostal nerve
  27. The mediastinal pleura is supplied by the
    Phrenic Nerve
  28. The diaphragmatic pleura is supplied over the domes by the _____ and around the periphery by the _____
    Phrenic Nerve & Lower intercostal nerves
  29. It is insensitive to common sensations such as pain and touch and it receives an autonomic nerve supply from the pulmonary plexus
    Visceral Pleura
  30. It is a mobile cartilaginous and membranous tube and It begins in the neck as a continuation of the larynx at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage at the level of the 6th cervical vertebra
  31. In the thorax, the trachea ends below at the _____ by dividing into right and left principal bronchi at the level of the sternal angle
  32. In adults, the trachea is about _____long and _____ in diameter
    4 1/2 in. (11.25cm) & 1 in. (2.5 cm
  33. Is kept patent by the presence of U-shaped bars (rings) of hyaline cartilage embedded in its wall
    Fibroelastic tube
  34. The posterior free ends of the cartilage are connected by smooth muscle
    trachealis muscle
  35. The relations of the trachea in the superior mediastinum of the thorax anteriorly:
    The sternum, the thymus, the left brachiocephalic vein, the origins of the brachiocephalic, left common carotid arteries, the arch of the aorta
  36. The relations of the trachea in the superior mediastinum of the thorax posteriorly:
    The esophagus, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve
  37. The relations of the trachea in the superior mediastinum of the thorax right side;
    The azygos vein, the right vagus nerve, the pleura
  38. The relations of the trachea in the superior mediastinum of the
    thorax left side:
    The arch of the aorta, the left common carotid, left subclavian arteries,the left vagus and left phrenic nerves, and the pleura
  39. The upper two thirds of the trachea are supplied by the
    inferior thyroid arteries
  40. the lower third of the trachea is supplied by the
    bronchial arteries
  41. The sensory nerve supply is from the
    Vagi and Recurrent laryngeal nerves
  42. Sympathetic nerves supply the
    trachealis muscle
  43. The trachea bifurcates behind the arch of the aorta into the
    right and left principal (primary or main) bronchi
  44. Each respiratory bronchiole divides into ______ alveolar ducts that enter the alveolar sacs
    2 to 11
  45. The right principal (main) bronchus is
    wider, shorter, and more vertical and is about 1 in (2.5 cm) long
  46. The left principal (main) bronchus is
    narrower, longer, and more horizontal than the right and is about 2 in. (5 cm) long
  47. During life, the right and left lungs are:
    soft, spongy,\very elastic
  48. If the thoracic cavity were opened, the lungs would immediately shrink to
    one third or less in volume
  49. Each lung has a ________, which projects upward into the neck for about 1 in. (2.5 cm) above the clavicle
    blunt apex
  50. Concave base of the lungs sits on the
  51. Part of the lungs which corresponds to the concave chest wall
    convex costal surface
  52. Part of the lungs which is molded to the pericardium and other mediastinal
    concave mediastinal surface
  53. depression in which the bronchi, vessels, and nerves that form the root enter and leave the lung
  54. The _______ runs from the inferior border upward and backward across the medial and costal surfaces until it cuts the posterior
    border about 2.5 in. (6.25 cm)below the apex
    oblique fissure
  55. Runs horizontally across the costal surface at the level of the 4th costal cartilage to meet the oblique fissure in the mid axillary line
    Horizontal Fissure
  56. the anatomic, functional,and surgical units of the lungs
    Bronchopulmonary segment
  57. structurally and functionally independent unit of a lung lobe
    bronchopulmonary segment
  58. smallest bronchi, <1 mm in diameter
  59. possess no cartilage in their walls and are lined with columnar ciliated epithelium. The submucosa possesses a complete layer of circularly arranged smooth muscle fibers
  60. bronchioles then divide and give rise to
    terminal bronchioles
  61. Gaseous exchange between blood and air takes place in the walls of these outpouchings
    Respiratory bronchioles
  62. main characteristics of a bronchopulmonary segment
    • It is a subdivision of a lung lobe
    • It is pyramid shaped, with its apex toward the lung root
    • It is surrounded by connective tissue
    • It has a segmental bronchus, a segmental artery, lymph vessels, and autonomic nerves
    • The segmental vein lies in the connective tissue between adjacent bronchopulmonary segments
    • Because it is a structural unit, a diseased segment can beremoved surgically
  63. formed of structures that are entering or leaving the lung (made up of the bronchi,pulmonary artery and veins, lymph vessels, bronchial vessels, and nerves)
    root of the lung
  64. The bronchi, the connective tissue of the lung, and the visceral pleura receive their blood supply from the bronchial arteries, which are branches of the ________
    descending aorta
  65. The bronchial veins (which communicate with the pulmonary veins) drain into the ________
    azygos and hemiazygos veins
  66. lies beneath the visceral pleura and drains over the surface of the lung toward the hilum, where the lymph vessels enter the bronchopulmonary nodes
    superficial (subpleural) plexus
  67. All the lymph from the lung leaves the hilum and drains into the ______ and then into the ______
    tracheobronchial nodes & bronchomediastinal lymph trunks
  68. Nerve Supply of the Lungs
    pulmonary plexus
Card Set:
2015-07-05 23:57:38
general anatomy
General Anatomy
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