Bio Test 2 review

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Bio Test 2 review
2015-07-06 19:01:29
Bio test 2 review
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  1. What are two examples of nucleic acids?
    DNA and RNA
  2. What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
  3. What are functions of enzymes during replication/transcription?
    Some of them include: breaking thehydrogen bonds between the bases, “unzipping” the DNA; stabilizing the ends of the DNA; bringing in thecorrect nucleotide and connecting them; proofreading the new strands; forming hydrogen bonds and“zipping” up the DNA molecule.
  4. Where in the cell does translation occur?
    At the ribosome
  5. What specifically does the transfer RNA do?
    Brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome
  6. When does replication occur?
    During interphase before the cell divides
  7. When does transcription occur?
    When the cell needs to have a particular protein synthesized
  8. How is RNA different than DNA?
    RNA has a different sugar than DNA (ribose instead of deoxyribose);RNA is single strand; DNA is a double strand; RNA uses uracil instead of thymine.
  9. Why are insertions and deletions considered more harmful than substitutions?
    They change the sequence ofbases in each codon for all of subsequent bases.
  10. What is a codon?
    Every group of 3 bases on an mRNA molecule.  Each codon is a code word for a specificamino acid.
  11. The inheritance of a certain gene causes the expression of several phenotypes.  This is an example of
  12. A woman and man have three children.  One child has type O blood, one has type A blood and one has typeAB blood.  What are the genotypes for their parents?
    The parents would be AO and BO
  13. If color inheritance is due to incomplete dominance, what would be the likely outcome of a cross between ablack rodent and a white rodent?
    A gray rodent
  14. What type of bond holds the 2 bases together in a DNA molecule?
  15. Inheritance of a trait that produces a continuum of phenotypes and can often be graphed as a bell curve is anexample of
    polygenic inheritance
  16. If a red flower and a white flower crossed together produced red and white striped flowers, we would suspectthat the alleles for flower color showed
  17. What blood types could children have if their parents had type A and type O blood?
    Type A or type Odepending on the genotype of the parent with type A blood
  18. A couple have 8 children, all of them boys.  The mother is pregnant with her 9th child.  What are the odds thatit will be a boy?
  19. In humans which parent determines the gender of the child?
  20. Why is it more likely to see sex-linked disorders, like hemophilia and color-blindness, in males?
    The allelesfor these disorders are on the X chromosome.  Since men only inherit one X chromosome, they only need toget one allele to have the disorder.  Woman have 2 Xs so would need to have the recessive allele on each oftheir Xs to have the disorder
  21. What is translation?
    The process where the information on the mRNA is used to make a protein
  22. What is transcription?
    The process where the information for a protein (a gene) is copied onto a moleculeof mRNA