Biology 304 Test 2

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cbt9044
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Biology 304 Test 2
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2015-07-14 11:26:11
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PlantHumanAffairs Biology Test2
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Terms for Test 2 in Biology 304 @ ULL.
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  1. The distinct unit of heredity found on the DNA molecule.
    Genes
  2. Complex molecule composed of DNA.
    Chromosome
  3. Variations of genes.
    Ex. Hair Color
    Alleles
  4. The suppression of the expression of an allele by another allele.
    Dominance
  5. Mixing of alleles; neither can be fully expressed.
    Co-dominance/ Incomplete Dominance
  6. Reproduction with ones own genetic material; fusing gametes of one flower; used to establish uniform varieties
    Inbreeding
  7. Fusion of gametes from different plants of the same species.
    Outbreeding
  8. ?Find out?
    Uniform varieties
  9. Can inbreed.
    Self Compatible
  10. Cannot inbreed.
    Self-Incompatible
  11. Genes that are dominant are considered to be...
    Good genes
  12. Genes that are recessive are considered to be...
    Bad Genes
  13. The result of careful breeding in order to get only good genes.
    Hybrid Vigor
  14. This was the Origin of Agriculture.
    The Fertile Cresent, found near the Mediterranean.
  15. The hypothesis that early man threw the 'trash' from gathered plants into a heap which ultimately produced fruiting plants. AKA the Theory of Sudden Discovery.
    The Dump Heap Hypothesis
  16. When did agriculture begin?
    8 - 10 thousand years ago
  17. Where did agriculture first begin?
    The Fertile Cresent
  18. How did agriculture begin?
    Explained by the Dump Heap hypothesis or the Stressor Hypothesis
  19. Stressor that could have prompted sedentary lifestyle and thus agriculture:
    Ice Age (water source) or Population Pressure
  20. These are used in archeology to determine the presence of agriculture.
    Pollen Grains
  21. The man who came up with the theory of sudden discovery.
    Edgar Anderson
  22. This man presumed ancient knowledge of plants.
    Carl Sauer
  23. What 2 men began uncovering the origin of cultivated plants?
    Alfonse de Candolle and Vavilov
  24. This man used geography, archeology, linguistics and written history to determine the origin of cultivated plants.
    Alfonse de Candolle
  25. This man used genetics to locate the origin of cultivated plants.
    Vavilov
  26. Vavilov determined that the place with the most genetic _______ of a plant is most likely to be its place of origin.
    Varieties
  27. Vavilov created these Gene Centers:
    Chinese, Indochina, Central Asia, Near East, Mediterranean, Abyssinian, Mexican/Central America, Central Andean
  28. This gene center is the origin of soybeans, tea, hemp, and oranges.
    Chinese
  29. This gene center is the origin of bananas, black pepper, coconuts, rice, sugar cane and mangos.
    Indochina
  30. This gene center is the origin of apples, grapes, spinach, onions and peas.
    Central Asia
  31. This gene center is the origin of wheat, rye, oats and figs.
    Near East
  32. This gene center is the origin of the mustard family, lettuce, beats and turnips.
    Mediterranean
  33. This gene center is the origin of coffee, melons, okra, barley and sorghum.
    Abyssinian
  34. This gene center is the origin of corn, red peppers, beans, chocolate, cotton and avocados.
    Mexican/Central American
  35. This gene center is the origin of tomatoes, pumpkins, squash, peanuts, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and tobacco.
    Central Andean (In South America).
  36. Climates with seasonal change due to distance from the equator.
    Temperate Climates
  37. This climate does not have actual seasonal change but it does have wet and dry 'seasons'.
    Tropical Climates
  38. The change in the ratio of daylight to night.
    Photoperiod change.
  39. The longest day of the year.
    Summer Solstice
  40. The longest night of the year.
    Winter Solstice
  41. Two days in which the daylight to night time ratio are perfectly balanced.
    Autumnal Equinox (sept), and Vernal Equinox (March)
  42. The plant family containing the genera: malus, pyrus, prunus, rubus and fragaria. AKA the rose family.
    Rosaceae
  43. Genus meaning apple in latin. Contains apple. This genus is responsible for 50% of fruit production.
    Malus
  44. This genus contains pears, which have stone cells making them crisp.
    Pyrus
  45. These two genera in the rosaceae family do not tolerate the combination of heat and humidity.
    Malus and Pyrus
  46. This genus contains apricots, plums and peaches - things which are easily dried. Has only 5 domesticated spp.
    Prunus
  47. This genus contains dewberries, blackberries and raspberries. *Lowest glycemic index of any fruit.
    Rubus
  48. This term describes drupes whose endocarp is firmly attached to the flesh of the fruit.
    Cling
  49. This term is used to describe drupes whose endocarps fall out freely from the flesh of the fruit.
    Freestone
  50. The scientific name for olives.
    Oleo Europea
  51. This is the solution that makes olives palatable.
    Sodium Hydroxide
  52. This fruit was used as a source of purple dye.
    Blackberry
  53. A bacterial disease which leaves the plant looking torched.
    Fire Blight
  54. Pecans, hazelnuts (Filberts),Walnuts, Hickory Nuts and Chestnuts are all examples of ________ nut trees.
    Temperate
  55. The genus name for pecans and hickory nuts.
    Carya
  56. The genus name for walnuts (from Europe).
    Juglands
  57. The genus name for chestnuts.
    Castanea
  58. The oilier and tastier a nut is, the ________ its shelf life.
    Shorter
  59. The genus name for hazelnuts.
    Corylus
  60. The scientific name for the citrus family.
    Rustaceae
  61. The name they gave to British naval crew since they had to eat limes to keep scurvy at bay.
    Limeys
  62. The process of making a plant more hardy - done by taking a small branch of a desired plant and attach it to the roots of another wild plant. This is mainly done to ensure uniformity of fruits produced.
    Grafting
  63. Fleshy fruits with a leathery covering. Endocarp is divisible into sections.
    Hesperidium
  64. This fruit is a manmade hybrid from the island of Barbados.
    Grapefruit
  65. These oranges are sterile because it is a triploid organism. It has 2 ovaries.
    Navel Oranges
  66. This family contains melons, pepo fruits and the luffa fruit.
    Cucurbitaceae
  67. This fruit type is succulent and comes with a rind.
    Pepo
  68. Squash are from the ___ world whereas melons are from the ___ world.
    New, Old
  69. This vine has both male and female flowers on it.
    Monoecious Vine
  70. A cucurbit that is harvested for its hard outer covering.
    Gourds
  71. This is also known as the Nightshade Family. Every part of the plant aside from the fruit it highly toxic. This includes potatoes, tomatoes, red and green peppers, tobacco and eggplant.
    Solanaceae
  72. Lycopersicon esculentum is the scientific name for this new world plant that produces ______.
    Tomatoes
  73. Capsicum Annum is the scientific name for ________.
    Red/Green Peppers
  74. Solonum Melanogena is the scientific name for the _________. Native to India.
    Eggplant
  75. This is a tropical fruit tree in the Moraceae family, known for it's part in the movie "Mutiny on the Bounty".
    Breadfruit tree AKA Jackfruit tree
  76. This family contains bananas and plantains.
    Musaceae
  77. This fruit is sold seedless (sterile) and is a hybrid of different spp. It comes from the musaceae family.
    Bananas
  78. These are the starchy fruits of the musaceae family.
    Plaintains
  79. This company created a monopoly on bananas because they found a way to transport them (deprive green bananas of ethylene gas).
    The United Fruit Company
  80. The whole of central America became known as the _______ ______ due to the monopoly of its economy by the United Fruit Company.
    Banana Republic
  81. This family contains new world plants, including Spanish Moss and Pineapples
    Bromeliaceae
  82. This plant is bird-pollinated. Many flowers on one stock merge after germination and produce one fruit. Part of the bromeliaceae family.
    Pineapple
  83. This family is known for its toxic plants., and includes such edible fruits as the mango, pistachio and cashew.
    Anacardiaceae
  84. This genus includes poison ivy.
    Toxicodendron, meaning "Toxic Tree"
  85. Mangos come from the genus _____ and are from  SE Asia.
    Mangifera
  86. The ________ is an edible seed that comes from the pistachia genus. Old world in origin, dioecious, drupe.
    Pistachio
  87. Cashews come from the __________ genus; they are the seeds of the cashew apple, and are native to Brazil.
    Anacardia
  88. This family of plants is found world wide and gives us sassafras, bay leaves, avocados, goose berries and cinnamon.
    Lauraceae
  89. The _________ family gives us passion flowers and passion fruits.
    Passifloraceae
  90. This genus gives us gumbo filet powder, and its roots are the original source of rootbeer.
    Sassafras albidum
  91. This sp. is commonly called the red bay tree.
    Persea Palustris
  92. This fruit is rich in oils and are very dense calorically; AKA the alligator pear.
    Avocado
  93. The Chinese goose berry is native to China; AKA _____
    Kiwi
  94. These nuts are native to Brazil and aren't cultivated by anyone - they are only gathered by locals.
    Brazil Nuts
  95. Gumbo is the African term for _____.
    Okra
  96. Coconuts are the fruit of the genus cocas of the family ______ AKA ______.
    Arecaceae AKA Palmae
  97. Areca and Sabal Palmettos are part of the _______ / ______ family. They are known for their foliage. 
    Arecaceae/ palmae
  98. ____ is the name for coconut fibers.
    Coir
  99. Grasses (or grains) are from the family ______ (old name) or _______.
    Graminae/ Poaceae
  100. ______ are individual grass stems that mature at different times and come out at different heights.
    Tillers
  101. Many years ago man chose grasses who matured ______, who have ______ of the same height, who are _____ in stature and have larger _____.
    simultaneously, tillers, short, seeds
  102. This was the first grain ever domesticated. It is primarily used in animal feeds and production of whiskey and beer. This was replaced by wheat in 2 BC.
    Hordeum Barley
  103. This grain is considered the "Staff of Life", and has gluten (making the dough more elastic and producing a finer quality dough). It was first grown in N. America by Menonites (1500s) and then popularized in 1870s by Russian immigrants that settled in the Great Plains.
    Triticum Wheat
  104. Often referred to as 'poor man's wheat', this grain was considered a weed, although it is hardier than wheat.
    Secale Rye
  105. This grain is recently cultivated.
    Avena Oats
  106. This grain comes from N. India, and outranks wheat in demand. The common name is rice, the scientific name is ______ ______.
    Oryza Sativa
  107. ______ rice can only grow in tropical rainforests.
    Upland
  108. _______ rice is grown in flooded fields. 
    Paddy
  109. Wild rice grows in water and is harvested by tapping the flower to let the seeds fall out. Its scientific name is ______ _______.
    Zizania aquatica
  110. _____ is the grain known for being a symbol of fertility.
    Rice
  111. This is the scientific name for corn (the cultivated plant we see in grocery stores). This is a new world grain.
    Zea Mays
  112. _________ is a mixture of corn and beans as a well balanced diet.
    Succotash
  113. ______ bread is made by smashing rehydrated corn and sorghum. 
    Flat
  114. This is widely cultivated in Africa (also it's origin). It looks just like corn and is found in bird seed. It's primarily used in animal feed; also to make sorghum molasses and industrial alcohol.
    Sorghum Bicolor
  115. The types of sorghum one can grow are:____, ____ and ____.
    Sweet, grain, broom
  116. This is a tiny grain usually found in bird seed, with the longest shelf life of any grain (hardly any oils). Genus is panicium.
    Millets
  117. This is the family name for beans.
    Leguminosae/ fabaceae (new name)
  118. This is considered the 2nd most important family of plants to man.
    Fabaceae

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