PA-Week 4 - Thorax/Breast
Card Set Information
PA-Week 4 - Thorax/Breast
Where is the tail of spence?
in the upper lateral of the breast
What types of tissue are breast made up of?
: 15-20 lobes
Fibrous bands, including suspensory ligaments
What lymph nodes drain the breasts?
central axxillary nodes
lateral axxillary nodes
What are the Tanner Stages?
the 5 stages of maturation in a woman
What is gynecomastia?
swelling of breast tissue in men
What is breast tissue swelling in men called?
What are some unchangeable risk factors for breast cancer?
Hx of breast cancer
BRCA 1 or 2 mutation
1st degree relative with breast cancer
What is mastalgia?
pain in the breast
What is pain in the breast called?
when is a mammogram recommended?
after 40 or 60
What is one of the first things you do during a breast examination
ensure pt's privacy
What is masstitis?
Swelling of the breast
What is swelling of the breast called?
What is dimpling?
anything that sticks to the chest wall
What is inframammoryridge?
tissue under the breast that gets compressed
When is discharge from the breast normal?
How do you describe a lump?*
lymphadenopathy (tender lymph nodes
Where do males tend to get breast cancer
under the nipple
What is fibroadenobas?
a firm lobule, mobile, usually non-tender, shows on US, needs biopsy
usually aged 15-25
What is a firm lobule that is mobile, non tender and shows in an US in younger women called?
Describe Fibrocystic breast disease
soft to firm, mobile, often tender, single or multiple
Too much caffeine can aggravate it
What is a soft to firm lump that is mobile, often tender, single or multiple and occurs between 30-50 y/o called?
Fibrocystic breast disease
When is breast cancer most common?
women >50 y/o
What is invasive breast cancer?
spread from lobule of milk duct to other tissue
What is non-invasive breast cancer?
Still inside the lobule or milk duct (INSITO)
What is peau d'orange?
breast looks like an orange
not a good sign
can be localized or the whole breast
What are the 3 parts of the sternum?
manubrium, body, xiphoid process
What is the angle of louis?
The manubriosternum angle
Where is the costal angle?
At the bottom of the xiphoid process where the fibs dissect
What are the two different types of pleurae and where are they?
What is the pleural sac?
surrounds the lungs
What does clear stringy sputum indicate?
What does yellow/green sputum indicate?
What does rust colored sputum indicate?
TB, Pneumococcal Pneumonia
What does frothy pink sputum indicate**
What is dyspnea?
What is orthopnea?
difficulty lying down
symptom of emphysema
What is hemoptysis?
coughing up blood
What is tactile fremitus?
What do you do during a PE of the lungs?
check respiratory excursion
palpate tactile fremitus
percuss for symmetry
auscultate post chest
repeat on the anterior
What is the AP to transverse ratio?
What is the angle of the costal angle?
<or = to 90
What is an adult RR
Describe barrel chested?
A:P to transverse ratio is 1:1
What is pectus excavatum?
breast bone is depressed, only an issue if it interferes with breathing
What is pectus corinatum?
breast bone protrudes
What is kyphosis?
hump on back
What is a hump on the back called?
What is a pink puffer?
pink complextion, SOB, COPD pt(emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
What is a blue bloater?
cyanosis, decreased lung capacity, can be RIGHT side heart failure
What is tachypnea?
RR >20 per min
What is bradypnea?
RR < 10 per min
What is Kussmaul?
Tachypnea with deep breaths
What is Cheyne-Stokes?
regular breathing w. long pauses
What is Biot's pattern?
Increased tactile fremitius is an indication of what
decreased tactile fremitus is an indication of what
What does dullness in the lungs indicate?
fluid or blockage
What is thorocentisis?
Dr drains excess fluid from dull area
Where should resonsance be heard till?
What is louder with vesicular sounds?
inspiration > expiration
What is greater with bronchovesicular?
inspiration = expiration
What is louder in bronchial?
inspiration < expiration
Where are vesicular sounds heard?
most of the lung
What are bronchovesicular sounds heard?
mid chest anteriorly and between scapula
Where are bronchial sounds heard?
What does rhonca sounds like?
What are sibilant wheezes associated with?
What is bronchophony?
hear 99 through stethescope clearly, pneumonia
What is egophony
E turns to A indicates fluid
hear whisper distinctly, indicates fluid
What is different about infants?
barrel chested until 6 y/o
breath through nose mainly until 3 months
Describe normal lung
tactile fremitus- normal
breath sounds- vesicular except for lg bronchi or tachea
adventitiou sounds- non
: shifted toward side
: usually absent
: dull over affected area
: absent over obstruction
: increased over area with fluid
: dull over airless areas
: bronchial over involved area
: crackles over involved area during late inspiration
: Vesicular except over lg bronchi or trach
: may hear crackles or wheezes or rhoncha
Emphysema (alveoli are distended so pt cannot get air out
: decreased or absent
: none or scatter crackling during early inspirations or sounds associated with bronchitis
: Resonant to Hyper resonant
Pleural Effusion (too much liquid in pleurae)
: shifts away from involved side
: Decreased to absent
: dull over fluid
: decreased to absent over affected area
: None, except for possible rub
Pneumothorax (air leaks out of lung into chest)
: Shifted away
: decreased or absent over pleural air
: hyperressonant over pleural air
: decreased to absent over pleural air
: late inspiratory crackles in dependent portion of lung, maybe wheezes