The distinct unit of heredity found on the DNA molecule.
Complex molecule composed of DNA.
Variations of genes.
Ex. Hair Color
The suppression of the expression of an allele by another allele.
Mixing of alleles; neither can be fully expressed.
Co-dominance/ Incomplete Dominance
Reproduction with ones own genetic material; fusing gametes of one flower; used to establish uniform varieties
Fusion of gametes from different plants of the same species.
Genes that are dominant are considered to be...
Genes that are recessive are considered to be...
The result of careful breeding in order to get only good genes.
This was the Origin of Agriculture.
The Fertile Cresent, found near the Mediterranean.
The hypothesis that early man threw the 'trash' from gathered plants into a heap which ultimately produced fruiting plants. AKA the Theory of Sudden Discovery.
The Dump Heap Hypothesis
When did agriculture begin?
8 - 10 thousand years ago
Where did agriculture first begin?
The Fertile Cresent
How did agriculture begin?
Explained by the Dump Heap hypothesis or the Stressor Hypothesis
Stressor that could have prompted sedentary lifestyle and thus agriculture:
Ice Age (water source) or Population Pressure
These are used in archeology to determine the presence of agriculture.
The man who came up with the theory of sudden discovery.
This man presumed ancient knowledge of plants.
What 2 men began uncovering the origin of cultivated plants?
Alfonse de Candolle and Vavilov
This man used geography, archeology, linguistics and written history to determine the origin of cultivated plants.
Alfonse de Candolle
This man used genetics to locate the origin of cultivated plants.
Vavilov determined that the place with the most genetic _______ of a plant is most likely to be its place of origin.
Vavilov created these Gene Centers:
Chinese, Indochina, Central Asia, Near East, Mediterranean, Abyssinian, Mexican/Central America, Central Andean
This gene center is the origin of soybeans, tea, hemp, and oranges.
This gene center is the origin of bananas, black pepper, coconuts, rice, sugar cane and mangos.
This gene center is the origin of apples, grapes, spinach, onions and peas.
This gene center is the origin of wheat, rye, oats and figs.
This gene center is the origin of the mustard family, lettuce, beats and turnips.
This gene center is the origin of coffee, melons, okra, barley and sorghum.
This gene center is the origin of corn, red peppers, beans, chocolate, cotton and avocados.
This gene center is the origin of tomatoes, pumpkins, squash, peanuts, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and tobacco.
Central Andean (In South America).
Climates with seasonal change due to distance from the equator.
This climate does not have actual seasonal change but it does have wet and dry 'seasons'.
The change in the ratio of daylight to night.
The longest day of the year.
The longest night of the year.
Two days in which the daylight to night time ratio are perfectly balanced.
Autumnal Equinox (sept), and Vernal Equinox (March)
The plant family containing the genera: malus, pyrus, prunus, rubus and fragaria. AKA the rose family.
Genus meaning apple in latin. Contains apple. This genus is responsible for 50% of fruit production.
This genus contains pears, which have stone cells making them crisp.
These two genera in the rosaceae family do not tolerate the combination of heat and humidity.
Malus and Pyrus
This genus contains apricots, plums and peaches - things which are easily dried. Has only 5 domesticated spp.
This genus contains dewberries, blackberries and raspberries. *Lowest glycemic index of any fruit.
This term describes drupes whose endocarp is firmly attached to the flesh of the fruit.
This term is used to describe drupes whose endocarps fall out freely from the flesh of the fruit.
The scientific name for olives.
This is the solution that makes olives palatable.
This fruit was used as a source of purple dye.
A bacterial disease which leaves the plant looking torched.
Pecans, hazelnuts (Filberts),Walnuts, Hickory Nuts and Chestnuts are all examples of ________ nut trees.
The genus name for pecans and hickory nuts.
The genus name for walnuts (from Europe).
The genus name for chestnuts.
The oilier and tastier a nut is, the ________ its shelf life.
The genus name for hazelnuts.
The scientific name for the citrus family.
The name they gave to British naval crew since they had to eat limes to keep scurvy at bay.
The process of making a plant more hardy - done by taking a small branch of a desired plant and attach it to the roots of another wild plant. This is mainly done to ensure uniformity of fruits produced.
Fleshy fruits with a leathery covering. Endocarp is divisible into sections.
This fruit is a manmade hybrid from the island of Barbados.
These oranges are sterile because it is a triploid organism. It has 2 ovaries.
This family contains melons, pepo fruits and the luffa fruit.
This fruit type is succulent and comes with a rind.
Squash are from the ___ world whereas melons are from the ___ world.
This vine has both male and female flowers on it.
A cucurbit that is harvested for its hard outer covering.
This is also known as the Nightshade Family. Every part of the plant aside from the fruit it highly toxic. This includes potatoes, tomatoes, red and green peppers, tobacco and eggplant.
Lycopersicon esculentum is the scientific name for this new world plant that produces ______.
Capsicum Annum is the scientific name for ________.
Solonum Melanogena is the scientific name for the _________. Native to India.
This is a tropical fruit tree in the Moraceae family, known for it's part in the movie "Mutiny on the Bounty".
Breadfruit tree AKA Jackfruit tree
This family contains bananas and plantains.
This fruit is sold seedless (sterile) and is a hybrid of different spp. It comes from the musaceae family.
These are the starchy fruits of the musaceae family.
This company created a monopoly on bananas because they found a way to transport them (deprive green bananas of ethylene gas).
The United Fruit Company
The whole of central America became known as the _______ ______ due to the monopoly of its economy by the United Fruit Company.
This family contains new world plants, including Spanish Moss and Pineapples
This plant is bird-pollinated. Many flowers on one stock merge after germination and produce one fruit. Part of the bromeliaceae family.
This family is known for its toxic plants., and includes such edible fruits as the mango, pistachio and cashew.
This genus includes poison ivy.
Toxicodendron, meaning "Toxic Tree"
Mangos come from the genus _____ and are from SE Asia.
The ________ is an edible seed that comes from the pistachia genus. Old world in origin, dioecious, drupe.
Cashews come from the __________ genus; they are the seeds of the cashew apple, and are native to Brazil.
This family of plants is found world wide and gives us sassafras, bay leaves, avocados, goose berries and cinnamon.
The _________ family gives us passion flowers and passion fruits.
This genus gives us gumbo filet powder, and its roots are the original source of rootbeer.
This sp. is commonly called the red bay tree.
This fruit is rich in oils and are very dense calorically; AKA the alligator pear.
The Chinese goose berry is native to China; AKA _____
These nuts are native to Brazil and aren't cultivated by anyone - they are only gathered by locals.
Gumbo is the African term for _____.
Coconuts are the fruit of the genus cocas of the family ______ AKA ______.
Arecaceae AKA Palmae
Areca and Sabal Palmettos are part of the _______ / ______ family. They are known for their foliage.
____ is the name for coconut fibers.
Grasses (or grains) are from the family ______ (old name) or _______.
______ are individual grass stems that mature at different times and come out at different heights.
Many years ago man chose grasses who matured ______, who have ______ of the same height, who are _____ in stature and have larger _____.
simultaneously, tillers, short, seeds
This was the first grain ever domesticated. It is primarily used in animal feeds and production of whiskey and beer. This was replaced by wheat in 2 BC.
This grain is considered the "Staff of Life", and has gluten (making the dough more elastic and producing a finer quality dough). It was first grown in N. America by Menonites (1500s) and then popularized in 1870s by Russian immigrants that settled in the Great Plains.
Often referred to as 'poor man's wheat', this grain was considered a weed, although it is hardier than wheat.
This grain is recently cultivated.
This grain comes from N. India, and outranks wheat in demand. The common name is rice, the scientific name is ______ ______.
______ rice can only grow in tropical rainforests.
_______ rice is grown in flooded fields.
Wild rice grows in water and is harvested by tapping the flower to let the seeds fall out. Its scientific name is ______ _______.
_____ is the grain known for being a symbol of fertility.
This is the scientific name for corn (the cultivated plant we see in grocery stores). This is a new world grain.
_________ is a mixture of corn and beans as a well balanced diet.
______ bread is made by smashing rehydrated corn and sorghum.
This is widely cultivated in Africa (also it's origin). It looks just like corn and is found in bird seed. It's primarily used in animal feed; also to make sorghum molasses and industrial alcohol.
The types of sorghum one can grow are:____, ____ and ____.
Sweet, grain, broom
This is a tiny grain usually found in bird seed, with the longest shelf life of any grain (hardly any oils). Genus is panicium.
This is the family name for beans.
Leguminosae/ fabaceae (new name)
This is considered the 2nd most important family of plants to man.