What org-:111 has the highest
A-V02 difference at rest?
What organ has the highest A-V02 difference after exercise?
What organ has the highest A-V02 difference
What organ has the highest A-V02 difference during a test?
What organ has the lowest A-V02 difference?
Where does Type A thoracic
aortic dissection occur?
Ascending aorta (occurs in cystic medial necrosis, syphilis)
Where does Type B thoracic aortic dissection occur?
Descending aorta (occurs in trauma, atherosclerosis)
What layers does a true aortic aneurysm occur?
lntima, media, and adventitia
What layers does a pseudo aortic aneurysm occur?
Intima and media
What is pulse pressure?
Systolic -Diastolic pressure
What vessel has the thickest layer of smooth muscle?
What vessels have the highest capacitance?
Veins and venules
What is your max heart rate?
What is Stable angina?
Pain with exertion (atherosclerosis)
What is Unstable angina?
Pain at rest (transient clots)
What is Prinzmetal's angina?
Intermittent pain (coronary artery spasm)
What is Amyloidosis?
Stains Congo red, Echo A pple-green birefringence
What is Hemochromatosis?
Fe deposit in organs => hyperpigmentation, arthritis,DM
What is Cardiac tamponade?
Pressure equalizes in all 4 chambers, quiet precordium,no pulse or BP, Kussmaul's sign , pulsus paradoxus (1> 10mm Hg BP w / insp)
What is a Transudate?
An effusion with mostly water
Too much water:
• Heart failure
• Renal failure
Not enough protein:
• Cirrhosis (can't make protein)
• Nephrotic syndrome (pee protein out)
What is an Exudate?
An effusion with mostly protein
Too much protein:
• Purulent (bacteria)
• Hemorrhagic (trauma, cancer, PE)
• Fibrinous (collagen vascular dz, uremia, TB)
• Granulomatous (non-bacterial)
What is Systole?
Squish heart, DEC blood flow to coronary aa., more extraction of O2 (Phase 1 Korotkoff)
What is Diastole?
Fill heart, INC blood flow to coronary aa., less extraction of 0 2 (Phase 5 Korotkoff)
What are the only arteries with deoxygenated blood?
Pulmonary arteries and umbilical arteries
What murmur has a Waterhammer pulse?
What murmur has Pulsus tardus?
What cardiomyopathy has Pulsus alternans?
What disease has Pulsus bigeminus?
Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis
What murmur has an irregularly irregular pulse?
What murmur has a regularly irregular pulse?
What sound radiates to the neck?
What sound radiates to the axilla?
What sound radiates to the back?
What disease has a boot-shaped x-ray?
Right ventricle hypertrophy
What disease has a banana-shaped x-ray?
What disease has an egg-shaped x-ray?
Transposition of the great arteries
What disease has a snowman-shaped x-ray?
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Rectum
What disease has a "3" shaped x-ray?
Coarctation of the aorta
What is Osler-Weber-Rendu?
AVM in lung, gut, CNS=> sequester platelets =>telangiectasias
What is Von Hippel-Lindau?
AVM in head, retina => renal cell CA risk
When do valves make noise?
When valves close
What valves make noise during systole?
Mitral and tricuspid
What murmurs occur during systole?
Holosystolic, ejection murmur or click
What are the holosystolic murmurs?
TR, MR, and VSD
What are the systolic ejection murmurs?
AS, PS, or HCM
What valves make noise during diastole?
Aortic and pulmonic
What are the diastolic murmurs?
Blowing and Rumbling
What are the diastolic blowing murmurs?
AR or PR
What are the diastolic rumbling murmurs?
TS or IYIS
What are the continuous murmurs?
PDA or AVMs
What has a friction rub while breathing?
What has a friction rub when holding breath?
What does a mid-systolic click tell you?
Mitral valve prolapse
What does an ejection click tell you?
What does an opening snap tell you?
M/ T stenosis
What does S2 splitting tell you?
Normal on inspiration (b/c pulmonic valve closes later)
What does wide S2 splitting tell you?
INC 02, INC RV volume, or delayed pulmonic valve opening
What does fixed wide S2 splitting tell you? ASD
What does paradoxical S2 splitting tell you?
AS (or left bundle branch block)
What is cor pulmonale?
Pulmonary HTN => RV failure
What is Eisenmenger's?
Pulmonary HTN => reverse L-R to R- L shunt
What is Transposition of the great arteries?
Aorticopulmonary septum did not spiral
What is Tetrology of Fallot?
• Overriding Aorta: aorta sits on IV septum over the VSD; pushes on PA
• Pulmonary Stenosis "Tet spells "
• RV hypertrophy => boot-shaped heart
• VSD (L to R shunt)
What is Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return?
All pulmonary veins to RA, snowman x-ray
What is Truncus Arteriosus?
Spiral membrane not develop => one A/P trunk,mixed blood
What is Ebstein's Anomaly?
Tricuspid prolapse, Mom's Li increases risk
What can Lithium do to Mom?
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
What is Cinchonism?
Hearing loss, tinnitus, thrombocytopenia
Congenital long QT
Inherited disorder of myocardial repolarization,
typically due to ion channel defects;inc risk of
sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to torsades de
membrane K channel protein mut.
Hx of unprovoked syncope in a asymptomatic young person
Congenital long QT
syndrome includes (name the condition)
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome
what is Romano-Ward syndrome
autosomal dominant, pure cardiac phenotype (no deafness).
what is Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome—
autosomal recessive, sensorineural deafness
Autosomal dominant disorder most common in Asian males. ECG pattern of pseudo-right bundle branch block and ST elevations in V1-V3. inc. risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Prevent SCD with implantable cardioverter-defi brillator (ICD).
nesiritide is for tx of
Treats congestive heart failure (CHF) that is getting worse and causing breathing problems.