Final exam

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  1. What is the function of the heart?
    The heart is an efficient pump that moves blood in a steady stream through a closed system of blood vessels.
  2. Which nerves regulate the heart?
    The vagus and sympathetic
  3. What is the function of veins?
    Carry blood from capillaries to the heart.
  4. Which vein carries freshly oxygenated blood?
    Pulmonary veins
  5. Normal body temperature of the body?
  6. Which regions of the body contain lymph nodes?
    Back of the head, around the neck, under the armpits, under the pectoral muscles, along the blood vessels of the abdomen and pelvis, back of the knees, and the groin
  7. How is massage beneficial to the lymphatic system?
    It increases flow of lymph and prevents stagnation.
  8. What is the reproductive system?
    The generative apparatus necessary for organisms to reproduce organisms of the same species.
  9. What is the approximate duration of pregnancy?
    40 weeks or 280 days
  10. What is the primary function of the nervous system?
    Controls and coordinates various body systems.  Collects sensory info, processes and interprets that info and integrates the info into the correct response for the body.
  11. What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
    CNS and peripheral
  12. What is the CNS and where is it located?
    Central nervous system. Consists of the brain, located in the cranium and the spinal cord located in the vertebral canal of the spine.
  13. What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
    Regulates the action of glans, smooth muscles and heart.
  14. What is proprioception?
    Sensory and motor nerve activity that provides info as to the state of contraction and position of the muscles.
  15. What is the major function of the endocrine system?
    To assist the nervous system in regulating body processes.  Responsible for growth, development, sexual function and overall health of the body.
  16. What is the nature of most endocrine disfunction?
    Overactivity or underactivity of glands
  17. Why is the pituitary gland called the master gland?
    It controls or regulates many other glands in the body.
  18. What is the function of the respiratory system?
    Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  19. What is an alveoli and what is its function?
    Microscopic air sacs at the terminal ends of bronchioles where the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen takes place.
  20. What is the natural breathing rate for adults?
    14-20 breaths per minute
  21. What is the function of the digestive system?
    Digestion and absorption.  Digestion converts food into substances that can be used by cells for nourishment.
  22. What is the general structure of the alimentary canal?
    muscular tube about 30 ft long running from the mouth to the anus.
  23. What is peristalsis?
    The rhythmic, wavelike muscular action of the smooth muscle of the alimentary canal that propels and churns food throughout its length
  24. What are villi?
    Small fingerlike projections covering the small intestines. Blood vessels and lacteals absorb the end products of digestion.
  25. What happens if waste is retained in the body instead of being eliminated?
    Body becomes poisoned
  26. Which colors of urine indicate a problem?
    Reddish or brownish
  27. Which organ secrets bile?
  28. Approximately how many muscles are in the body?
  29. What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles?
    voluntary muscles are striated and can be contracted at will.  Involuntary muscles are smooth and cannot be contracted at will and receive nerve stimulation from the autonomic nervous system.
  30. What are skeletal muscles?
    Striated muscles attached to bones of the skeleton
  31. To which structures are skeletal muscles attached?
    Bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, skin and sometimes other muscles.
  32. What is the origin of a muscle?
    More fixed attachment, such as muscles attached to bones that act as anchors for movements.
  33. What is the insertion of a muscle?
    Attachments that perform the actions, such as muscles attached to skin, other muscles or more distal and movable attachments
  34. Which structure attaches muscle to bone
  35. What is fascia?
    Connective tissue that organizes muscles into functional groups, surrounds individual muscles, extends inward throughout muscles creating bundles and eventually surrounds each muscle fiber.
  36. What is acetylcholine? Where is it found and what is its function?
    A chemical neurotransmitter found at the myoneural junction. Excites the muscle cell to contract.
  37. Which molecular structure provides the energy for muscle contraction?
    ATP to ADP Adenosine triphosphate into adenosint diphosphate
  38. Why is it important for the therapist to understand how muscles function?
    They are better able to apply massage techniques that can relax and rejuvinate tired and sore muscles.
  39. What is muscle atrophy?
    Degenerative process caused by muscle disuse.  Muscle fibers reduce in size, blood supply is reduced and the muscle weakens
  40. What indicates muscle tone?
  41. What indicates muscle lacks tone?
  42. Which muscles are used for shoulder rotation?
    Supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor
  43. Which body systems benefit from regular therapeutic massage?
    All body systems
  44. How does massage relieve sore and stiff muscles?
    Improving circulation, removes waste and supplies cells with oxygen and nourishment.
  45. When should massage be avoided?
    When a client has a condition that is contraindicated for massage.
  46. What is the meaning of contraindication?
    A condition is present that would make massage harmful or not beneficial to the client
  47. What should the therapist do when a problem appears to be contraindicated?
    Do not massage. Refer client to the appropriate health care provider.
  48. How should massage be applied in the case of local inflammation?
    Avoid inflamed area, massage proximal to the area to promote circulation toward and away from the area.
  49. Why are certain sites of the body potential endangerment?
    Relatively unprotected areas that could be injured with certain manipulations like major nerves, blood vessels, vital organs. Examples are back of knees, armpits, anterior triangle of the neck
  50. What should you ask pregnant clients?
    Due date, any complications?
  51. What is a trigger point?
    Knot or nodule in the belly of the muscle that is tender when digital pressure is applied.
  52. Name five trigger points that would relieve other painful areas.
    Infraspinatus for shoulder pain, around scapula for upper back/neck pain, along anterior tibialis for shin splints, quadratus lumborum for middle to low back pain, along it band for sciatic pain.
  53. What are two types of insurance?
  54. School signature is required to obtain insurance?
    Only on certification
  55. Upon graduation, how is liability insurance obtained?
    Send in completed form, copy of certification and check.
  56. What is the difference between skeletal and smooth muscles?
    Skeletal or striated muscles are voluntary and can be contracted at will.  Smooth or involuntary muscles cannot be contracted at will and receive nerve signals from the autonomic nervous system.
  57. Describe initial consultation, code of ethics, boundaries
  58. Name basic massage movements
  59. What does the term body mechanics mean?
    Proper use of your body to utilize maximum efficiency while protecting body from injury.
  60. Name two stances and describe each.
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Final exam
2015-07-07 02:17:22

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