ChemistryVocab.txt

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Arun.J
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304936
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ChemistryVocab.txt
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2015-07-08 13:02:26
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Chem Chemistry Vocab Science
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Vocab of Chemistry Chapters 1-8 except for 7, may not be finished yet
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  1. Science
    The knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested
  2. Technology
    The application of science for practical purposes
  3. Scientific Law
    A summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work
  4. Scientific Theory
    An explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning
  5. Critical Thinking
    The ability and willingness to assess claims critically and to make judgements on the basis of objective and supported reasons
  6. Scientific Method
    OHEC Used go solve problems
  7. Variables
    A factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
  8. Length
    A measure of the straight-line distance between two points
  9. Mass
    A measure of the amount of matter in an object
  10. Volume
    A measure of the size of a body or region in 3 - dimensional space
  11. Weight
    A measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
  12. Scientific Notation
    A method of expressing a quantity as a number multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power
  13. Precision
    The exactness of the measurement
  14. Significant Figures
    A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of measurement
  15. Accuracy
    A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured
  16. Chemistry
    The scientific study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
  17. Matter
    Anything that has mass and takes up space
  18. Element
    A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
  19. Atom
    The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
  20. Compound
    Is substance made of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
  21. Molecule
    the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all the physical and chemical properties of that substance
  22. Chemical Formula
    A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
  23. Pure Substance
    A sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties

    Matter that has a fixed composition and definite properties
  24. Mixture
    The combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
  25. Heterogeneous Mixture
    A mixture where the substances are not mixed uniformly and are not evenly distributed
  26. Homogenous Mixture
    A mixture with substances that are mixed uniformly and evenly distributed
  27. Melting Point
    The temperature and pressure at which is solid becomes a liquid
  28. Boiling Point
    The temperature at which a liquid becomes gas
  29. Density
    The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance
  30. Reactivity
    The ability of a substance to combine chemically with another substance
  31. Flammability
    The ability of a substance to react in the presence of oxygen and burn when exposed to flame
  32. Physical Change
    A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
  33. Chemical Change
    A change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances
  34. Plasma
    A state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized
  35. Energy
    The capacity to do work
  36. Thermal energy
    The kinetic energy of a substance's atoms
  37. Evaporation
    The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
  38. Sublimation
    The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas (sometimes used for reverse process)
  39. Condensation
    The change of a substance from a gas to liquid
  40. Fluid
    A non solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, examples include a gas or liquid
  41. Buoyant force
    The upward force exerted on an object immersed in or floating on a fluid
  42. Pressure
    Amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
  43. Archimedes' Principle
    The principle that states the buoyant force on an object in the fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces
  44. Pascal
    The SI unit of pressure, equal to the force of 1 N exerted over an area of 1 m² (abbreviation, Pa)
  45. Pascal's principle
    Principle that states that a fluid in equilibrium contained in a vessel in search of pressure of equal intensity in all directions sensible that states that a fluid in equilibrium contained in a vessel in search of pressure off in clinton city in all directions
  46. Viscosity
    The resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
  47. Boyle's Law
    For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas increases as the pressure of the gas decreases and vice versa
  48. Charles' Law
    For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and vice versa
  49. Gay-Lussac's Law
    If the pressure of the gas increases as the temperature increases if the volume of a gas does not change
  50. Nucleus
    An atom's central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
  51. Proton
    A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
  52. Neutron
    A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
  53. Electron
    A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
  54. Orbital
    A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
  55. Valence electron
    An electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atoms chemical properties
  56. Periodic Law
    When elements are arranged this way, similarities in their properties will occur in a regular pattern
  57. Period
    A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
  58. Group/Family
    A vertical column of elements in the periodic table
  59. Ion
    An atom or group of atoms that has a lost or gained one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
  60. Atomic number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  61. Mass number
    The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleas of an atom
  62. Isotopes
    An atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do, but that has a different number of neutrons
  63. Atomic mass unit
    Unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule, it is exactly one- twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12
  64. Average atomic mass
    The weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of the element
  65. Metals
    Element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well
  66. Nonmetal
    Element the conducts heat and electricity poorly
  67. Semiconductor
    An element or compound that conducts electric current better than an insulator but not as well as a conductor
  68. Alkali Metals
    An Element of Group 1

    • Soft
    • Shiny
    • Reacts violently with water
  69. Alkaline-Earth Metals
    Element in group 2

    Reactive but not as much as Alkali
  70. Transition metal
    Element of Groups 3-12

    Not as reactive
  71. Halogens
    Element of group 17

    Reactive
  72. Noble gases
    Unreactive element of group 18
  73. Mole
    The SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in 12 g of carbon - 12
  74. Avogadro's Constant
    Equals 6.022 ✖ 10²³/ mol ; The number of particles in 1 mol
  75. Molar mass
    Mass in grams of one mole of a substance
  76. Chemical Bond
    The attractive force that holds atoms together
  77. Chemical Structure
    Arrangement of atoms in a substance
  78. Bond Length
    Average distance between two nuclei of two bonded atoms
  79. Bond Angle
    Angle formed by two bonds to the same atom
  80. Ionic Bond
    • Bond formed by oppositely charged ions
    • Conducts electricity in water
  81. Metallic Bonds
    A bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
  82. Covalent Bonds
    Bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, they are often formed between non metal atoms
  83. Polyatomic Ions
    An ion made of two or more atoms
  84. Empirical Formula
    Composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of atoms in the simplest ratio
  85. Molecular formula
    Tells how many atoms are in one molecule of the compound
  86. Organic compounds
    Covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates & oxides
  87. Polymers
    Large molecule that's formed by now than 5 monomers (small units)
  88. Carbohydrate
    Any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
  89. Protein
    Organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
  90. Amino Acid
    Any 1 of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and amino group and that combine to form proteins

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