Diabetes

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
305114
Filename:
Diabetes
Updated:
2015-07-12 22:40:03
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
drugs drugs drugs
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  1. Sulfonylureas
    • offical name: glyburide
    • trade name: Micronase
    • ID: oral hypoglycemic
    • route: PO
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • target: beta cells in pancreas
    • action: stimulate release of insulin
    • location: pancreas
    • risk: hypoglycemia
    • meal: 30-60 mins before
  2. Biguanides
    • official name: metformin
    • trade name: Glucophage
    • ID: oral hypoglycemic
    • route: PO
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • target: inhibit glycogenolysis
    • action: decrease hepattic glucose
    • location: liver
    • contraindicated: dye [MRI]
    • risk: stomach upset
    • may cause weight loss
    • meal: take with food
  3. Glitazones
    • official name: rosiglitazone
    • thiazolidinedione [TZD]
    • trade name: Avandia
    • ID: oral hypoglycemic
    • route: PO
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • target: insulin receptors in tissue 
    • action: increase tissue sensitivity to insulin render glucose ready for metabolism
    • location: insulin receptors
    • tissue
    • risk: weight gain 
    • meal: no risk of hypoglycemia
  4. Meglitinide
    • official name: repaglinide
    • trade name: Prandin
    • ID: oral hypoglycemic
    • route: PO
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • target: beta cells in pancrease
    • action: stimulate insulin release
    • location: pancreas
    • risk: hypoglycemia
    • meal: 30 mins before
  5. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    • official name: acarbose
    • trade name: Precose
    • ID: oral hypoglycemic
    • antihyperglycemic agent
    • enzyme inhibitor
    • route: PO
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • target: enzymes
    • action: inhibit enzymes 
    • delay absorption of CHO in GI tract
    • location: salivary glands
    • GI tract
    • pancreatic alpha-amylase
    • gastrointestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase
    • risk: no effects if not taken correctly
    • meal: take during mastication
  6. types of insulin
    • ID: semisynthetic 
    • human 
    • non-human
    • fxn: recombinant DNA [human]
    • analogs [non-human]
  7. analog insulin
    • rapid-acting [lispro] 
    • long acting [glargine]
  8. recombinant DNA insulin
    • short-acting [Regular]
    • intermediate-acting [NPH]
  9. NPH
    • trade name: Humulin N
    • Novolin N
    • official name: Isophane Insulin Suspension
    • ID: intermediate-acting insulin
    • source: human
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: parenteral [subcutaneous]
    • frequency: 1 time daily
    • onset: 60-90 mins
    • meal: snacks 
    • peak: 8-12 hrs
    • duration: 18-24 hours
  10. Regular
    • trade name: Humulin R
    • Novolin R
    • ID: insulin injection
    • source: human
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: parenteral [subcutaneous]
    • IV
    • frequency: sliding scale
    • during meal times
    • onset: 30-60 mins
    • meal: 30-60 mins after injection
    • peak: 2-3 hrs
    • duration: 5-7 hrs
  11. lispro
    • trade name: Humalog 
    • ID: rapid-acting insulin
    • source: analog
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: parenteral [subcutaneous]
    • frequency: sliding scale
    • with food during meal time
    • onset: 5 mins
    • meal: 5 mins
    • peak: 60-90 mins
    • duration: 6-8 hrs
  12. glargine
    • trade name: Lantus
    • ID: long-acting insulie
    • source: analog
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: parenteral [subcutaneous]
    • frequency: before bed
    • onset: 1.1 hour 
    • meal: none
    • peak: none
    • duration: 24 hours
  13. diabetes mellitus
    chronic disease w/ metabolic and vascular abnormalities
  14. insulin
    • trade name: Humulin R
    • ID: hormone produced by beta cells
    • fxn: release from pancreas
    • when glucose in blood
    • allow glucose to enter cells 
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: IV
    • subcutaneous
    • target: glucose
    • action: stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and fat
    • inhibit gluconeogensis 
    • location: tissue
    • contraindication: hypersensitivity to recombinant DNA
    • risk: hypoglycemia
    • hyperglycemia
    • anaphylaxis
  15. diabetes mellitus type I
    deficiency of insulin production
  16. diabetes mellitus type II
    resistance of insulin at receptor site due to chronic saturation
  17. organs affected by diabetes
    • arteries
    • kidneys
    • eyes
    • brain 
  18. beta-blockers vs hypoglycemia
    • beta-blockers may induce hypoglycemia
    • and may also mask many of the signs and symptoms
  19. metformin
    • classification: Biguanides
    • trade name: Glucophage
    • ID: antidiabetes
    • biguanides
    • treat: type II diabetes
    • route: PO
    • target: glucose
    • action: inhibit gluconeogenesis
    • location: liver
    • contraindication: metabolic acidosis
    • dye
    • risk: GI upset
    • possible weight loss
  20. Sulfonylureas
    • trade name: Glyburide
    • ID: antidiabetic
    • sulfonylureas
    • treat: type I diabetes
    • route: parenteral [subcutaneous]
    • target: beta cells
    • action: stimulate release of insulin
    • location: pancreas
    • contraindication: drug-drug sensitivity to
    • beta-blocker
    • risk: hypoglycemia
    • aplastic anemia

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