chapter 8

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chapter 8
2015-07-13 21:53:50
extinguishing Agents

Strategies n Tactics
Show Answers:

  1. Water, dry chemical, foam, and dry powder are some of the many forms of __________ available to the fire service.
    extinguishing agents
  2. Water is the most prevalent extinguishing agent in use, because:
    1. It is inexpensive. (It is customarily free to fire departments; however, considering the costs associated with the infrastructure of the water system, is it really free?)

    2. It is commonly available, either through a municipal or private water distribution system and hydrants or by fire departments moving it to the desired location via equip-ment and trained fire fighters.

    3. Generally it is efficient at extinguishment when applied properly.p.148
  3. Water can be found in three physical states: _____ ____ and _____.
    solid, liquid, and gas
  4. As a solid, water is ice. ______, water begins to freeze. In the temperature range from ___ to _____ , water is in the form of a liquid, and from ____ up, water is converted into steam, a gas.
    • At 32°F
    • 32°F to 212°F
    • 212°F
  5. At 212°F water expands _____ times its original volume.
  6. Water extinguishes fire through three basic methods:
    • 1. Cools the burning material
    • 2. Smothers the fire
    • 3. Separates the fuel from the heat

  7. However, _______ remains the main reason water extinguishes fire.

    cooling the fire
  8. The amount of water needed is known as the _____ requirement. There are three nationally accepted formulas for figuring flow requirement: the _____________ formula, the Iowa State University (Iowa) formula, and the _____________________ formula.

    • flow
    • National Fire Academy (NFA)
    • Insurance Services Office (ISO, New York City)
  9. The NFA formula is: NFF = L × W 3 × Percentage of Involvement. what does NFF, L and W an d 3 stands for.

    NFF refers to the needed fire flow in gallons per minute (GPM)

    L is the length of the burning object,

    W  is the width of the burning object

    3 is the constant of the formula and never changes
  10. The Iowa formula is: NFF = V 100, What is V

    V  stands for the volume of the container burning, which is found by multiplying length by width by height.
  11. ________ of the proper extinguishing agents is a critical step in extinguishment.

  12. Probably the most widely used nozzle in the fire service today is the _______.
    fog nozzle
  13. Many variations of fog nozzles, including
    ________ gallonage, _______ gallonage, ____ gallonage, and low pressure and high pressure, are available to the fire service.
    • adjustable
    • automatic
    • fixed
  14. One problem with fog nozzles is that they tend to be affected by _____ and _______.
    wind and weather
  15. Proper _________ is critical to the proper use of fog nozzles on an interior attack.
  16. Another problem with fog nozzles is that many require ____ psi at the nozzle to create an effective stream.

  17. Fog nozzles have better cooling capabilities than any other nozzle, but they can disturb the _____ ______ ________ of a fire if applied incorrectly.

    natural thermal layers
  18. Perhaps one of the best benefits of a smooth-bore nozzle is that it creates a stream that does not generally disturb the _____ ______ of the fire or push the heat and gasses into other areas, which can result in better survivability for occupants and typically results in fewer ________ injuries to fire fighters.
    • thermal layers
    • steam burn
  19. Most broken-stream nozzles have a special type of application—for example:

    • a piercing nozzle 
    • a cellar nozzle
  20. The following simple steps can be taken on the fire ground to reduce friction.
    • • Reduce hose length.
    • • Use a larger hose.
    • • Reduce the number of couplings and appliances used.
    • • Reduce the number of bends and kinks in the hose.
    • •change the type and/or size of the nozzle.
    • p155
  21. Foam is common-ly used for two basic types of hazardous materials:
    • hydrocarbons 
    • polar solvents
  22. Film-forming fluoro-protein foam, which can be applied at the base of a tank and allowed to float to the top of the product to extinguish the fire. This technique is known as ______ ______.
    subsurface injection
  23. Hydrocarbons are ______ products such as gasoline, ______, and toluene, where as ___ _____ are common alcohol-based products such as ______, ketones, lacquer thinners, and even some acids.

    • petroleum-based
    • benzene
    • polar solvents
    • ethanols
  24. Foam is created by using mechanical ______to mix three ingredients together:

    • agitation
    • air,
    • water,
    • and foam concentrate
  25. Water is the primary ingredient in foam; in fact, ____ percent or more of the foam is water.

  26. Most manufacturers of foam require that they be proportioned at __ percent for polar solvents and ___ percent for hydrocarbons.

    • 6
    • 3
  27. Other proportioners include those built into the pump on the engine such as _____ the _______ proportioners and _____ in _____ proportioners.

    • around-the-pump
    • built-in in-line
  28. Application of Foam

    The following steps have been used with success in the fire service (on ignited spills):
    • 1. Determine the size of the area burning (L × W ).
    • 2. Multiply by the application rate of the foam being used. Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) and film-forming fluoroprotein foam (FFFP) are generally 0.10 for hydrocarbons and 0.24 for polar solvents. Check with the manufacturer for specific rates.
    • 3. Multiply by the proportioned percentage (3 percent or 6 percent).
    • 4. The result is the number of gallons of foam concentrate needed for one minute.
    • 5. Multiply by the number of minutes required by standard operating guidelines.

  29. Many different types of foams are available for fire-fighting purposes. They are broken down into ______ foams or ____ foams.

    • Class  A
    • Class B
  30. Class A foams have seen huge growth in recent years. Their use has been primarily on ______.
    wildland fires
  31. The use of a _____ ___ _____ _____ produces high-quality foam bubbles that are small and consistent in size and density. These bub-bles allow this foam to stay together and provide a ___ percent better drain time for the foam, allowing the foam to work better and be more persistent.

    • compressed air foam system (CAFS)
    • 25
  32. In general, dry chemicals extinguish Class __ and __ fires by interrupting the _____ _____ ____.

    • B and C
    •  chemical chain reaction
  33. The common chemicals used in Ordinary Purpose (B-C) dry chemical extinguishers are:
    • Potassium bicarbonate
    • Sodium bicarbonate
    • Potassium chloride
  34. Multipurpose (A-B-C) Extinguisher
    • Monoammonium phosphate
    • Barium sulfate
    • Ammonium phosphate
  35. Dry powders are special-purpose extinguishing agents used for specific applications such as _______ or ________.
    combustible metals or Class D fires
  36. ________ fire suppression systems are designed for protecting kitchen hoods, plenums, exhaust ducts, grease filters, and cooking appliances from grease fires
    Wet Chemical Class K
  37.  They are used primarily on Class B and C fires and come in the form of portable or wheeled extinguishers:
    Carbon Dioxide
  38. ______ was available as an extinguishing agent in the 1980s and early 1990s but was banned from production under the Clean Air Act of 1994 because it was shown to damage the atmosphere upon discharge, depleting the ozone
  39. Two types of halons were used and may still be seen in the field: _______ (bromochlorodiflu-oromethane), a liquid form of halon, and_______(bromotrifluoromethane), a gaseous form.
    • Halon 1211
    • Halon 1301
  40. ________ was primarily used for protecting sensitive electronic equipment, such as computers and communication equipment, because it did not leave a residue
    Halon 1301
  41. It was also very common for fire protection of engines in high-end boats and yachts
    Halon 1301