MDA 21 22 23 due 7 13 2015.txt

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MDA 21 22 23 due 7 13 2015.txt
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  1. Chapter 21 Principles & Techniques of Instrument Processing and Sterilization
    • SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS
    • 1. Describe and discuss the seven steps involved in processing dental instruments.
    • 1.transport 2.cleaning3.packaging4.sterilization5.storage 6.delivery 7.quality
  2. 2. Describe the three most common methods of heat sterilization, and list the advantages and disadvantages of each.
    • -Dry heat:ortho, oral surgery, 1 hour, dry fast, no corrosion
    • disadvantage no plastic or fabric, cannot sterilized liquids
    • -Chemical vapor sterilizer:Does not cause rust, 20 min
    • disadvantage not environmental friendly, special solution, damage plastic & rubber
    • -Steam autoclave: steam under pressure, short time, no corrosion, quick dry
    • disadvantage damage plastic & rubber, uses distilled water, instruments must be dry.
    • ?
    • 3. Describe the precautions necessary when materials are packaged for sterilization.
    • -keep bag sealed for instruments to remain sterile
    • -Process indicators
    • 4. Describe the steps required for sterilization of a high-speed dental handpiece.
    • ? 1.remove and wipe debris off, flush water
    • ? 2.remove bur and handpiece from hose
    • ? 3.ultrasonic clean if recommended, drain, attach hose & operate
    • ? 4.no ultrasonic recommended, scrub with brush, water & soap
    • ? 5.lubricate if require
    • ? 6.no lubricant, use non lubricant cleaner
    • ? 7.follow manufacture instructions
    • ? 8.re-attach hose
    • ? 9.use cotton tip with isopropyl alcohol
    • 10.flush water & air lines
  3. 5. Explain the differences between process indicators and process integrators.
    • ? indicators are placed outside package.
    • integrators are placed inside.
  4. 6. Describe when and how biologic monitoring is done.
    • ? Weekly
    • ? 1. PPE, place B1 strip in bundle of instruments & seal package
    • ? 2. Place pack with B1 in center
    • ? 3. Place reminder of packages
    • ? 4. Remove PPE & wash hands
    • ? 5. Record info date, time estc..
    • ? 6. Remove B1 strip
    • 7. mail spore test strip & control B1 to monitoring service
  5. 7. Explain the primary disadvantage of ?flash? sterilization.
    Can only use unwrapped instruments & unwrapped instrument are no longer sterile once removed. ?
  6. 8. Describe the three forms of sterilization monitoring.
    • ? -Physical: temperature, pressure, exposure time
    • ? -chemical: change colors when exposed to certain conditions
    • -biologic: only way to verify sterilization
  7. 9. Explain how sterilization failures can occur.
    • Improper instrument cleaning, packaging or sterilizer malfunction and timing.
    • 10. Explain the limitations of liquid chemical sterilants.
    • Rubber dam frames, shade guides, x-ray film-holding devices are damaged
    • 11. Describe the classification of instruments used to determine the type of processing that should be used.
    • critical, semicritical, noncritical
    • 12. Explain the purpose of using a holding solution before instrument processing.
    • If instruments cannot be cleaned immediately after procedure place in holding solution. To prevent drying of blood & debris
    • 13. Describe the safety precautions necessary when one is operating an ultrasonic cleaner.
    • PPE and set of tongs ?
  8. 14. Describe the CDC Guidelines for sterilization and disinfection of patient care items.
    • Use only FDA cleared medical devices.
    • clean & heat sterile before use of instruments
    • 15. Describe the CDC Guidelines for cleaning and decontamination of instruments.
    • -Minimize handling of loose contaminated instruments during transport
    • - clean debris
    • - use automated equipment
    • - heavy duty gloves
    • - PPE
  9. 16. Describe the CDC Guidelines for preparation and packaging of instruments for sterilization.
    • -Use internal chemical indicator inside package
    • - Use container wrapping
    • - Before sterilization of critical & semi critical instruments inspect instruments cleanliness
  10. FILL-IN-THE-BLANK STATEMENTS
    • Select the best term from the list below and complete the following statements.
    • 1. event-related packaging means that it is assumed the contents of a package will remain sterile indefinitely unless the packaging is compromised.
    • 2. A sterilant is an agent capable of killing all microorganisms.
    • 3. The autoclave is a piece of equipment that is used for sterilizing by means of moist heat under pressure.
    • 4. biologic indicators are vials or strips, also known as spore tests, that contain harmless bacterial spores and are used to determine whether a sterilizer is working.
    • 5. The Chemical vapor sterilizer is a piece of equipment that is used for sterilizing by means of hot formaldehyde vapors under pressure.
    • 6. An instrument used to penetrate soft tissue or bone is identified as a critical instrument.
    • 7. Instruments that come in contact with oral tissues but do not penetrate soft tissue or bone are identified as semicritical instruments.
    • 8. noncritical instruments are instruments that come into contact w/ intact skin only.
    • 9. In the clean area ?of the sterilization center, sterilized instruments, fresh disposable supplies, and prepared trays are stored.
    • 10. The contaminated area of the sterilization center is where contaminated items are brought for precleaning.
    • 11. A piece of equipment used for sterilization by means of heated air is the dry heat sterilizer .
    • 12. Use-life is the length of time that a germicidal solution is effective after it has been prepared for use.
    • 13. The biologic monitor verifies sterilization by confirming that all spore-forming microorganisms have been destroyed.
    • 14. Tapes, strips, and tabs with heat-sensitive chemicals that change color when exposed to a certain temperature are examples of a single parameter indicator.
    • 15. An endospore is a resistant, dormant structure that is formed inside of some bacteria and can withstand adverse conditions.
    • 16. The ultrasonic cleaner is a device that loosens and removes debris with the use of sound waves traveling through a liquid.
    • 17. A multi-parameter indicator is an indicator that reacts to time, temperature, and the presence of steam.
  11. MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
    • Complete each question by circling the best answer.
    • 1. The instrument classifications used to determine the
    • method of sterilization and disinfection are all of the above
    • a. critical b. semicritical
    • c. noncritical d. All of the above
    • 2. What type of personal protective equipment is necessary when one is processing instruments?
    • a. Goggle-type eyewear b. Sterile gloves
    • c. Surgical scrubs d. Hairnet
    • 3. The basic rule of the workflow pattern in an instrument processing area is .
    • a. triangular b. square
    • c. single-loop d. double-loop
    • 4. If instruments cannot be processed immediately, what
    • should be done with them? D . They should be placed in a holding solution.
    • a. They should be kept in the dental treatment area.
    • b. They should be wrapped in aluminum foil.
    • c. They should be covered with a patient napkin.
  12. 5. Which are methods of precleaning instruments? D.
    • a. By hand scrubbing b. By ultrasonic cleaning
    • c. With a thermal washer and disinfector d. All of the above
    • 6. Which method of precleaning instruments is LEAST
    • desirable?
    • a. Hand scrubbing b. Ultrasonic cleaning
    • c. Thermal washer d. Microwave
    • 7. The ultrasonic cleaner works .
    • a. by microwaves b. by sound waves
    • c. by ultraviolet waves d. by light waves
    • 8. Kitchen dishwashers cannot be used to preclean
    • instruments because they are .
    • a. not ADA approved b. not CDC approved
    • c. not FDA approved d. not OSHA approved
    • 9. Rusting of instruments can be prevented by .
    • a. use of a disinfectant b. use of lubrication
    • c. use of proper wrapping d. use of wax
    • 10. Instruments should be packaged for sterilization to .
    • a. maintain sterility b. identify them
    • c. maintain organization d. make setup easier
    • 11. Which of the following is a reason why pins, staples, and paper clips are not used on instrument packaging?
    • a. The package becomes too hot to touch. b. You can?t record info on the package.
    • c. They will damage the sterilizer. d. They will cause holes in the packaging.
    • 12. Which is a form of sterilization monitoring? D.
    • a. Physical b. Chemical
    • c. Biologic d. All of the above
    • 13. Where do you place a process indicator?
    • a. Inside the package b. Outside the package
    • c. Inside the sterilizer d. Outside the sterilizer
    • 14. Another term for spore testing is .
    • a. biologic monitoring
    • b. single-parameter indicator
    • c. multi-parameter indicator
    • d. All of the above
    • 15. Do multi-parameter indicators ensure that an item is
    • sterile?
    • a. Yes
    • b. No
    • 16. What is the best way to determine whether sterilization has occurred?
    • a. Check the sterilizer. b. Use a process multi-parameter indicator.
    • c. Use biologic monitoring. d. Use a single-parameter indicator.
    • 17. What causes sterilization failures? D.
    • a. Improper contact of sterilizing agent b. Improper temperature
    • c. Overloading of the sterilizer d. All of the above
    • 18. What are commonly used forms of heat sterilization? D.
    • a. Steam b. Chemical vapor
    • c. Dry heat d. All of the above
  13. Chapter 22 Regulatory and Advisory Agencies
    • SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS
    • 1. Explain the difference between regulations and recommendations.
    • 2. List four professional sources for dental information.
    • 3. Name the premier resource for safety and infection prevention information in dentistry.
    • 4. Describe the role of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    • 5. Explain the primary difference between OSHA and NIOSH.
    • 6. Describe the role of the Environmental Protection Agency in relation to dentistry.
    • 7. Describe the role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in relation to dentistry.
    • 8. Describe the role of the National Institutes of Health.
    • 9. Describe the role of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.
    • 10. Describe the role of the Public Health Agency of Canada.
    • FILL-IN-THE-BLANK STATEMENTS
    • Select the best term from the list below and complete the following statements.
    • ADA
    • CDC
    • EPA
    • FDA
    • NIOSH
    • OSAP
    • OSHA
    • PHAC
  14. 1. The _______________ is a federal regulatory agency that is concerned with the regulation of sterilization equipment.
    • 2. The federal nonregulatory agency that issues recommendations on health and safety is the _______________.
    • 3. The _______________ is the professional organization for dentists.
    • 4. The federal regulatory agency that enforces regulations that pertain to employee safety is _______________.
    • 5. _______________ is the premier resource for safety and infection prevention information in dentistry.
    • 6. _______________ is the federal agency that is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for
    • the prevention of work-related disease and injury.
    • 7. The _______________ is the federal regulatory agency that deals with issues of concern to the environment or public
    • safety.
    • 8. The _______________ is the main federal agency responsible for public health in Canada.
    • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
    • Complete each question by circling the best answer.
    • 1. What is the primary role of the CDC in dentistry?
    • a. Public health
    • b. Research
    • c. Drugs
    • d. Employees
    • 2. What is a primary role of the FDA?
    • a. Fund research projects
    • b. Provide public health information
    • c. Regulate medical and dental devices
    • d. Protect employees
    • 3. What is the primary role of the EPA?
    • a. Research
    • b. Public health
    • c. Employees
    • d. Environment
    • 4. What is the primary focus of OSHA in dentistry?
    • a. Public health
    • b. Employees
    • c. Environment
    • d. Research
    • TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION
    • The dentist in your office asks you to be responsible for maintaining OSHA compliance in the office and to provide
    • training on infection prevention to the new employees. A high school student will be coming in to help with sterilization,
    • and you must provide her with appropriate
  15. Chapter 23 Chemical and Waste Management
    • SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS
    • 1. Describe potential long-term and short-term effects of exposure to chemicals.
    • 2. Explain the components of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.
    • 3. Describe three common methods of chemical exposure.
    • 4. Describe the components of a Hazard Communication Program.
    • 5. Explain the purpose of a material safety data sheet.
    • 6. Describe the difference between chronic and acute chemical exposure.
    • 7. Identify four methods of personal protection against chemical exposure.
    • 8. Describe how chemicals should generally be stored.
    • 9. Discuss the record keeping requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard.
    • 10. Identify types of regulated waste generated in a dental office.
    • 11. Identify types of toxic waste generated in a dental office.
    • 12. Discuss the packaging of regulated waste for transport.
  16. FILL-IN-THE-BLANK STATEMENTS
    • Select the best term from the list below and complete the following statements.
    • acute exposure
    • chemical inventory
    • chronic exposure
    • contaminated waste
    • Hazard Communication Standard
    • hazardous waste
    • infectious waste
    • material safety data sheet (MSDS)
    • regulated waste
    • toxic waste
    • 1. The _______________ is an OSHA standard regarding an employee?s right to know about chemicals in the
    • workplace.
    • 2. A form that provides health and safety information regarding materials that contain chemicals is a _______________.
    • 3. _______________ is repeated exposures, generally of lower levels, over a long period.
    • 4. _______________ exposure pertains to high levels of exposure over a short period of time.
    • 5. Waste that has certain properties or contains chemicals that could pose a danger to human health and the environment
    • after it is discarded is _______________.
    • 6. A(n) _______________ is a comprehensive list of every product used in the office that contains chemicals.
    • 7. Items that have had contact with blood, saliva, or other body secretions are called _______________.
    • 8. Waste that is capable of causing an infectious disease is _______________.
    • 9. _______________ is infectious waste that requires special handling, neutralization, and disposal.
    • 10. Waste that is capable of having a poisonous effect is _______________.
    • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
    • Complete each question by circling the best answer.
    • 1. What body systems could develop health-related
    • problems as a result of inhalation exposure to
    • chemicals in the dental office?
    • a. Neurologic
    • b. Senses
    • c. Respiratory
    • d. Endocrine
    • 2. What is (are) primary method(s) of chemical
    • exposure?
    • a. Inhalation
    • b. Ingestion
    • c. Skin contact
    • d. All of the above
    • 3. Acute chemical exposure involves _______________.
    • a. short-term exposure in large quantity
    • b. repeated exposure in small quantity
    • c. short-term exposure in small quantity
    • d. long-term exposure in small quantity
    • 4. What is a method of personal protection against
    • chemical exposure?
    • a. Ventilation
    • b. Disinfected surfaces
    • c. Inhalation protection
    • d. Hair protection
  17. a. 1 year
    • b. 5 years
    • c. 10 years
    • d. 20 years
    • 15. An example of regulated waste is a _______________.
    • a. patient napkin
    • b. contaminated needle
    • c. dental dam
    • d. 2- 3 2-inch gauze
    • CASE STUDY
    • Pamela is a dental assistant who is in charge of preparing chemical labels for containers in the office. She needs to
    • prepare a label for a product that is highly flammable, reactive, and toxic. Pamela is also missing some material safety
    • data sheets for other products in the office.
    • 1. What types of containers will Pamela need to label?
    • 2. What number will Pamela write in the blue triangle?
    • 3. What number will Pamela write in the red triangle?
    • 4. What number will Pamela write in the yellow triangle?
    • 5. Where can Pamela get a material safety data sheet for other products in the office?

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