THE THORACIC CAVITY [part II]

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RolandoBijasa
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304837
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THE THORACIC CAVITY [part II]
Updated:
2015-07-12 07:50:41
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general anatomy
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General Anatomy
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CHAPTER 3 THE THORAX: PART II— THE THORACIC CAVITY "HEART ONLY!"
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  1. fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and the roots of the great vessels. Its function is to restrict excessive movements of the heart as a whole and to serve as a lubricated container in which the different partsof the heart can contract
    pericardium
  2. lies within middle mediastinum, posterior to the body of the sternum and the 2nd to the 6th costal cartilages and anterior to the 5th to the 8th thoracic vertebrae
    pericardium
  3. the strong fibrous part of the sac. It is firmly attached below to the central tendon of the diaphragm
    fibrous pericardium
  4. The fibrous pericardium is attached in front to the sternum by the
    sternopericardial ligaments
  5. lines the fibrous pericardium and coats the heart. It is divided into parietal and visceral layers
    serous pericardium
  6. lines the fibrous pericardium and is reflected around the roots of the great vessels to become continuous with the visceral layer of serous pericardium that closely covers the heart
    parietal layer
  7. Is closely applied to the heart and isoften called the epicardium
    visceral layer
  8. slitlike space between the parietal and visceral layers is referred to as
    pericardial cavity
  9. a small amount of tissue fluid (about 50 mL), which acts as a lubricant to facilitate movements of the heart
    pericardial fluid
  10. On the posterior surface of the heart, the reflection of the serous pericardium around the large veins forms a recess called
    oblique sinus
  11. on the posterior surface of the heart is the ________, which is a short passage that lies between the reflection of serous pericardium around the aorta and pulmonary trunk and the reflection around the large veins
    transverse sinus
  12. Nerve Supply of the Pericardium
    phrenic nerve
  13. The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is innervated by
    branches of the sympathetic trunks and thevagus nerves
  14. hollow muscular organ that is somewhat pyramidshaped and lies within the pericardium in the mediastinum
    heart
  15. Surfaces of the Heart
    • sternocostal (anterior)
    • diaphragmatic(inferior)
    • base (posterior)

    It also has an apex, which is directed downward, forward, and to the left
  16. formed mainly by the right atrium and the right ventricle, which are separated from each other by the vertical atrioventricular groove
    sternocostal surface
  17. is formed mainly by the right and left ventricles separated by the posterior interventricular groove
    diaphragmatic surface of the heart
  18. Is formed mainly by the left atrium, into which open the four pulmonary veins
    base of the heart or the posterior surface
  19. formed by the left ventricle, is directed downward, forward, and to the left. It lies at the level of the fifth left intercostal space, 3.5 in.(9 cm) from the midline
    apex of the heart
  20. Borders of the Heart
    • right border = right atrium
    • left border = left auricle
    • below = left ventricle
    • lower border = right ventricle & right atrium
    • apex = left ventricle
  21. cardiac muscle
    myocardium
  22. covered the wall of the heart externally with serous pericardium
    epicardium
  23. lined internally with a layer of endothelium
    endocardium
  24. A vertical groove on the outside of the heart at the junction between the right atrium and the right auricle
    sulcus terminalis
  25. on the inside of the heart forms a ridge
    crista terminalis
  26. part of the atrium in front of the ridge is roughened or trabeculated by bundles of muscle fibers called
    musculi pectinati
  27. opens into the upper part of the right atrium; it has no valve. It returns the blood to the heart from the upper half of the body
    superior vena cava
  28. opens into the lower part of the right atrium; it is guarded by a rudimentary,nonfunctioning valve. It returns the blood to the heart from the lower half of the body
    inferior vena cava
  29. drains most of the blood from the heart wall, opens into the right atrium between the inferior vena cava and the atrioventricular orifice
    Coronary sinus
  30. lies anterior to the inferior vena caval opening and is guarded by the tricuspid valve
    right atrioventricular orifice
  31. These latter structures lie on the atrial septum, which separates the right atrium from the left atrium
    fossa ovalis and anulus ovalis
  32. The fossa ovalis is a shallow depression, which is the site of the ________ in the fetus
    foramen ovale
  33. Forms the upper margin of the fossa
    anulus ovalis
  34. The projecting ridges give the ventricular wall a sponge like appearance and are known as
    trabeculae carneae
  35. project inward, being attached by their bases to the ventricular wall; their apices are connected by fibrous chords
    papillary muscles
  36. fibrous cord that connects to cusps of the tricuspid valve
    chordae tendineae
  37. guards the atrioventricular orifice and consists of three cusps formed by a fold of endocardium
    tricuspid valve
  38. guards the pulmonary orifice and consists of three semilunar cusps
    pulmonary valve
  39. Theg, open through the posterior wall of left atrium and have no valves
    four pulmonary veins, two from each lung
  40. The left atrioventricular orifice is guarded by the
    mitral valve
  41. The walls of the left ventricle are ________ thicker than those of the right ventricle
    three times
  42. The left intraventricular blood pressure is ________ higher than that inside the right ventricle
    six times
  43. guards the aortic orifice and is precisely similar in structure to the pulmonary valve
    aortic valve
  44. consists of fibrous rings that surround the atrioventricular, pulmonary, and aortic orifices and are continuous with the membranous upper part of the ventricular septum
    skeleton of the heart
  45. The ________ contracts rhythmically at about 70 to 90 beats per minute in the resting adult
    normal heart
  46. The conducting system of the heart consists of specialized cardiac muscle present in the
    • sinuatrial node
    • atrioventricular node
    • atrioventricular bundle and its right and left terminal branches
    • subendocardial plexus of Purkinje fibers
  47. spontaneously gives origin to rhythmic electrical impulses that spread in all directions through the cardiac muscle of the atria and cause the muscle to contract
    SA node
  48. located in the wall of the right atrium in the upper part of the sulcus terminalis just to the right of the opening of the superior vena cava
    SA node
  49. strategically placed on the lower part of the atrial septum just above the attachment of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve
    AV node
  50. the only pathway of cardiac muscle that connects the myocardium of the atria and the myocardium of the ventricles
    AV bundle
  51. arises from the anterior aortic sinus of the ascending aorta and runs forward between the pulmonary trunk and the right auricle
    right coronary artery
  52. Branches of right coronary artery
    • RAPPA
    • Right conus artery
    • anterior ventricular branches
    • posterior ventricular branches
    • posterior interventricular (descending) artery
    • atrial branches
  53. supplies the anterior surface of the pulmonary conus (infundibulum of the right ventricle) and the upper part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle
    Right conus artery
  54. two or three in number and supply the anterior surface of the right ventricle
    anterior ventricular branches
  55. usually two in number and supply the diaphragmatic surface of the right ventricle
    posterior ventricular branches
  56. runs toward the apex in the posterior interventricular groove. It gives off branches to the right and left ventricles, including its inferior wall
    posterior interventricular (descending) artery
  57. supply the anterior and lateral surfaces of the right atrium. One branch supplies the posterior surface of both the right and left atria
    atrial branch
  58. usually larger than the right coronary artery, supplies the major part of the heart, including the greater part of the left atrium, left ventricle, and ventricular septum
    left coronary artery
  59. branches of left coronary artery
    • anterior interventricular (descending) branch
    • circumflex artery
  60. supplies the right and left ventricles with numerous branches that also supply the anterior part of the ventricular septum
    anterior interventricular (descending) branch
  61. It winds around the left margin of the heart in the atrioventricular groove. A left marginal artery is a large branch that supplies the left margin of the left ventricle down to the apex. Anterior ventricular and posterior ventricular branches supply the left ventricle. Atrial branches supply the left atrium
    circumflex artery
  62. Most blood from the heart wall drains into the right atrium through the ________ which lies in the posterior part of the atrioventricular groove and is a continuation of the ________
    • coronary sinus
    • great cardiac vein
  63. The ________ veins are tributaries of the coronary sinus.The remainder of the blood is returned to the right atrium by the anterior cardiac vein and by small veins that open directly into the heart chamber
    small and  middle cardiac
  64. The heart is innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system via the ________ situated below the arch of the aorta
    cardiac plexuses
  65. the main arterial trunk that delivers oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the tissues of the body
    aorta
  66. begins at the base of the left ventricle and runs upward and forward to come to lie behind the right half of the sternum at the level of the sternal angle, where it becomes continuous with the arch of the aorta
    ascending aorta
  67. branches of ascending aorta
    L & R coronary artery
  68. lies behind the manubrium sterni and arches upward, backward, and to the left in front of the trachea
    arch of aorta
  69. branches of arch of aorta
    • brachiocephalic artery
    • L subclavian artery
    • L common carotid artery
  70. arises from the convex surface of the aortic arch. It passes upward and to the right of the trachea and divides into the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries behind the right sternoclavicular joint
    brachiocephalic artery
  71. arises from the convex surface of the aortic arch on the left side of the brachiocephalic artery. It runs upward and to the left of the trachea and enters the neck behind the left sternoclavicular joint
    left common carotid artery
  72. arises from the aortic arch behind the left common carotid artery. It runs upward along the left side of the trachea and the esophagus to enter the root of the neck. It arches over the apex of the left lung
    left subclavian artery
  73. lies in the posterior mediastinum and begins as a continuation of the arch of the aorta on the left side of the lower border of the body of the 4th thoracic vertebra
    descending thoracic aorta
  74. Branches of escending aorta
    • Posterior intercostal arteries (lower 9 intercostal space)
    • Subcostal arteries (border of the 12th rib)
    • pericardial artery
    • bronchial artery
    • esophageal artery
  75. conveys deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
    pulmonary trunk
  76. branches of pulmonary trunk
    R & L pulmonary arteries
  77. A fibrous band that connects the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk to the lower concave surface of the aortic arch
    ligamentum arteriosum
  78. contains all the venous blood from the head and neck and both upper limbs and is formed by the union of the two brachiocephalic veins
    superior vena cava
  79. formed at the root ofthe neck by the union of the right subclavian and the right internal jugular veins
    right brachiocephalic vein
  80. They drain blood from the posterior parts of the intercostal spaces, the posterior abdominal wall, the pericardium, the diaphragm, the bronchi, and the esophagus
    azygos vein
  81. composes the azygos vein
    • main azygos vein
    • inferior hemiazygos vein
    • superior hemiazygos vein
  82. branches of azygos vein
    • right ascending lumbar vein
    • right subcostal vein
  83. branches of inferior hemiazygos
    • left ascending lumbar vein
    • left subcostal vein
  84. brnches of superior hemiazygos
    union of the fourth to the eighth intercostal veins

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