Fire produces an _______, releasing heat, light, smoke, toxic gases, and other products of incomplete combustion
The fuel for the ﬁre can be in any form of the three physical proper-ties of matter:
solid, liquid, or gas
In __________ process, there is a trans-fer of electrons in the molecular combustion reac-tion. This transfer of electrons at the molecular level is caused by the ______ _____ adopting electrons from the fuel. The fuel is considered a ______ .
free chain reaction
There are ﬁve classes of ﬁres:
A, B, C, D, and K
In a class C ﬁre, the fuel itself can be either class _____. The _______ haz-ard denotes this category as being a Class C ﬁre
A, B, or D
______ ﬁres involve combustible metals such as sodium, titanium, magnesium, ______, uranium, lithium, ______, and calcium
Class __ ﬁres involve combustible cooking fuels, such as vegetable or animal oils and fats, and are technically a subclass of the ﬂammable liquid/gas class.
The fuels in class K fires are similar to Class _ fuels but involve very high temperatures and require the use of wet chemicals for extinguishment. _______ can be used to extinguish such ﬁres.p.113
The extinguishing agent, in (Class K) extinguishers, rapidly converts the burning substance to a ______ soap. This process is an endothermic reaction, meaning it absorbs _____ from its surroundings
When Class A ﬁres burn, they produce:
carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
carbon monoxide (CO)
When ____ ﬁres burn, they produce heavy, black, sooty smoke because of the carbon that remains unburned.
Plastics are also considered to be ______-based. They produce heavy black smoke and high levels of _______, carbon dioxide, _______and hydrogen chloride (HCL).p.114
hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
The most abundant gas produced at any ﬁre is _________. This gas has killed the most peo-ple; therefore, it is the major threat in most ﬁre atmo-spheres.
In a ﬁre, the _______ levels cause the ﬁre to burn inefﬁciently, releasing great quantities of car-bon monoxide. The heat and smoke carry this gas in _______ currents throughout the structure and to upper ﬂoors, incapacitating the occupants before they can escape.p.11
Carbon monoxide poisoning is the cause of death in more than __ percent of all ﬁre fatalities.p.114
When ﬁres involve natural and synthetic materials that contain nitrogen—such as wool, silk, acrylonitrile, polyurethane, melamine, and nylons—the materialsp release ______.
Acrolein, a very potent irritant, is released from burning ______. Hydrogen chloride, a deadly gas released from ________, is irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract.p.115
polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
The greater the supply of _____, the fewer gases are produced as more complete com-bustion occurs
The following are all important aspects to consider in determining the stage of the ﬁre’s growth:
• The shape and color of the ﬂames
• The density and color of the smoke
• The pressure behind the smoke movementp.116
The ﬁre’s progress depends on the fuel load, the ________ of the fuel, and the intensity of the ______.
The growth of the ﬁre depends on:
• The type of fuel (combustible or ﬂammable)
• The physical property of the fuel (solid, liquid, vapor, or gas)
• The surface-to-mass ratio (e.g., a four- by four-inch piece of wood, wood shavings, or dust)
• The arrangement of the fuel (e.g., tightly packed or stacked with spaces in between)
• Adequate ventilation (natural ventilation or an airtight room
The _______ is the actual ignition stage. The ﬁre involves only the original material ignited and produces some heat and smoke.
Depending on the fuel, the ﬂame itself may produce a ﬂame tem-perature of ____ to ____, but the room temperature may not change signiﬁcantly.p.116
800 to 1000°F
If the ﬁre grows, it can spread by four principal means:
direct ﬂame impingement.
Direct ﬂame impingement is sometimes considered a form of ______.
The ﬁre gases can spread faster than the ﬂames. As they begin to cool, the gases stratify: The lighter gases stay near the top ﬂoors of the structure while the ﬂames and heavy gases spread throughout the lower areas of the structure. This is an example of.
_______ heat moves equally in all directions from the ﬁre, thus heating everything it can reach. It is an ______ energy that does not become thermal energy or heat until it strikes an object and excites the molecules.
_________ are of little use in stopping radiant heat. To protect an exposure, the water must be applied to the exposure to reduce the temperature of the exposure itself. p.118
The handle of a spoon left in a pan of hot soup will become hot. This occurs because the metal spoon has conducted heat from the soup. This is an example of
When examining materials for heat conduction, the most important physical properties are their:
_______, is the point in the progression of a room ﬁre when all the combus-tibles in the room have ignited. At the end of the free-burning stage, the ﬁre and smoke begin to push out of the room under pressure, spreading through-out the structure. The heating process is caused by_______ ______ feedback.p.119
This _____ of ﬁre across the ceiling is one of the ﬁrst signs that ﬂashover is imminent.
Flashover is dangerous for the following reasons:
• Flashover occurs when everything in the room has reached its ignition temperature.
• The room will become fully involved in ﬁre from ﬂoor to ceiling.
• Temperatures can exceed 1000°F.
• Visibility will be diminished.
• Five feet into the room where ﬂashover has occurred is commonly known as the point of no return.
• Flashover means death or critical thermal burn injury to anyone trapped in the room.p.120
The key to recognizing ﬂashover is the ____ and ______.p.120
Flashover survival strategies include the following:
• Watch smoke movement and ﬂame move-ment above.
• Know your way out of the room and building.
• Use safe search procedures; follow the wall in one direction.
• Use safety search rope or hose line for guid-ance out.
• Vent buildup of heat.
• Do not enter rooms when ﬂashover condi-tions are apparent.
• Close the door to keep heat and smoke in the room and out of halls.
• Wear all your protective clothing and SCBA properly.
• Remember that once ﬂashover occurs, the chance of survival in the compartment is almost zero
Indicators of impending ﬂashover include the following:
• Room size
• Extreme, unbearable heat buildup that drives you to the ﬂoor
• Rollover of ﬁngerlike ﬂames rolling out through the smoke
When an oxygen-starved ﬁre in an enclosed compart-ment suddenly gets a fresh supply of air, it will ignite with explosive force.
This ignition is known as a back-draft
The oxygen and carbon monoxide mixture ignites at approxi-mately ____ . The ﬁre does not necessarily have to smolder for a lengthy time for _____ to occur.p.122
There may be con-densation streaks running down the inside of the windows. These are clues to a _______.
Survival strategies for ﬁre ﬁghters approaching a potential backdraft situation include the following:
• Anticipate this sudden explosion based on indicators.
• Stay away from windows and doors.
• Introduce vertical ventilation.
• Prevent buildup of smoke and heat.
• Drive water deep into the superheated smoke with hose streams in order to cool the environment.
• Wear all your personal protective clothing and SCBA properly.
• Stay low on the ﬂoor.
One of the greatest ﬁre hazards faced by ﬁre ﬁght-ers and civilians is _____.
The less air provided to the ﬁre, the greater the ____ ____.
At the very least, the incident commander should obtain a view of at least ____ sides.
_____ smoke is indicative of hydrocarbon-based ﬁres, such as plastics and foams. _____ smoke indicates an oxygen-starved ﬁre. ______ is more indic-ative of Class A ﬁres. In very cold weather, any of the smokes can look white because of the water con-densation due to the heat of the ﬁre. Be aware that smoke looks different at night than in the daylightp.125
Fire is a combustion process that can be a _______ reaction. This chemical pro-cess is exothermic in that two of the products of ﬁre are ____ and _____.
heat and light
_____ is a process by which the walls and furnishings in a com-partment heat as heat is transferred within the compartment; this heat then feeds back and further heats the compartment.
Thermal radiation feedback
A method of heat transfer by which the air currents are the means of travel.
1. In performing your size-up, which of the following would be helpful?
A. A thermal imaging camera
B. A 360-degree walk around the structure C. A preincident plan
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
2. You know from your experience that it is likely that most of the burning is being caused by:
A. Class A materials.
B. Class C materials.
C. Class D materials. D. Class B materials.
D. Class B materials.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
3. The most likely threat of ﬁre spread from the back warehouse area to the front showroom area would be through which method?
A. Conduction B. Convection
D. Direct ﬂame contact
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
4. Just as you complete your size-up, the ware-house becomes fully involved in ﬁre. What has likely occurred?
A. A backdraft
B. The ﬁre progressed to the decay stage. C. A rollover
D. A ﬂashover