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Water, dry chemical, foam, and dry powder are some of the many forms of __________ available to the ﬁre service.
Water is the most prevalent extinguishing agent in use, because:
1. It is inexpensive. (It is customarily free to ﬁre departments; however, considering the costs associated with the infrastructure of the water system, is it really free?)
2. It is commonly available, either through a municipal or private water distribution system and hydrants or by ﬁre departments moving it to the desired location via equip-ment and trained ﬁre ﬁghters.
3. Generally it is efﬁcient at extinguishment when applied properly.p.148
Water can be found in three physical states: _____ ____ and _____.
solid, liquid, and gas
As a solid, water is ice. ______, water begins to freeze. In the temperature range from ___ to _____ , water is in the form of a liquid, and from ____ up, water is converted into steam, a gas.
- At 32°F
- 32°F to 212°F
At 212°F water expands _____ times its original volume.
Water extinguishes ﬁre through three basic methods:
- 1. Cools the burning material
- 2. Smothers the ﬁre
- 3. Separates the fuel from the heat
However, _______ remains the main reason water extinguishes ﬁre.
cooling the ﬁre
The amount of water needed is known as the _____ requirement. There are three nationally accepted formulas for ﬁguring ﬂow requirement: the _____________ formula, the Iowa State University (Iowa) formula, and the _____________________ formula.
- National Fire Academy (NFA)
- Insurance Services Ofﬁce (ISO, New York City)
The NFA formula is: NFF = L × W 3 × Percentage of Involvement. what does NFF, L and W an d 3 stands for.
NFF refers to the needed ﬁre ﬂow in gallons per minute (GPM)
L is the length of the burning object,
W is the width of the burning object
3 is the constant of the formula and never changes
The Iowa formula is: NFF = V 100, What is V
V stands for the volume of the container burning, which is found by multiplying length by width by height.
________ of the proper extinguishing agents is a critical step in extinguishment.
Probably the most widely used nozzle in the ﬁre service today is the _______.
Many variations of fog nozzles, including
________ gallonage, _______ gallonage, ____ gallonage, and low pressure and high pressure, are available to the ﬁre service.
One problem with fog nozzles is that they tend to be affected by _____ and _______.
wind and weather
Proper _________ is critical to the proper use of fog nozzles on an interior attack.
Another problem with fog nozzles is that many require ____ psi at the nozzle to create an effective stream.
Fog nozzles have better cooling capabilities than any other nozzle, but they can disturb the _____ ______ ________ of a ﬁre if applied incorrectly.
natural thermal layers
Perhaps one of the best beneﬁts of a smooth-bore nozzle is that it creates a stream that does not generally disturb the _____ ______ of the ﬁre or push the heat and gasses into other areas, which can result in better survivability for occupants and typically results in fewer ________ injuries to ﬁre ﬁghters.
Most broken-stream nozzles have a special type of application—for example:
- a piercing nozzle
- a cellar nozzle
The following simple steps can be taken on the ﬁre ground to reduce friction.
- • Reduce hose length.
- • Use a larger hose.
- • Reduce the number of couplings and appliances used.
- • Reduce the number of bends and kinks in the hose.
- •change the type and/or size of the nozzle.
Foam is common-ly used for two basic types of hazardous materials:
- polar solvents
Film-forming ﬂuoro-protein foam, which can be applied at the base of a tank and allowed to ﬂoat to the top of the product to extinguish the ﬁre. This technique is known as ______ ______.
Hydrocarbons are ______ products such as gasoline, ______, and toluene, where as ___ _____ are common alcohol-based products such as ______, ketones, lacquer thinners, and even some acids.
- polar solvents
Foam is created by using mechanical ______to mix three ingredients together:
- and foam concentrate
Water is the primary ingredient in foam; in fact, ____ percent or more of the foam is water.
Most manufacturers of foam require that they be proportioned at __ percent for polar solvents and ___ percent for hydrocarbons.
Other proportioners include those built into the pump on the engine such as _____ the _______ proportioners and _____ in _____ proportioners.
- built-in in-line
Application of Foam
The following steps have been used with success in the ﬁre service (on ignited spills):
- 1. Determine the size of the area burning (L × W ).
- 2. Multiply by the application rate of the foam being used. Aqueous ﬁlm-forming foam (AFFF) and ﬁlm-forming ﬂuoroprotein foam (FFFP) are generally 0.10 for hydrocarbons and 0.24 for polar solvents. Check with the manufacturer for speciﬁc rates.
- 3. Multiply by the proportioned percentage (3 percent or 6 percent).
- 4. The result is the number of gallons of foam concentrate needed for one minute.
- 5. Multiply by the number of minutes required by standard operating guidelines.
Many different types of foams are available for ﬁre-ﬁghting purposes. They are broken down into ______ foams or ____ foams.
Class A foams have seen huge growth in recent years. Their use has been primarily on ______.
The use of a _____ ___ _____ _____ produces high-quality foam bubbles that are small and consistent in size and density. These bub-bles allow this foam to stay together and provide a ___ percent better drain time for the foam, allowing the foam to work better and be more persistent.
- compressed air foam system (CAFS)
In general, dry chemicals extinguish Class __ and __ ﬁres by interrupting the _____ _____ ____.
- B and C
- chemical chain reaction
The common chemicals used in Ordinary Purpose (B-C) dry chemical extinguishers are:
- Potassium bicarbonate
- Sodium bicarbonate
- Potassium chloride
Multipurpose (A-B-C) Extinguisher
- Monoammonium phosphate
- Barium sulfate
- Ammonium phosphate
Dry powders are special-purpose extinguishing agents used for speciﬁc applications such as _______ or ________.
combustible metals or Class D ﬁres
________ ﬁre suppression systems are designed for protecting kitchen hoods, plenums, exhaust ducts, grease ﬁlters, and cooking appliances from grease ﬁres
Wet Chemical Class K
They are used primarily on Class B and C ﬁres and come in the form of portable or wheeled extinguishers:
______ was available as an extinguishing agent in the 1980s and early 1990s but was banned from production under the Clean Air Act of 1994 because it was shown to damage the atmosphere upon discharge, depleting the ozone
Two types of halons were used and may still be seen in the ﬁeld: _______ (bromochlorodiﬂu-oromethane), a liquid form of halon, and_______(bromotriﬂuoromethane), a gaseous form.
________ was primarily used for protecting sensitive electronic equipment, such as computers and communication equipment, because it did not leave a residue
It was also very common for ﬁre protection of engines in high-end boats and yachts
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