Spirits theory

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Spirits theory
2015-08-06 19:37:38

Spirits theory
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  1. Ageing whiskey
    2 years in oak barrels
  2. where is bourbon from?
    anywhere in USA
  3. Bourbon requirements
    • 51-80% corn
    • sotrend in charred new white oak barrels
    • aged 2 years
    • minimum strenght of 40%
  4. What is a mash?
    result of grains with added water by cook
  5. what happend after that a mash is produced?
    yeast and sour mash(previous batch) are added
  6. how many times is bourbon distilled?
  7. Major bourbon brand
    • Maker's mark
    • Jim Beam
    • Wild Turkey
  8. difference between bourbon whiskey and tennessee whikey
    Tennessee whiskey is filtered through 3-4 meters of maple charcoal
  9. Jack Daniel's
    Best know tennessee whiskey in the world
  10. Canadian whisky minimum and maximum age
    3-18 years in charred oak barrles; no rules for distillation or blending
  11. Ingredient for canadian unique flavour
  12. Popular brand of canadian whisky
    • Canadian Club
    • Seagram
  13. Irish whiskey minium ageing
    3 years in oak cask previously used to age skerry, bourbon, rum or brandy
  14. Irish whiskey distillation times?
    most irish whiskey are triple distilled for a smoother flavour
  15. Most famous brands of irish whisky
    • Jameson
    • bushmills
    • black bush
  16. what does single malt scotch?
    • Single = one distillery
    • malt = made with malted grain
    • scotch = made and aged in scotland for a minimum of 3 years
  17. scotch raw material
    barley, no other grain
  18. scotch, requirements
    • produced and aged in scotland
    • distilled twice in a pot still
    • minimum of ageing for 3 years in scotland
  19. scotch malting = ?
    soaking in water and drying the barley
  20. scotch smoky flavour due to?
    peat fires used to dry the barley
  21. famous scotch brands
    • Glenfiddich
    • Glenmorangie
  22. Cheaper way to produce malt whisky
    Grain whisky
  23. Distillation of grain whisky
    • column still
    • wheat and maize are used (no need to malting)
  24. Blended scotch
    • malt whisky mixed with grain whisky
    • with 15-40% of malt
  25. grain whisky big brands
    • Bells
    • The Famous Grouse
    • J&B
    • Jhonnie Walker
    • Teacher's
  26. Applejack
    American brandy - cider
  27. Armagnac
    french brandy from Gascony - grapes
  28. Calvados
    french brandy from Normandy - apple
  29. Cognac
    french brandy from Cognac - grapes
  30. Eau-de-vie
    Fruit brandy made usually not from grapes
  31. Grappa
    italian brandy - wine pomace(grape skins and stalks)
  32. Marc
    Brandy - pomace of wine
  33. Marc-de-champagne
    Brandy - pomace of champagne
  34. medronho
    Portuguese eau-de-vie - arbutus berries
  35. Pisco
    brandy from chile and peru - grape
  36. Slivovitz
    brandy from slavi regions - plump
  37. Brandy is distilled from?
    fruit(usually wine) - usually wine regions produce brandy
  38. brandy history
    discovered by Spain and Italy in 13th century; France has started in 14th century
  39. is Fruit soaked in alcohol brandy?
    no it's liqueur
  40. What is cognac?
    high quality french brandy, made from at least 2 different eaux-de-vie
  41. What is eau-de-vie?
    wine distilled twice => young brandy not aged enough
  42. VS =?
    Very special - 2 years old
  43. VSOP = ?
    Very Superior Old Pale - 4 years old
  44. X.O. = ?
    Extra Old - 6 years
  45. Most famous brandy brands(houses)?
    • Courvoisier
    • Hennessy
    • Remy Martin
    • Martell
  46. Vodka raw material
    Anything containing starch or sugar(grain or sugar beet molasses)

    High quality water
  47. Premium vodka raw material
    grains(wheat, barley, maize and rye)
  48. Eastern vodka
    Powerful character and flavour
  49. Western vodka
    neutral, little flavour
  50. Who has invented vodka?
    Russians and Poles, arguing
  51. How to serve vodka
    Neat and frozen
  52. Vodka Minimum strenght
    37.5% alc/vol
  53. Popular polish vodka brands
    • Belvedere
    • Wyborowa
    • Zubrowka(jubuvka)
  54. Popular Russian vodka brands
    • Stolichnaya(or Latvian)
    • Russian Standard
  55. Western popular vodka brands
    • Absolut(sweden)
    • Finlandia
    • Grey goose(France)
    • Ketel One(netherlands)
    • Skyy (USA)
    • Smirnoff(USA)
  56. gin origins
    Holland, invented as medicine
  57. What is Gin?
    Grain Vodka flavoured with juniper and other botanicals
  58. Quality gin characteristics
    8-20 botanicals til 120 possibile
  59. Minimum Gin Strength
  60. Most known gin brands
    • Gordon's
    • Bombay sapphire(real origin 1993)
    • Beefeater (from kennington)
    • Miller's(iceland)
    • Hendrick's(scottish)
    • Plymouth(south british island)
    • Tanqueray(the number is amount of botanicals), origin in england, now produced in scotland
  61. Rum raw material
    Sugar cane or molasses
  62. What molasses is?
    Thick black liquid left over after sugar is extracted from the cane
  63. Light rum production
    • Continuous still
    • subtle flavour
    • few impurities
  64. Heavy rum production
    • pot still
    • dark colour due to a syrupy flavour
    • more impurities
  65. Gold Rum production
    • aged in oak barrels
    • sometimes coloured with caramel
  66. Overproof rum minimum strength
    57% alc. by vol
  67. Cachaca
    Brazilian rum distilled from sugar cane juice (no molasses)
  68. Famous rum brands
    • Bracardi (espropriated from Fidel)
    • Capitan Morgan
    • Havana club (national cuban if originated not from USA, otherwise is a counterfiet)
    • Appleton's
    • Myer's
    • Wray & Nephew
    • Zacapa
  69. Absinthe
    Bitter anice - France

    Named from wormwood(Artemisia absinthium)
  70. Amaretto
    Almond & apricot - Italy
  71. Crème de banane
  72. Crème de cacao
  73. Crème de cassis
  74. Crème de fraise
  75. Crème de framboise
  76. Crème de menthe
  77. Crème de mure
  78. Curacao
    Orange - island of curacao in the caribbean(venezuela)
  79. Kirsch
    Cherry - German
  80. Maraschino
    sour cherry - italian
  81. Ouzo
    anise - Greek
  82. Pastis
    Star anise - Francia (pasticche)
  83. Raki
    anise, from grapes - Turkey
  84. Sambuca
    elderberries, anise - italy
  85. Sloe gin
    Sloe berries - grapes, not gin
  86. Triple sec
    orange - tripled distilled and stronger than curacaos
  87. Archers
  88. Bailey's
    Irish whiskey, cococa and fresh cream
  89. Bénédictine
    deo optimo maximo - to god, most good, most great
  90. chambord
    black raspberries, honey and herbs - french
  91. Chartreuse
    • Oldest liqueur of the world
    • 56% alc - vol
    • 2 monks per time in the whole world
  92. Cointreau
    Oranges - France
  93. Drambuie
    Scotch malt whiskies and honey - scottish
  94. Frangelico
    hazelnuts, berries, herbs - italy (not from monks)
  95. Galliano
    anise and vanilla - italy
  96. Grand Marnier
    Cognac and bitters - French
  97. Kahlua
    coffee, white cane spirit - mexico
  98. Licor 43
    spanish vanilla andc itrus
  99. Malibu
    coconut - jamaican (low its alcol vol year by year - new version is Koko kanu))
  100. Midori
    Melon - Japanese (midori = green)
  101. Passoa
    passion fruit - France
  102. Pernod
    pastis - french
  103. Southern Comford
    Peach, orange and bourbon - New orleans
  104. Tia Maria
    Jamaican coffee - cane spirit
  105. Where tequila come from?
  106. Tequila = ?
  107. tequila raw material
    blue agave - 8/12 years to reach maturity (only mature plants can be used)
  108. tequila production process
    the pina(heart) of the blue agave is steam baked => starch become sugar
  109. Blanco or silver tequila ageing
    no more than 60 days
  110. Cheap gold tequila
    colouring added

    The best tequila are produced from 100% agave spirit with no sugar added
  111. Reposado tequila
    quality gold tequila, aged in oak barrels for 2 month to 1 year
  112. Anejo Tequila
    Best gold tequila, ageed in oak barrels 1-10 years
  113. How many times is tequila distilled?
    at least 2
  114. is Mezcal tequila?
    No - Mezcal comes with the worm, in addition tequila(Jalisco) can be done just with blue agave, mezcal(Oaxaca) is done with maguey plant(agave family)
  115. What is champagne?
    French sparlking wine made using the methode champenoise process, in the specific region of champagne(law)
  116. Champagne grape variety
    • Chardonnay
    • Pinot noir
    • Pinot Meunier
  117. What is a cuvée
    juice from the first pressing. Vintage champagne is made from cuvée
  118. Champagne fermentation
    2 different fermentation

    • 1- alcohol and later to blend it
    • 2- bubbles
  119. Vintage champagne ageing and blending
    at least 3 years fromt he grape harvasted in a single year
  120. Non vintage champagne ageing and blending
    at least 1 year and made from a blend of different years vintage wine
  121. What is a remuage or riddling?
    turning the bottles for 6-8 weeks to remove the yeast sediment into dhe bottle neck
  122. Magnum size
    2 bottles (1.5 litres)
  123. Jèroboam size
    4 bottles (3 litres)
  124. How to open a champagne bottles
    • 45 degrees
    • no remove wire or muselet, just untie
    • bottle have to hiss, not pop, when opened
  125. vermouth fame
    aromatised wine, flavoured using herbs and spices
  126. vermouth country production
    italy and france, on both sides of the alps
  127. Vermouth ageing
    just the french one; in oak
  128. Vermouth = ?
    wormwood, from wermut, a german word for wormwood, a bitter plant
  129. Vermouth base spirit
    white wine, and coloured later
  130. Vermouth and wine
    Vermouth oxidies as wine does
  131. Vermouth most popular brands
    Martini, Cinzano, Noilly Prat and Lillet
  132. Sherry country
    • South West Spain
    • It's very hot and dry, so grapes take a long time to ripen
  133. What is Sherry?
    Fortified wine
  134. Sherry production
    Just grape juice from the 1wt pressing may be used for sherry

    • 2 styles
    • 1- Fino => develop under a layer of flor(yeast)
    • 2- Oloroso => contact with air
  135. Solera system
    grants consistency to sherry year after year
  136. Sherry ageing
    no vintage date and do not improve in the bottle with age
  137. Serving Sherry
    Fino and drys should be served chilled

    sweets sherries at room temperature
  138. What is port
    fortified wine from portugal
  139. Port production
    grape brandy is used to fortify the wine
  140. Port ageing
    in oak for 2-40 years
  141. Wood maturated Port
    • filtered before bottling => not improve with age in the bottle
    • no decanting
    • lasts for 7-10 days after opening
  142. Bottle matured port
    • Not filtered => develop in the bottle
    • decanting needed
    • lasts for 2 days, no more
  143. What is madeira
    fortified wine from Madeira Island
  144. Madeira production
    heated for 3-5 months to mimic a long voyage at sea through the tropics
  145. Madeira ageing
    oak casks for 3-5-10-15 years
  146. Madeira storing
    Upright, and last for up to 10 years once opened
  147. What is Marsala?
    Sweet fortified wien from Italian island of Sicily
  148. First beer invented
    Ale, then lagers

    • Beers are splitted in
    • Ale - room temperature (because ferments best at warmer temperatures)
    • Lagers - chilled (because ferments slowly at cold temperatures)
  149. Beer production
    • 4 ingredients
    • - malted grain
    • - hops
    • - yeasts
    • - water

    Beer is brewed, fermented and conditioned
  150. Main malted corn used for beer
    Barley, but even wheat, maize, corn and rice can be used
  151. Chase Vodka
    It's from Herefordshire, in England

    Hereford is know for Nell Gwyn, 17th-century actress and mistress of King Charles II of England
  152. What are hops?
    flower from a type of vine; they add bitterness to flavour the beer
  153. clement rhum
    Produced in martinique by french, it's fresher than spanish one
  154. st. germain
    elderflower liqueur, created in 2007 owned by bracardi