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Actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity, eating practices.
Where aid is given by one country directly to another. An example of bilateral aid is when Australia provides aid to East Timor.
Factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels.
Biomedical model of health
Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practised by doctors and health professionals and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease.
Burden of disease
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries. Specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the Disability Adjusted Life Year(DALY).
Determinants of health
‘Factors that raise or lower a level of health in a population or individual. Determinants of health help to explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others.’ (AIHW, 2006). Determinants can be classified in many ways such as biological, behavioural, physical environment and social.
Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
A measure of burden of disease, one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury.
The rapid assistance given to people or countries in immediate distress to relieve suffering, during and after man-made emergencies such as wars and natural disasters such as flood, tsunami or earthquake. The term emergency aid can also be called ‘humanitarian aid’.
The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources.’ (VicHealth, 2008)
The health of populations in a worldwide context that go beyond the perspectives and concerns of individual countries. Global health is about an international collaborative approach to achieving equity in health for all people worldwide.
Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)
A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality.
‘An individual’s or a population’s overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.’ (AIHW, 2008)
Creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people’s choices and enhancing capabilities (the range of things people can be and do), having access to knowledge, health and a decent standard of living, and participating in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives
Human Development Index
A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries’ levels of social and economic development. It provides a single statistic based on three dimensions – health, education and living standards, and four indicators – life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita.
‘An indication of how long a person can expect live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.’
Mental dimensions of health
‘State of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.’
‘Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.’
- The World Health Organization classifies countries into five mortality strata based on the mortality rates of children under five years of age and adult males aged 19-59. The
- five strata are:
- Mortality strata A – very low child mortality and very low adult mortality.
- Mortality strata B – low child mortality and low adult mortality.
- Mortality strata C – low child mortality and high adult mortality.
- Mortality strata D – high child mortality and high adult mortality.
- Mortality strata E – high child mortality and very high adult mortality.
Where aid is provided through an international organisation, such as the World Bank, United Nations or World Health Organization. Multilateral aid combines donations from a number of countries and then distributes them to the recipients.
National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs)
A collaborative initiative endorsed by the Commonwealth and all state and territory governments. The NHPA initiative seeks to focus the health sector’s attention on diseases or conditions that have a major impact on the health of Australians. The NHPAs represent the disease groups with the largest burden of disease and potential costs (direct, indirect and intangible) to the Australian community.
Non-government organisation (NGO) aid
NGOs take different approaches to aid, which include specific projects or programs, emergency aid, volunteering, education and development. The aid provided by NGOs often focus on communities.
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
An approach to health development by the World Health Organization which attempts to reduce inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the social model of health and defines health promotion as ‘the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health’ (WHO 1998). The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion, which are enabling, mediating, and advocacy.
Physical dimension of health
Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness.
The physical surroundings in which we live, work and play. The physical environment includes water and air, workplaces, housing, roads, nature, schools, recreation settings and exposure to hazards
‘The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.’
Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support.
The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relationships with other people
Social dimensions of health
Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way
Social model of health
A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and wellbeing are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed.
‘... meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’
Under-five mortality rate
‘The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births.’
Values that underpin Australia’s health system
The values are effective, efficient, responsive, accessible, safe, continuous, sustainable.
Twelve to eighteen years of age; however, it should be acknowledged that classifications for the stage of youth can differ across agencies.
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