Week 5- Cardio

Card Set Information

Week 5- Cardio
2015-07-12 13:40:35
Pa exam
Exam 2- Week 5- Cardio/Peripheral vascular
Show Answers:

  1. Which artery is the only one with O2?
    Pulmonary Artery
  2. What are the landmarks of the heart?
    • Pericardium
    • Mediastinum
    • 2nd and 5th intercostal
    • base vs apex
    • apical pulse (apex)
    • PMI, L ventricle
  3. What occurs during systole
    • heart pumps blood out
    • S1
    • Closing of AV valves ( Tricuspid, Mitral)
    • R Ventricle pumps blood to pulmonary artery (pulmonic valve-open)
    • L ventricle pumps blood to aorta (aortic valve is open)
  4. Describe Diastole?
    • Heart fills with blood
    • S2
    • Semilunar valves close (aortic and pulmonic)
    • R. atrium fills-Tricuspid valve open
    • L. Atrium fills- Mitral Valve is open
  5. What are the semilunar valves?
    Aortic and Pulmonic
  6. What is the equation for CO?
    CO= Stroke volume x HR
  7. What is the equation for BP?
    Co x SVR
  8. What is preload?
    • Ventricles stretch to capacity
    • Volume overload
  9. What is afterload?
    • Ventricles contract to capacity
    • Pressure overload
  10. How much blood is pumped per min?
    5 qts
  11. Where to men tend to experience MI?
    Left arm, jaw, chest
  12. Where to women tend to experience MI?
    back pain
  13. What are the two main categories for cardiac causes of chest pain?
    • Ischemia
    • Non-Ischemia
  14. What are the ischemia causes of chest pain?
    MI, stable, unstable, varies
  15. What are non-ischemia causes of chest pain?
    • Mitral Valve Prolapse**: one/both valve leaflets prolapse back into atrial during systole
    • Pericarditis
    • Dissecting aneuryms
  16. What are pulmonary causes of chest pain?
    • Pulmonary Embolism: dyspnea more common, could be asymptomatic
    • Pleurisy: inflammation around lung
    • Pulmonary HTN: dyspnea is more common, non radiating
    • Mediastinum Emphysema: air in the mediastinum
  17. What is Hammer's sign?
    • sounds like someone walking through snow
    • sign of mediastinum emphysema
  18. What is an embolism?
    blood clot that travels to lung
  19. What are GI causes of chest pain?
    • GERD
    • Esophageal Reflux
    • Gallstone colic
  20. What is orthopnea?
    dyspnea when lying down
  21. What is paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea?
    difficulty breathing after lying down for several mins/hours
  22. What is pulmonary edema and the signs?
    • pulmonary congestion (L-sided heart failure)
    • Pink Frothy Sputum
  23. What is pink frothy sputum an indication of?
    pulmonary edema
  24. What is valvular heart disease?
    • involving one or more of the heart valves
    • Principal symptom: dyspnea
  25. When does valvular heart disease occur?
    • Late mitral regurg
    • Aortic stenosis/regurg
  26. What are the two types of palpitations?
    • Sudden onset
    • Gradual Acceleration
  27. What is syncope?
  28. What is the most common reason for syncope?
    Vasovagal, mediated by vagus nerve CN 10
  29. What are cardiovascular causes of syncope generally?
    Anything that affects blood flow to the brain
  30. What is ascites?
    abdominal swelling
  31. What is the most common cause of edema?
    R sided heart failure (CHF)
  32. What is anasarca?
    • edema everywhere
    • Caused by heart failure, liver failure, nephrotic failure
  33. What is nocturia?
    peeing a lot at nighttime
  34. What is general cyanosis and indication of?
    decreased pulmonary venous saturation
  35. What is peripheral cyanosis
    Decreased CO (CHF or Shock)
  36. If fatigue is worse in evening, it's a sign of __
    Decreased CO
  37. What is hemoptysis?
    coughing up blood
  38. What is the most common cause of hemoptysis?
    mitral valve stenosis (MVS)
  39. What is infarction?
    local tissue death due to obstruction of tissue's blood supply
  40. What is orthostatic hypotension?
    Systolic drops > 15 mmHg, HR increases > 10 beats per min
  41. What are some causes of hypotension?
    • vascular volume loss (diarrhea, vomiting)
    • Medications
    • Prolonged Bed Rest
    • ANS dysfunction
    • Parkinson's Disease
  42. How would you describe the carotid arteries?
    • Brisk- Normal
    • Diminished- Decreased
    • Bounding
  43. What is the jugular venous pressure?
    • The distance between the jugular pulse and the angle of louis
    • Generally 8 cm
  44. What is the precoridium?
    portion of body over the chest
  45. What do you inspect the precordium for?
    lifts or heaves
  46. What do you palpate for the cardiovascular system?
    • PMI (5th intercostal, midclavicular)¬†
    • looking for a thrill
  47. What if the PMI is in a different spot?
    Then LV has dilation
  48. What are the signs of ventricular hypertrophy?
    increased force and duration, but no change in location
  49. What does S3 usually mean?
    mitral stenosis
  50. Where is S1 loudes?
  51. Where does S1=S2?
    Erb's point
  52. Where is S2 > S1
  53. What is a split S2?
    When the Aortic valve closes before the pulmonic
  54. What is S3 called?
    • Ventricular Gallop (kentucky)
    • During Diastole
  55. What is S4 called?
    • Atrial Gallop/Kick (Tennesse)
    • During Diastole
  56. What is S3 the first sign of?
  57. How do you tell if murmur is aortic regurg?
    Heard at Base, during S2 (Diastole)
  58. How do you tell if a murmur is aortic stenosis?
    Apex during S1 (Systolic)
  59. How do you tell if a murmur is Tricuspid regurg?
    Apex, during S1 (Systolic)
  60. How do you tell if a murmur is tricupsid stenosis?
    Base, S2 (Diastole)
  61. Dyastolic murmurs =
  62. How do you describe a murmur?
    • When does it happen: systole/diastole¬†
    • Duration: early/mid/late diastole/systole
    • Quality: harsh, soft, blowing, rumbling
    • Pitch: high, medium, low
  63. What is the foramen Ovale?
    • Opening between R and L atrium in a fetus
    • Closes when O2 hits
  64. What is patent duct arteriosus
    bypasses lungs in fetus because they aren't working in the lung
  65. What should you expect about RR and HR in a baby?
    Increased RR and Increased HR