Parasitology (LEC) Cestodes Trematodes Protozoans

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jill.hinton
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Parasitology (LEC) Cestodes Trematodes Protozoans
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2015-07-11 06:55:56
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parasitology vtht vet tech lonestar
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trematodes, cestodes, protozoans
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  1. These adult parasites live in vertebrates with their larval forms living in either vertebrate or invertebrate intermediate host
    Cestodes (Tape worms)
  2. All Cestodes and Trematodes have two things in common
    • Hermaphroditic
    • indirect lifecycles
  3. This means the parasite has both male and female reproductive organs
    Hermaphroditic
    • A. Rostellum
    • B. Proglottid
    • C. Gravid Proglottid
    • D. Dipylidium uterine pores
    • E. Taenia uterine pores
    • F. Strobila
    • G. Scolex
    • H. Suckers
    • I. Hooks
  4. What percentage of shelter dogs that are positive for tapes are actually diagnosed?
    1% - 2%
  5. An infection of tape worms is called what?
    diplidiasis
  6. Most common tape worm found in animals and people, the intermediate host being
    • Dipylidium caninum
    • flea, lice
  7. These tapes are of zoonotic concern; 2 being harmful to the animal and man - can lead to death*
    • Taenia multiceps
    • Taenia serialis
    • Taenia crassiceps
    • Echinococcus granulosus*
    • Echinococcus multiocularis*
    • Dipylidium caninum
  8. There are two forms of Echinococcus in humans:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. Echinococcus granulosus, the hydatid cyst. Larval parasite migrates through the liver and lungs. Treatment is possible but surgery is preferred
    • Echinococcus multiocularis is found in the northern US. This is more serious form because treatment is not successful and surgery is far more dangerous. Looks like a tumor.
  9. Intermediate hosts for Echinococcus granulosus
    man and sheep
    • A: Taenia
    • B: Echinococcus
  10. How will Echinococcus appear on a fecal slide. (in reference to grouping)
    Will appear 3 or 4 together
  11. This family of Tapes depends on water ways for intermediate host. Dogs that pick this up are mostly scavenger dogs that live near streams or lakes like the ship channel.
    Family Cotyloda (Eucestoda)
  12. The phylumn for Tape worms (cestodes) is ___________.
    Platyhelminthes
  13. How do aquatic tapes come out in the feces?
    Aquatics will not separate at the proglottids but will come off at the scolex and be seen as a ribbon
  14. Regardless of origin all of the cestode eggs have basically the same morphological structure
    • A: oncosphere
    • B: Embryophore - protects the actual egg
    • C: egg capsule
  15. Why is it difficult to diagnose tapes when we know the animal has tapes?
    It is unusual to see eggs because they are not released until the proglottid is discharged from the Stobila or scolex and until the proglottid passes in the feces
  16. These cestodes only have one uterine pore
    • Taenia
    • Mesocestoides
    • Diphyllobothridae
  17. What kind of Eucestoda scolex does Dipylidium and Taenia have?
    • > four radial cups (suckers
    • > rostellum, may or may not be retractable, has hooks
  18. The Eucestoda scolex of Anoplocephala and Monezia has:
    (these most commonly found in which animals)
    • four radial cups (suckers)
    • small to no rostellum with NO to vestigil hooks
    • Horse and cow
  19. Eucestoda (Cotyloda) scolex of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra
    weak cups and no rostellum or hooks
  20. Flat surface of the Cestode where the nutrients is absorbed through the skin
    strobila
  21. ___________ strobila have marginal pores.
    Taenia - 
    Mesocestoides - 
    Dipylidium -
    • Eucestoda
    • Taenia with one on the margin
    • Mesocestoides with one in the center
    • Diplydium with two, one on each margin
  22. When are the eggs passed out of the marginal pores of the Eucestode strobila?
    Eggs not passed until the gravid proglottid is discharged or the proglottis is damaged in the intestinal tract
  23. These aquatics have only one uterine pore but discharge their eggs in the intestinal tract.
    Diphyllobothridae
  24. The terminal segments of these aquatic tapes become senile instead of gravid and are usually detached in chains rather than segments like the Eucestodes
    Diphyllobothridae
  25. _______ are seen as gravid segments individually on the host
    _______ are seen as ribbons of segments discharged
    • Eucestodes
    • Dyphillobothridae
  26. Cestodes are hermaphroditic, meaning:
    Each proglottid is independent having its own male and female reproductive organs
  27. Dyphillobothrium is found in the _____
    Spirometra is found in the_______
    • dog
    • cat
    • A: Vas deferens 
    • B: Cirrus sac
    • C: Vagina
    • D: Ootype
    • E: Vitellaria
    • F: Ovary
    • G: Testes
    • H: Uterus
    • I: Osmoregulatory duct
  28. Regardless of origin (terrestrial or aquatic) all of the cestode eggs have basically the same morphological structure:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • egg capsule - externally to protect the embryo 
    • embryophore - serves as a waste disposal area as well as a port for the nutrition and protection
    • Oncosphere - the vermiform embryo itself
  29. What is the purpose of the intermediate host in the life cycle of the cestode?
    to develop scolex of the cestode
  30. This term is used to define all the stages of cestodal development that parasitize the intermediate host
    Metacestode
  31. What occurs within the intermediate host when the egg is ingested?
    Oncosphere will hatch from the embryophore and bore into the wall of the intestines of the intermediate host and develop the scolex
  32. Treatment of cestodes (2)
    1.______ - kills all tapes including Eichonococcus
    2. ______ - kills all tapes except Echinococcus
    • 1. Praziquantel (Droncit) by Bayer
    • 2. Epsiprantel (Cestex) by Zoetis
  33. Types of larval Eucestodes (cysticercus and hydatid):
    1. Taenia pisiformis (__) --> (metacestodal stage)
    2. Taenia hydatigena (__) -->
    3. Taenia solium (__) -->
    4. Taenia ovis (__) -->
    5. Taenia taeniaformis (__) -->
    6. Echinococcus granulosus (__) -->
    • 1. dog --> Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbit)
    • 2. dog --> Cysticercus tenuicollis (sheep, cattle, swine)
    • 3. man --> Cysticercus cellulosae (swine, man)
    • 4. dog --> Cysticercus ovis (sheep)
    • 5. cat --> Cysticercus fasciolaris (rodent)
    • 6. dog --> Hydatid cyst (man, sheep)
  34. Intermediate host for:
    1. T. pisiformis
    2. T. hydatigena
    3. T. solium 
    4. T. ovis
    5. T. Taeniaformis
    • 1. rabbit
    • 2. sheep, cattle, swine
    • 3. swine, man
    • 4. sheep
    • 5. rodent
  35. This cestode is most pathogenic in its intermediate host, metacestodal form:
    E. granulosus --> hydatid cyst
  36. Tapes and their larval form are named according to ____
    give an example:
    • the number of bladder and scolex
    • example: Cysticercus - one bladder and one scolex and all belong to the Genus Taenia
  37. World Wide the most common tape we see is _______.
    Taenia
  38. In the United States the most common tape we see is __________
    Dipylidium caninum (dog)
  39. Name the two Genuses under Family Anaplocephalidae
    • Anaplocephala (horse)
    • Monezia (cattle)
  40. Intermediate hosts and larval stage of Dipylidium caninum
    • Cysticercoid
    • intermediate host - flea (C. felis), biting lice (Trichodectes canis) and sucking lice (Linognathus setosus)
  41. Third type of relatively common tape we see in dogs and cats, of the family:
    • Mesocestoides
    • Tetrathyridium (larvae)
  42. Where in the intermediate host do we find the larval form Tetrathyridium of __________
    • Mesocestoides.
    • Larval form in the intermediate host perineal cavity of mammals, reptiles, and lungs of birds
  43. Common hosts of Mesocestoides
    dog and cat
  44. Common intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides, larval form called____
    • mammals, reptiles, birds
    • Tetrathyridium
  45. How many hosts do the aquatic tapes (__________) utilize in their life cycle?
    • Diphyllobothrid
    • 2 hosts
  46. What do we call the hosts utilized by the aquatic tapes (dyphillobothridae)
    • 1st host is a crustacean
    • 2nd host must be aquatic but it can also be an amphibian
  47. Dyphillobothridae of a cat is:
    Spirometra mansonoides
  48. Characteristics of Dipylidium caninum
    rostellum with hooks, mature proglottids have two sets of sec organs with dual openings
  49. Life cycle of Dipylidium caninum
    • once the proglottid is passed in the feces the oncospheres will emerge
    • eggs picked up by the flea or lice and hatch within the body cavity.
    • tapeworm develops into a cysticercoid stage with maturation of the scolex in 1-2 days
    • intermediate host is then accidentally consumed by the definitive host (dog), 
    • cysticercoid stage will molt in the intestines where the mature scolex will attach to the intestinal wall
    • in the intestines the mature tape will develop.
    • each proglottid will contain its own male and female reproductive organs and in 2-3 weeks produce thousands of eggs to be released when the gravid proglottid is passed in the feces
  50. Life cycle of Taenia
    • eggs are laid in contaminated soil
    • eggs are then consumed by the intermediate vertebrate host
    • in the intermediate host the eggs will hatch and attach hexacanth embryos which are the first stage larvae
    • the embryos will then move to the organs to develop the scolices
    • in the organ (liver) the embryo differentiates to the 2nd stage
    • The definitive host now eats the intermediate host (gut)
    • the scolices will attach to the intestinal wall of the definitive host and begin maturation.
    • each proglottid containing its own male and female reproductive organs will produce eggs to be released by the gravid proglottid once it has been passed in the feces
  51. What is the unique difference between Dipylidium and Taenia life cycle
    The first stage larva of Taenia, instead of staying in the intestines or abdominal wall, will move to different organs and develop scolex in those organs (ie. liver). In the organ the embryo differentiates into 2nd stage
  52. Name the Order, Family and species of Taenia
    • Cyclophyllidea
    • Taeniidae
    •  T. pisiformis
    •  T. taeniaformis
    •  T. hydatigena
  53. Definitive host and definitive intermediate host of Taenia pisiformis
    • dog
    • rabbit
  54. Definitive host and intermediate host of Taenia taeniaformis
    • many feline, commonly the cat
    • any number of rodents
  55. This metacestodal stage is in the rodent and causes much damage to the liver and the rodent may die before being consumed by the definitive host
    Cysticercus fasciolaris
  56. The metacestodal larval form of Taenia hydatigena found in the ____ has two names (one being a nickname)
    • sheep, cattle, swine
    • 1. Cysticercus tenuicollis
    • 2. thin-necked bladder worm
  57. These metacestodal form Cysticercus tenuicollis does not inhabit the liver but attach to
    mesentery in the peritoneal cavity
  58. Why is Echinococcus more difficult to treat and get rid of?
    It has three scolices (heads)
  59. Two forms of hydatid infection
    • 1. caused by E. granulosus - Cystic Hydatid disease
    • 2. caused by E. multiocularis - Alveolar Hydatid
  60. Life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus
    • eggs are ingested and hatch 
    • embryophores will enter circulation and find its way to the liver
    • They develop into metacestodes with multiple scolices and are called the hydatid cysts
    • intermediate host is consumed 
    • maturation occurs along with reproduction and eggs in the feces
  61. Echinococcus granulosus causes this infection in man, causing what complicatoins
    • Cystic hydatis disease in man 
    • eggs accidentally consumed. Parasite hatches and goes to liver to become metacestodal form in man
    • man will die from liver failure
  62. How can man contract Echinococcus multiocularis
    handling dogs or cats that eat rodents or by eating fruits or vegetables grown in contaminated soil by foxes, coyotes, or infected dogs
  63. This form of Echinococcus is much more serious since treatment is not successful and surgery of the many lobes of the cancerous lung tumor is often unsuccessful
    • E. multiocularis
    • Alveolar Hydatid Disease
  64. This form of Echinococcus inhabits the lungs of man causing a serious disease
    • E. multiocularis
    • Alveolar Hydatis Disease
  65. Why is E. multiocularis more dangerous than E. granulosus?
    treatment is not successful and surgery of the many lobes of the cancerous lung tumor is often unsuccessful
  66. This form of Echinococcus is called the Alveolar Hydatid Disease in humans and is seen where
    • E. multiocualris
    • lungs
  67. This form of Echinococcus is called Cystic hydatid disease in humans and is seen where?
    • E. granulosus
    • liver
  68. What is the percentage of positive fecal counts for all tapes during a routine preliminary exam?
    2.5%
  69. What percentage of positive necropsy for all tapes in dogs as well as humans?
    35% - 62%
  70. What is the Order, family and species for Anoplocephala
    • O - Cyclophyllidea
    •  F - Anaplocephalidea
    •   Anoplocephala perfoliata, A. magna, A. mammaliana
    •   Monezia expanza, M. benedini
  71. Characteristics of Anoplocephala genus
    Each of these three possess scolices without hooks and some have double female reproductive organs
  72. These parasites all live in the intestines of horses and are considered the primary cestodes of horses; can also live and reproduce in monkeys and birds
    Anoplocephala
  73. This Anoplocephala species is the primary cestode in the southwestern part of the US.t
    Anoplocephala perfoliata
  74. Most anthelmintics easily rid the equine of Anoplocephala due to ____
    A lack of hooks
  75. The metacestodal stage Anoplocephala is a __________ utilizing ________ primarily as the intermediate host.
    • cysticercoid 
    • mites
  76. What are some examples of anthelmintics we can use on cestodes of the ruminant and horse
    Ivermectin, Benzimendazoles, strongid
  77. Two cestodes of the Family Anoplocephalidae that are seen most commonly in the cow, sheep, and goat
    • Monezia expanza
    • Monezia benedini
  78. Characteristics of Monezia in the cow and sheep
    • both have prominent suckers lacking hooks
    • easily removed
  79. Symptoms and clinical signs seen in cow/sheep infected with Monezia
    emaciation, abdominal and thoracic congestion and visceral enlargements
  80. These cestodes are commonly found in the sheep, they have no economic importance unless found in large numbers to cause liver condemnation. They have vestigial hooks that will not develop
    Thysanosoma
  81. Monezia life cycle
    • Eggs ingested by the mite
    • egg hatches and attach the hexacanth larva within the might to develop into a cysticercoid
    • the cow ingests the mite, freeing the cysticercoid larva
    • parasite attaches to the small intestine, matures and reproduces
    • eggs are released by the proglottid after it is passed in the feces
  82. Of the Family Acanthocephala, this is the only prominent cestode of this family and it is found in the swine (nickname?)
    • Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • Thorny headed worm
  83. Order ___________ contains all trematodes that parasitize the horse, ruminant, swine, dogs and cats
    Digenea
  84. Characteristics of Trematodes (flukes)
    lifecycles
    • generally hermaphroditic
    • All life cycles are indirect and all require changes in the intermediate host with some intermediates capable of asexual reproduction
  85. Most common trematodes in our area
    liver fluke of cattle or Paragonimous kellicotti
  86. Trematode morphology
    • opercle at one end that is difficult to see
    • flat, leaf shaped
    • to some degree have a muscular sucker located at the anterior end of the body
  87. Trematodes must have ______ to continue the life cycle
    water
  88. Trematode lifecycle
    • egg hatches to Miracidium with cilia and can swim
    • Miracidium then penetrates the body of a snail, in the snail Miracidium metamorphosis into Sporocyst
    • The sporocyst aesuxually reproduce 10 Rediae 
    • the 10 rediae will then aesuxually produce 100 Cercariae
    • the cercariae leave the snail and swim to the grass where they are eaten by grazing cattle
    • in the cattle the Trematode develops into the adult in the stomach. It will penetrate the stomach and get into the liver by burrowing through the tissues 
    • sexual reproduction occurs and the eggs are passed through the common bile duct, into the duodenum and out in the feces
    • If the weather is not ideal the cercairae will become metacercariae and remain in this state until the weather permits the continuation of the life cycle
  89. Two diseases caused by Flukes (Trematodes) in the ruminant+
    • 1. Fascioliasis
    • 2. Dicrocoeliasis
  90. 3 common causes of Fascioliasis
    • Fasciola gigantica - giant liver fluke
    • Fasciola magna - large liver fluke
    • Fasciola hepatica - common liver fluke
  91. Cause of Dicrocoeliasis
    Dicrocoelium lanceatum - lancet or lesser fluke
  92. Life cycle of the liver fluke
    • Adult Fsciola hepatics live in the bile ducts 
    • Sexual and asexual reproduction releases the eggs
    • eggs are passed through the bile duct into the duodenum and passed out in the feces to be diagnosed on fecal float
    • eggs hatch to a miracidium
    • enter the snail and metamophosis into sporocyst
    • sporocyst asexual to 10 rediae
    • 10 rediae to 100 cercariae
    • cercariae leave the snail to metacercariae (bad weather)
    • cercariae consumed
    • penetrate the stomach to migrate in the liver
    • sexually give rise to eggs
    • eggs pass through bile duct to duodenum and out in the feces
  93. Blacks disease
    etiology:
    etiological agent:
    • etiology: toxins produced by Clostridium novyi
    • etiological agent: Clostridium novyi
  94. As the flukes migrate throughout the parenchyma, they disturb the dormant bacterial spores of __________ which will activate to the vegetative form releasing a toxin that will kill in a matter of hours or days. What is this called?
    • Clostridium novyi
    • Black's Disease
  95. Symptoms and signs of Blacks disease
    animals goes off feed, presents tucked up appearance, becomes ataxic or non-motile, and soon shock and death
  96. All ______ kill through releasing toxins
    clostridiums
  97. Migration of flukes in the liver can casuse
    • Fatty metamorphosis - can't perform biotransformation
    • cirrhosis of the liver
  98. This lung fluke of dogs is a primary concern in Southeast Texas due to the crawfish being the intermediate host
    Paragonimous kellicotti
  99. Most common fluke in the US however this stomach fluke is non-pathogenic
    Alaria canis
  100. In the northwest, the fluke _________ carries a rickettsial organism capable of causing fatal enteritis in dogs. Name this organism
    • Nanophytes salmincola
    • Neorickettsia helminthoeca
  101. Salmon poisoning
    Etiology:
    Neorickettsia helminthoeca
  102. _________ commonly known as the salmon poisoning fluke
    Nanophyetus salmincola
  103. Fluke of cats which inhabits the bile ducts and gall bladder, passing eggs like the liver fluke of the ruminant.
    Most frequently seen where?
    • seen in the south and rarely in the northern climates
    • Platynosomum concinnum
  104. What are some common flukacides
    *specific for flukes
    • Ivomec - F (ivermectin + clorsulon) by Merial
    • Valbazen (albendazole) by Zoetis*
    • Curatrem (clorsulon) by Merial
  105. Best time to deworm your cattle
    • Holidays!
    • 1st - Easter or 1st day of Spring - fly spray also
    • 2nd - July 4th - fly spray
    • 3rd - Thanksgiving - Levamisole for immunostimulation properties
  106. According to the National Beef Quality Audit, _________ has been identified as one of the top 10 quality issues facing the beef industry. Evidence has shown that _______ can be affected.
    • liver flukes
    • bull fertility
  107. Liver flukes have been identified or diagnosed in native cattle in __________
    26 states
  108. __________ states that "producers should be proactive and treat to prevent liver flukes."
    National Beef Quality Audit
  109. Due to liver fluke research it has been proven that if your cattle have liver flukes you pay with:
    • reduced pregnancy rates
    • bull infertility
    • rate of gain
    • weaning weights
  110. A four year study at LSU showed that replacement heifers treated for flukes and de-wormed had a _________ pregnancy rate than heifers treated for worms only.
    15% higher
  111. The cost of keeping an open cow is
    $363.00 per year
  112. This factor dictates how often you would deworm your cattle, sheep, horses, etc
    location
  113. These are not worms, but are instead free-living organisms (mostly one cell), a few of which may live in the bodies of mammals causing disease
    protozoans
  114. These diseases seem to be more related to stress of the host, as the appearance of most _________ occur during over crowding or periods of bad weather.
    protozoans
  115. Diseases associated with protozoans include:
    (just a few)
    Coccidiosis, malaria, piroplasmosis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis, haemobartonellosis
  116. Isospora is part of which family?
    Sporozoa
  117. Giardiasis is part of which family?
    Giardia
  118. Of the protozoans that we must learn which are important to Dr. Younger that you must know the species as well as the Genus?
    • Isospora canis
    • Isospora felis
  119. These protozoans are usually found to infect the blood cells and circulatory system
    Hemoprotozoans
  120. These protozoans are usually found to infect the intestinal tract and alimentary system
    mucoprotozoans
  121. These protozoans of the Class Mastigophora (flagellates) live in the blood, lymph and tissue spaces and are transmitted indirectly by blood sucking flies. (give example)
    • Hemoflagellates
    • example of blood sucking mechanical veector: Stomoxys calcitrans
  122. These protozoans of the Class Mastigophora (flagellates) live in the intestinal tract or genital tract and are spread directly through the feces or genital discharges
    Mucoflagellates
  123. From a historical standpoint the most problematic hemoflagellate is __________
    Trypanosoma
  124. This disease, regardless of species, is referred to as African Sleeping Sickness
    Trypanosoma
  125. Any animal with Trypanasoma genus suffers from a sickness that is called __________
    African Sleeping Sickness
  126. This Hemoflagellate disease effects ruminants in South Africa causing Nagana using the Tsetse fly as the intermediate host between wild and domestic cattle
    Trypanosoma brucci
  127. This fly is the intermediate host for Trypanosoma brucci which causes Nagana in cattle
    Tsetse fly
  128. Nagana (aka________)
    Etiology:
    Mechanical vector:
    • aka African sleeping sickness
    • Etiology: Trypanosoma brucci
    • Mechanical vector: tsetse fly
  129. This hemoflagellate is unique in that it uses no intermediate host, uses direct sexual contact in horses causing Dourine
    Trypanosoma equiperdum
  130. Dourine (aka__________)
    Etiology
    Transmission
    • "Sliver Dollar" plaques
    • Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • direct sexual contact
  131. Transmission for Trypanosoma equiperdum
    direct sexual contact
  132. Historically one of the first reportable diseases in the United States
    Trypanosoma equiperdum
  133. This is the most commonly seen hemoflagellate it is an extracellular parasite - seen in Mexico, Central America, South America and occasionally reported in the Continental United States
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  134. Trypanosoma cruzi has a resting cyst stage that can be found encysted in __________. This is why Chagas Disease can cause ________ in elderly people.
    • cardiac muscle and other tissues
    • heart attacks
  135. Chagas Disease
    Etiology:
    Transmission:
    Example of a mechanical vector
    • Etiology: Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Transmission: indirect, assassin bugs
    • Stomoxys calcitrans
  136. Trypanosoma cruzi in people is referred to as:
    Chagas Disease
  137. Symptoms of Trypanosoma in pets and humans include:
    Diagnosis:
    • Sympotoms - cardiac failure, high fever, can be acute or chronic.
    • D: looking at a blood smear, parasite will be swimming between the cells
  138. This mucoflagellate lives in the cecum and colon. Like most of our other protozoans it manifests itself after stress. Frequently blamed for diarrhea
    Trichomonas fetus
  139. Most common species of Leishmania
    • L. donovan
    • L. canis
  140. Clinical signs of Leishmania
    Wasting, muscle atrophy, nodules on the surface that ulcerate and form brown crusts
  141. Diagnosing Leishmania
    Serology and the polymerase chain reaction
  142. This hemoprotozoan is found intracellular versus extracellular. Mechanical vector will inject it into the cell and can be found within blood vessels, spleen, liver
    Leishmania
  143. Leishmania is found in specific areas:
    Found in these areas because it is commonly transmitted by the ___________
    • N America, Texas coast, Florida coast
    • found along the coast
    • Sandfly
  144. Leishmania injected under the skin and not the bloodstream can result in _______
    abscess under the skin, self limiting, itch
  145. Characteristic symptoms and clinical signs in a dog with Leishmania
    exfoleitis, bilateral alopecia, liver failure
  146. What occurs in the body when it is infected with Leishmania?
    bloodstream:
    bone marrow:
    • BS: go to the spleen, liver or other vital organs and become encysted causing failure, liver failure
    • BM: cause reduction in development of RBCs as well as other blood cells. Animals will become immunosuppressed, die from anemia
  147. Symptoms and clinical signs of Leishmania
    • immunosuppressed, liver failure, kidney failure, anemia, bilateral alopecia
    • cause death or a major irritation
  148. These are intracellular protozoans that can be found in the bloodstream
    Hemo-Apicomplexans
  149. All Piroplasmosis and Babesia parasites are classified as ____________ because they are found in the blood
    Hemo-Apicomplexans
  150. This is a hemo-apicomplexan found in the RBC of cats and large cats. It is circular shaped within the RBC of the cats
    Cytauxzoon felis
  151. Cytauxzoon felis
    Definitive host:
    Affected domestic animal:
    Mechanical transmittor:
    Carried by bobcats and transmitted by the ticks Dermacentor variablis and Ambylomma americanum
  152. Another mucoflagellate ________ lives in the small intestines unlike all other mucoflagellates. This is a zoonotic problem in this country with contaminated water supplies.
    Giardiasis
  153. Symptoms of Giardiasis
    Diarrhea and enteritis in both
  154. Morphology of Giardia trophozoites
    Pyriform shape, 8 flagella, 2 median bodies
  155. A mucoflagellate that lives in the cecum and colon multiplying in fluid feces and often are blamed for the diarrhea.
    Trichomonas fetus
  156. Sympotoms and clinical signs of Trichomonas fetus
    causes abortion, pyometra and sterility
  157. This Trichomonad is common in women but is not considered a pathogen
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  158. Of all the mucoflagellates this is the most problematic from a zoonotic standpoint
    Giardiasis
  159. Coccidia diagnosis
    Oocysts in the feces
  160. Of the family Sporozoa this is the mucoflagellates of interest and are very host specific often resulting in super parasitism
    Coccidia
  161. These coccidia are very small oocysts and can cause diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems. Zoonotic
    Cryptosporidium
  162. Cryptosporidium responds to what medication
    Metronidazole
  163. Most common treatments for IBD
    • Inflammatory bowel disease 
    • Prednisone and metronidazole
  164. Which two coccidia can be found in the swine
    Eimeria and Isospora
  165. Which member of the coccidian life cycle is always found outside the host?
    Sporocyst
  166. Coccidia life cycle
    • Oocyst in the feces divided to Sporocysts (2).
    • Sporocyst divides to Sporozoites  (4)
    • Sporozoite is consumed and invades the mucosa cell
    • Within the cell then becomes merozoites
    • Merozoites leave the cell and enter new ones, they divide into male/female gamonts
    • M/F gamonts leave and enter new cells to mature to M/F macrogametes
    • Male macrogamete --> microgamete and will fertilize F macrogamete
    • Female macrogamete give rise to zygote.
    • Zygote will leave and enter a new cell, food accumulation becomes oocyst
    • oocyst is released at death of the cell and out in the feces
  167. A dog with a high fever (105°) that does not respond to antibiotics within 24 hrs of administration. Has one of two things or both
    Protozoan infection or systemic fungal infection
  168. Life cycle characteristics of
    Eimeria 
    Isospora 
    Toxoplasma
    • Eimeria - simplest in birds and farm animals with direct life cycle 
    • Isospora - direct or indirect through Sporozoite infected mice that serve as a facultative host for I. felis 
    • Toxoplasma - (most complex) cat is definitive host, with direct and indirect. Sporozoite for T. gondii
  169. 5 zoonotic diseases to be aware of
    • CLM
    • VLM
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • rabies 
    • ringworm
  170. Sporozoite of Toxoplasma gondii in the intermediate host
    Sporozoite will migrate through the tissues and encyst or pass to the placenta in the human and cause abortions
  171. Estimated that up to ________ people possessed circulating antibodies to T. gondii worldwide. This is a ubiquitous protozoan that infects all ___________
    • 33% 
    • Warm blooded vertebrates
    • cats being the definitive host
  172. Toxoplasma gondii will look like what
    a. In an immunocompetent person
    b. Immune suppressed person
    • a. Either an inapparent, asymptomatic infection or a brief flu-like illness
    • b. Fever, malaise, and enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes
  173. Symptoms and clinical signs seen in a cat with Toxoplasma gondii
    Dyspnea, tachypnea, icterus, and abdominal disorder
  174. All mucoflagellates will respond well to what medication
    Metronidazole
  175. Common amoeba mucoflagellate that is the etiological agent of Amoeboid Dysentery in humans
    Entamoeba hystolitica
  176. Common ciliated mucoflagellate seen in dogs but more commonly in pigs.
    Balantidium coli
  177. Another ciliated mucoflagellate that inhabits the small intestine like Cryptosporidium and several species that infect dogs and cats
    Sarcocyst
  178. Pathogenic protozoa of dogs and cats in
    Feces:
    Blood:
    Tissues:
    Intestines:
    The common diseases:
    • F: Isospora oocyst, Toxoplasma, Giardia, trichomonas, Entamoeba hystolitica 
    • B: Babesia canis, Trypanosoma cruzi, Haemobartonella 
    • T: Toxoplasma cysts and Entamoeba hystolitica 
    • I: Isospora, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba 
    • Common: coccidiosis, giardiasis, intestinal trichomonosis, babesiosis, and haemobartonellosis
  179. Pathogenic protozoa of cattle in the
    Feces:
    Blood:R
    Reproductive tract:
    Tissues:
    Intestines:
    The common diseases:
    • F: Eimeria 
    • B: Anaplasma marginale, A. Centrale
    • R: Trichomonas fetus 
    • T: Toxoplasma cysts 
    • I: Eimeria 
    • Common: coccidiosis, Anaplasmosis, and genital trichomonosis
  180. Pathogenic protozoa of sheep and goats in the
    Feces:
    Tissues:
    Intestines:
    The common diseases:
    • F: Eimeria 
    • T: Toxoplasma cysts 
    • I: Eimeria 
    • Common: coccidiosis
  181. Pathogenic protozoa of horses in the
    Feces:
    Blood:
    Common protozoal diseases:
    • F: Trichomonas equi
    • B: Babesia caballi and equi 
    • Common: intestinal trichomonosis and babesiosis
  182. Pathogenic protozoa of swine in the:
    Feces:
    Blood:
    Tissues:
    Intestines:
    Common protozoal diseases:
    • F: Eimeria, Isospora, Balantidium coli 
    • B: Eperythrozoon suis 
    • T: Toxoplasma 
    • I: Eimeria, Isospora, Balantidium coli 
    • Common: Eperythrozoonosis
  183. Pathogenic protozoa of poultry in the 
    Crop content:
    Intestinal content:
    Cecal contents
    Blood:
    Tissues:
    Intestines and cecal:
    Common protozoal diseases:
    • Cc: Trichomonas 
    • Ic: Eimeria and Hexamita 
    • CeC: Histomonas and Eimeria 
    • B: Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus 
    • T: Toxoplasma cysts and Histomonas 
    • IC: Eimeria and Histomonas 
    • Common: coccidiosis, Histomonosis, crop trichomonosis, hexamitosis, and Leucocytozoonosis
  184. Test used to diagnose Eperythrozoonosis suis in pigs
    Slitter test

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