endocrine system

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blondie0414
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304903
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endocrine system
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2015-07-07 18:09:10
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endocrine hormone
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ap1 endocrine system ch 18
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  1. secrete products into ducts that carry secretions into body cavity, lumen of an organ, or the body's surface
    exocrine glands
  2. secrete products into interstitial fluid surrounding secretory cells then diffuse into blood capillaries
    endocrine glands
  3. list of endocrine glands:
    pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal
  4. other parts of the endocrine system that are not exclusively endocrine glands:
    hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, skin, heart, adipose tissue, placenta
  5. the science of the structure and function of the endocrine glands and the diagnosis and treatment of disorders
    endocrinology
  6. decrease in receptors due to excess hormone present. makes cells less sensitive
    down-regulation
  7. increase in number of receptors due to hormone deficiency, makes cells more sensitive
    up-regulation
  8. hormones that go from the secretory cells to interstitial fluid to the blood stream
    circulating hormones
  9. hormones that acct locally on neighboring cells or on the same cell that secreted in without entering the bloodstream
    local hormones
  10. local hormones that act on neighboring cells
    paracrines
  11. local hormones that act on the secretory cell
    autocrines
  12. steroids, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide are examples of...
    lipid soluble hormones
  13. amines, peptide and protein hormones, and eicosanoids are types of...
    water soluble hormones
  14. 3 functions of transport proteins:
    • 1. make lipid soluble temporarily water soluble
    • 2. retard passage of small molecules, slowing the rate of hormone loss in urine
    • 3. provide ready reserve of hormone, already present in bloodstream
  15. major link between nervous and endocrine systems
    hypothalamus
  16. connecting stalk between pituitary and hypothalamus
    infundibulum
  17. functions of hormones
    • help regulate chemical composition and volume, metabolism and energy balance, contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle, glandular secretions, immune activites.
    • control growth and development
    • regulate operation of reproductive systems
    • help establish circadian rhythms
  18. the actions of some hormones on target cells require a simultaneous or recent exposure to a second hormone
    permissive effect
  19. when the effect of two hormones acting together is greater or more extensive than the effect of each hormone acting alone
    synergistic effect
  20. when one hormone opposes the actions of another hormone the two hormones are said to have
    antagonistic effects
  21. hormone secretion is regulated by 3 things
    • 1. signals from the nervous system
    • 2. chemical changes in the blood
    • 3. other hormones
  22. types of anterior pituitary cells
    • 1. somatotrophs
    • 2. thyrotrophs
    • 3. gonadotrophs
    • 4. lactotrophs
    • 5. corticotrophs
  23. Human Growth Hormone
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from anterior pituitary, goes to liver, skeletal muscles, cartilage, bones, and other tissues. Stimulates secretion of insulinlike growth factors.
  24. insulinlike growth factors
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    • enter bloodstream from liver or act locally in other tissues. 
    • functions:
    • 1. cause cells to grow and multiply
    • 2. enhance lipolysis in adipose tissue
    • 3. influence carb metabolism by decreasing glucose uptake
  25. an abnormally low blood glucose concentration
    hypoglycemia
  26. an abnormally high blood glucose concentration
    hyperglycemia
  27. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    • stimulates synthesis of T3 and T4, thyroid hormone, 
    • TRH from hypothalamus stimulates secretion, comes from anterior pituitary, goes to thyroid
  28. Follicle stimulation hormone (FSH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    goes to ovaries & testes, comes from pituitary, stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogens and stimulates sperm production
  29. lutenizing hormone (LH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    triggers ovulation, stimulates progesterone secretion. LH stimulates cells in testes to secrete testosterone. comes from anterior pituitary, goes to ovaries/testes.
  30. prolactin (PRL)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from anterior pituitary, goes to mammary glands. initiates and maintains milk secretion with help of other hormones.
  31. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from anterior pituitary, goes to adrenal glands, controls production and secretion of cortisol and other glucocorticoids.
  32. Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from anterior pituitary, goes to brain to influence brain activity and contributes to darkening of skin in prolonged sunlight.
  33. this part of the pituitary does not synthesize hormones, it stores and releases two.
    posterior pituitary
  34. two hormones from posterior pituitary
    oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
  35. specialized neuroglia of posterior pituitary similar to astrocytes
    pituicytes
  36. oxytocin
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from posterior pituitary, goes to uterus and breasts. function:enhances contraction of smooth muscle cells in uterus asnd stimulates milk ejection. function unknown in males and nonpregnant females
  37. antidiuretic hormone
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    comes from posterior pituitary, goes to kidneys. causes kidneys to return more water to the blood, decreasing urine volume. decreases water lost through sweating and can increase blood pressure
  38. substance that decreases urine production
    antidiuretic
  39. neurons in the hypothalamus that monitor blood osmotic pressure
    osmoreceptors
  40. the only endocrine gland that stores its secretory product in large quantities
    thyroid gland
  41. actions of thyroid hormones
    • 1. increase basal metabolic rate
    • 2. stimulates synthesis of sodium potassium pumps
    • 3. stimulate protein synthesis
    • 4. enhance some actionss of EPI and NE, due to upregulation
    • 5. accelerate body growth with help of hGH and insulin
  42. Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    • thyroid hormones have 5 actions - on other slide. 
    • TRH from hypothalamus and TSH from anterior pituitary stimulate synthesis of T3 and T4.
    • Thyroid hormones act on basically the whole body
  43. calcitonin CT
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    • can decrease level of calcium in blood by inhibiting action of osteoclasts.
    • comes from thyroid
  44. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    (where it comes from, where it goes, what it does)
    • major regulator of levels of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions in the blood. increases the number and activity of osteoclasts. slows rate of calcium and pagnesium lost from blood to urine.
    • comes from parathyroid, goes to bones and kidneys
  45. mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens are secreted by 
    adrenal cortex
  46. epinephrine and norepinephrine are synthesized and secreted here
    adrenal medulla (inner region)
  47. this tissue is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland and if found medial to the stomach
    pancreas
  48. this is a small gland located in the third ventricle of the brain at the midline
    pineal gland
  49. hormone appears to contribute to the setting of the body's biological clock
    melatonin
  50. this gland plays a large role in immunity
    thymus
  51. hormones produced by the thymus, THF and TF function to
    • promote maturation of T cells (WBCs)
    • may retard the aging process.

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