Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2015-07-13 14:00:42
Fire Dynamics

IMS strategies and tactis
Show Answers:

  1. Fire produces an _______, releasing heat, light, smoke, toxic gases, and other products of incomplete combustion
    exothermic reaction
  2. The fuel for the fire can be in any form of the three physical proper-ties of matter:

    solid, liquid, or gas
  3. In __________ process, there is a trans-fer of electrons in the molecular combustion reac-tion. This transfer of electrons at the molecular level is caused by the ______ _____ adopting electrons from the fuel. The fuel is considered a ______ .
    • free chain reaction
    • oxidizing agent
    • reducing agent
  4. There are five classes of fires: 

    A, B, C, D, and K
  5. In a class C fire, the fuel itself can be either class _____. The _______ haz-ard denotes this category as being a Class C fire
    • A, B, or D
    • electrical energy
  6. ______ fires involve combustible metals such as sodium, titanium, magnesium, ______, uranium, lithium, ______, and calcium
    • Class D
    • potassium
    • plutonium
  7. Class __ fires involve combustible cooking fuels, such as vegetable or animal oils and fats, and are technically a subclass of the flammable liquid/gas class.
  8. The fuels in class K fires are similar to Class _ fuels but involve very high temperatures and require the use of wet chemicals for extinguishment. _______ can be used to extinguish such fires.p.113
    • B
    • Saponification
  9. The extinguishing agent, in (Class K) extinguishers, rapidly converts the burning substance to a ______ soap. This process is an endothermic reaction, meaning it absorbs _____ from its surroundings
    • noncombustible
    • thermal energy
  10. When Class A fires burn, they produce:
    • carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
    • carbon monoxide (CO)
    • water.
    • p.114
  11. When ____ fires burn, they produce heavy, black, sooty smoke because of the carbon that remains unburned.   
    Class B
  12. Plastics are also considered to be ______-based. They produce heavy black smoke and high levels of _______, carbon dioxide, _______and hydrogen chloride (HCL).p.114
    • hydrocarbon
    • carbon monoxide
    • hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  13. The most abundant gas produced at any fire is _________. This gas has killed the most peo-ple; therefore, it is the major threat in most fire atmo-spheres.
    carbon monoxide
  14.  In a fire, the _______ levels cause the fire to burn inefficiently, releasing great quantities of car-bon monoxide. The heat and smoke carry this gas in _______ currents throughout the structure and to upper floors, incapacitating the occupants before they can escape.p.11
    • low oxygen
    • convection
  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the cause of death in more than __ percent of all fire fatalities.p.114
  16. When fires involve natural and synthetic materials that contain nitrogen—such as wool, silk, acrylonitrile, polyurethane, melamine, and nylons—the materialsp release ______.
    hydrogen cyanide
  17. Acrolein, a very potent irritant, is released from burning ______. Hydrogen chloride, a deadly gas released from ________, is irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract.p.115
    • polyeth-ylene
    • polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  18. The greater the supply of _____, the fewer gases are produced as more complete com-bustion occurs
  19. The following are all important aspects to consider in determining the stage of the fire’s growth:
    • • The shape and color of the flames
    • • The density and color of the smoke
    • • The pressure behind the smoke movementp.116
  20. The fire’s progress depends on the fuel load, the ________ of the fuel, and the intensity of the ______.
    • combustibility
    • heat produced
  21. The growth of the fire depends on:
    • • The type of fuel (combustible or flammable)
    • • The physical property of the fuel (solid, liquid, vapor, or gas)
    • • The surface-to-mass ratio (e.g., a four- by four-inch piece of wood, wood shavings, or dust)
    • • The arrangement of the fuel (e.g., tightly packed or stacked with spaces in between)
    • • Adequate ventilation (natural ventilation or an airtight room
  22. The _______ is the actual ignition stage. The fire involves only the original material ignited and produces some heat and smoke.
    incipient phase
  23. Depending on the fuel, the flame itself may produce a flame tem-perature of ____ to ____, but the room temperature may not change significantly.p.116
    800 to 1000°F
  24. If  the fire grows, it can spread by four principal means:
    • convection
    • radiation
    • conduction
    • direct flame impingement.

  25. Direct flame impingement is sometimes considered a form of ______.
  26. The fire gases can spread faster than the flames.  As they begin to cool, the gases stratify: The lighter gases stay near the top floors of the structure while the flames and heavy gases spread throughout the lower areas of the structure. This is an example of.

  27. _______ heat moves equally in all directions from the fire, thus heating everything it can reach. It is an ______ energy that does not become thermal energy or heat until it strikes an object and excites the molecules.

    • Radiant
    • electromagnetic
  28. _________ are of little use in stopping radiant heat. To protect an exposure, the water must be applied to the exposure to reduce the temperature of the exposure itself. p.118
    Water curtains
  29. The handle of a spoon left in a pan of hot soup will become hot. This occurs because the metal spoon has conducted heat from the soup. This is an example of

  30. When examining materials for heat conduction, the most important physical properties are their:

    • thermal conductivity
    • density
    • specific heat
  31. _______, is the point in the progression of a room fire when all the combus-tibles in the room have ignited. At the end of the free-burning stage, the fire and smoke begin to push out of the room under pressure, spreading through-out the structure. The heating process is caused by_______ ______ feedback.p.119
    • flashover 
    • thermal radiation
  32. This _____  of fire across the ceiling is one of the first signs that flashover is imminent.
  33. Flashover is dangerous for the following reasons:
    • • Flashover occurs when everything in the room has reached its ignition temperature.
    • • The room will become fully involved in fire from floor to ceiling.
    • • Temperatures can exceed 1000°F.
    • • Visibility will be diminished.
    • • Five feet into the room where flashover has occurred is commonly known as the point of no return.
    • • Flashover means death or critical thermal burn injury to anyone trapped in the room.p.120
  34. The key to recognizing flashover is the ____ and ______.p.120
    • smoke movement
    • fire growth
  35. Flashover survival strategies include the following:

    • • Watch smoke movement and flame move-ment above.
    • • Know your way out of the room and building.
    • • Use safe search procedures; follow the wall in one direction.
    • • Use safety search rope or hose line for guid-ance out.
    • • Vent buildup of heat.
    • • Do not enter rooms when flashover condi-tions are apparent.
    • • Close the door to keep heat and smoke in the room and out of halls.
    • • Wear all your protective clothing and SCBA properly.
    • • Remember that once flashover occurs, the chance of survival in the compartment is almost zero
  36. Indicators of impending flashover include the following:

    • • Room size
    • • Extreme, unbearable heat buildup that drives you to the floor
    • • Rollover of fingerlike flames rolling out through the smoke
  37. When an oxygen-starved fire in an enclosed compart-ment suddenly gets a fresh supply of air, it will ignite with explosive force.

    This ignition is known as a back-draft
  38. The oxygen and carbon monoxide mixture ignites at approxi-mately ____ . The fire does not necessarily have to smolder for a lengthy time for _____ to occur.p.122
    • 1100°F
    • backdraft
  39. There may be con-densation streaks running down the inside of the windows. These are clues to a _______.
    backdraft situation
  40. Survival strategies for fire fighters approaching a potential backdraft situation include the following:

    • • Anticipate this sudden explosion based on indicators.
    • • Stay away from windows and doors.
    • • Introduce vertical ventilation.
    • • Prevent buildup of smoke and heat.
    • • Drive water deep into the superheated smoke with hose streams in order to cool the environment.
    • • Wear all your personal protective clothing and SCBA properly.
    • • Stay low on the floor.
  41. One of the greatest fire hazards faced by fire fight-ers and civilians is _____.
  42. The less air provided to the fire, the greater the ____ ____.

    smoke production
  43. At the very least, the incident commander should obtain a view of at least ____ sides.

  44. _____ smoke is indicative of hydrocarbon-based fires, such as plastics and foams. _____ smoke indicates an oxygen-starved fire. ______ is more indic-ative of Class A fires. In very cold weather, any of the smokes can look white because of the water con-densation due to the heat of the fire. Be aware that smoke looks different at night than in the daylightp.125
    • Dark black
    • Dirty brown
    • Lighter smoke
  45. Fire is a combustion process that can be a _______ reaction. This chemical pro-cess is exothermic in that two of the products of fire are ____ and _____.
    • self-sustaining
    • heat and light
  46.   _____ is a process by which the walls and furnishings in a com-partment heat as heat is transferred within the compartment; this heat then feeds back and further heats the compartment.
    Thermal radiation feedback
  47. A method of heat transfer by which the air currents are the means of  travel.
  48. 1.   In performing your size-up, which of the following would be helpful?  
    A.    A thermal imaging camera  
    B.    A 360-degree walk around the structure   C.    A preincident plan  
    D.    All of the above
    D.    All of the above
  49. 2.    You know from your experience that it is likely that most of the burning is being caused by:
    A.   Class A materials. 
    B.   Class C materials.  
    C.   Class D materials.
    D.   Class B materials.  
    D.   Class B materials.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. 3.   The most likely threat of fire spread from the back warehouse area to the front showroom area would be through which method?  

    A.   Conduction  
    B.   Convection  
    C.   Radiation  
    D.   Direct flame contact 
    B.   Convection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. 4.    Just as you complete your size-up, the ware-house becomes fully involved in fire. What has likely occurred?  

    A.    A backdraft  
    B.   The fire progressed to the decay stage.   C.    A rollover  
    D.    A flashover
    D.    A flashover