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What is the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model?
- Data Link
- (Every person seems to need data processing)
In the OSI what is each level concerned with?
- 7,6,5 - Data
- 4. Segments
- 3. Packets
- 2. Frames
- 1. Bits
What is ICMP
- Internet Control Message Protocol
- Network Level
- Ping and Traceroute
Fill in the blanks:
______ well known ports
______ registered ports
What is a socket and a socket pair?
- Socket: IP address and port number
- Socket Pair: Client socket and server socket
Fill in the blanks:
D. _.0.0.0-___.255.255.255 (____)
E. _.0.0.0-___.255.255.255 (____)
- A: 0 ; 127
- B: 128 ; 191
- C: 192 ; 223
- D: 224 ; 239 (multicasting)
- E: 240 ; 255 (experimental)
- Loopback: 127.x.x.x
What are some advantages to subnetting?
- Decrease traffic
- Broadcast to limited to individual subnets
- faster to trace a problem
- no wasted IP
What is CIDR
Classless Inter-Domain Routing, this is subnetting expressed as 0.0.0.0/24
Fill in the blanks:(Private networks)
Class A: __.0.0.0 - __.255.255.255
Class B: __.__.0.0 - __.__.255.255
Class C: __.__.0.0 - __.__.255.255
Auto IP: __.__.0.0 - __.__.255.255
- A: 10 ; 10
- B: 172.16 ; 172.31
- C: 192.168 ; 192.168
- Auto: 169.254 ; 169.254
What is SMTP, Port number and use?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ;Port 25 TCP ; Transmits mail from e-mail clients to e-mail servers and between email servers
What is POP3, port and use?
Post Office Protocol v.3 ; port 110 (TCP) ; downloads e-mail from an inbox on an e-mail server to an e-mail client
What is IMAP4, port number and use?
Internet Message Access Protocol v.4, TCP port 143, Downloads e-mail from an e-mail server to an e-mail client.
What is FTP, port and use?
File Transfer Protocol, TCP port 20 (active), 21 (passive); used to transfer files between systems on the internet.
What is SFTP, what does it use and what port?
Secure File Transfer Protocol ; uses Secure Shell SSH on port 22.
What is FTPS, what does it use for security and what ports?
- File Transfer Protocol Secure; uses SSL/TLS for security operates in two modes:
- FTPS: Implicit-port 989-990
- FTPES: Explicit-port 443
What is NetBIOS, uses and port?
NetBIOS is a 15-character naming convention; uses port 137-139. 445
What is DNS and port numbers?
- Domain name Service; Translates domain names to IP addresses
- Port: 53
- UDP used for queries
- TCP used for zone transfers
What is DNS Poisoning?
Incorrect DNS data that is introduced into a primary DNS server; redirects traffic to incorrect site.
What is Domain name kiting?
Process of registering a domain name without paying
What is RDP?
Remote Desktop Protocol; allows a user to control a network computer; Port 3389
What is a virtually dedicated connection between two systems or networks?
What is PPP?
- Point-to-Point Protocol ; used for establishing remote connections over a serial line or dial-up connection. Allows TCP/IP traffic to be transmitted over telecommunications lines.
- No encrption
- EAP, CHAP or PAP authenticatoin
What is L2F?
- Layer 2 Forwarding
- used for dial up
- Authentication, but no data encryption
- Operates at layer 2; UDP port 1701
What is PPTP
- Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
- Encrypts PPP packets
- after negotiation is completed; channel is encrypted; Uses MPPE to encrypt
- Authentication: PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, EAP-TLS
- Layer 2 TCP port 1723
What is L2TP?
- Hybrid PPTP and L2F
- No data encryption
- Uses IPSec
- Authentication: PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP or EAP-TLS
- Layer 2 and UDP 1701
What is VPN
Virtual Private Network: Private network connection over public network via tunneling protocol.
What is the most widely used VPN?
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
What is NDP?
Neighbor Discovery Protocol; uses ping on a fixed time to find adjacent networks.