Chapter 11

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  1. The most common structure fire response in the United States involves the _____ and _______.
    one- and two-family dwelling.
  2. One- and two-family dwellings are defined as residential structures in which not more than _______ reside
    two families
  3. The most common construction style is _____ ______ and masonry.

    wood frame
  4. There was a civilian fire death every ___ minutes and a civilian fire injury every ___  minutes in 2010
    • 169
    • 30
  5. Residential home fires accounted for __ percent of the total structure fires and more than ___ percent (2640) of the civilian fire deaths.
    • 80
    • 85
  6. Somewhere in the nation, a fire department responds to a residential structure fire every ___ seconds. Of these residential structure fires, one- and two- family structures account for 58 percent of the fires and ___  percent of civilian fire deaths.
    • 65
    • 71
  7. Fire Administration (USFA), 50 percent of civilian fire fatalities in residential buildings occur between the hours of __pm and ___AM
    10 P.M. and 6  A.M
  8. The peak night hours are from 1:00 to 5:00  A.M ., when the person is in deep sleep. _____  was the leading cause of fatal residential building fires.

  9. A series of 17 experiments were conducted to examine several scenarios that were identified as gaps in current fire service knowledge of fire dynamics, ventilation, and suppression. The gaps identified included:

    • • Impact of door control
    • • Impact of vertical ventilation hole size
    • • Impact of vertical ventilation hole location
    • • Impact of different flow paths between fire location and ventilation location
    • • Impact of modern and legacy fuel loads in a structure
    • • Impact of exterior suppression with various flow path configurations
  10.  The post and frame (sometimes called ___ and ____) home has a few ___ wooden members in place of many ____ wood-frame members.
    • plank and beam
    • large
    • small
  11. The most common building construction methods for one- and two-family dwellings are type V (_______) and type III (_____). The wood-frame-constructed homes typically fall within one of three framing methods: post and frame, balloon frame, or platform frame
    • wood frame
    • masonry
  12. Post and Frame
    The larger wooden members are usually ___ by ___ inch posts that serve as the main structural members. The smaller __ by __-inch studs are used to fill in between the larger framing members
    • 4 by 4-
    • 2- by 4
  13. ____ and ____ construction can be found in some rooms, entryways, and other portions of the structure
    plank and beam
  14. The ____ ____ -constructed home uses standard 2- by 4-inch studs. The difference in this construction feature is that the exterior framing members run __ or ___ stories high. They start at the ______ line and run to the eave line
    • balloon frame
    • two or more
    • foundation
  15. In houses built prior to ____, these framing members form an open channel from the foundation to the eave line. This allows a fire to run these channels from the bottom to the top of the structure
  16. The balloon-frame-constructed homes built after 1940 usually have ____ in the walls.

  17. Firestops consist of ___by ___ -inch wood members placed in the joist channel. This placement helps to limit the spread of fire up these channels and out across the floor channels.
    2- by 4
  18. In platform-frame construction, each floor is built as a ___. The framing in each level is set on a ___.

    • box
    • sill
  19. With ________construction, the room-and-contents fire can be held to one compartment or a portion of the home
  20. The split-level, bi-level, and tri-level houses are all variations of _______ _____.
    platform construction
  21. Ordinary Construction (Masonry) The difference between the masonry home and the wood-frame homes just discussed lies in the ____ ____. In this home-building method, the bearing walls are cement, concrete block, or other masonry product.
    bearing walls
  22. In Ordinary Construction, the construction methods used are ______ and/or ____ and ____.
    • platform
    • post and beam
  23. Heat, smoke, and fire travel along the path of ____ _____. In the case of the one- and two-family dwelling, the most common paths are the ______ and _____.
    • least resistance
    • hallways and stairwells
  24. The platform frame and the masonry structures are built in a method that creates individual compartments that contain the fire to ____ and _____. The real danger of fire spread lies in the open ____ and _____.
    • room and contents
    • halls and stairways
  25. The increasingly popular use of ____ ___and ____ ____in many newer styles of homes allows fire to spread more quickly
    • great rooms
    • vaulted ceilings
  26. A new roof product on the market in one and two family Dwellings  is a stone-coated steel roofing that is made from _____ structural-grade steel coated with a ___ ___ and other protective layers. An extra-thick coating of ceramic-fired earth stone is then applied
    • 26-gauge
    • heavy resin
  27. There are various types of roof coverings common on one- and two-family dwellings, such as: heavy barrel tile, ____ ___, wood shake, ___ , and many others
    • asphalt shingles
    • slate
  28. Hazards of the stone-coated steel roofing that is made from 26-gauge structural-grade steel coated with a heavy resin and other protective layers is that Firefighter may:
    • not be able to ventilate a roof with this type of covering;
    • worse yet, they may not know what type of roof covering they are up against until the postfire inves-tigation.
  29. In a home with modern furnishings, a ______ can occur in half the time as in one with legacy materials.
  30. - Areas that present a higher likelihood of finding a victim are:
    • paths of travel,
    • the areas below windows and behind doors, hallways, and
    • bed-rooms present a high priority
  31. Search and rescue should always be assigned to one of the ____ _____ units
  32. In an _____ _____, hose lines should be positioned to confine the fire from the unburned side. However, based on the UL FSRI study, water could be applied from ____ ____of the fire
    • offensive attack
    • either side
  33. In _______  operations, a strategic goal is to place hose streams in a position to prevent fire spread beyond the structure of origin.
  34. When _______ is performed, hose lines should be in place to attack the fire.
  35. ______  can be accomplished by covering the materials, boxing and removing them, or sometimes just getting them off the floor and away from standing water.
  36. It is important during size-up to locate any alternative entrances into and potential exits from basements. These may include ___  ____ or ____ __.
    interior stairwells or ground-level
  37. A good _____ __ for basement fires includes gaining input from homeowners or neighbors, if possible, as to the contents of the basement and the likeli-hood of occupants in the basement
  38. In a Basement fire the crews must maintain control of the ____ to prevent fire spread.

  39. A primary clue to a ________ fire is smoke from bottom to top of the structure that is not lifted when the front door is opened and ventilation is started
  40. In extinguishing basement fires:  If ventilation is poor, then the use of _____ ___ nozzles should be considered for greater reach and to lessen the interruption of the thermal layers of the fire
  41. In ventilating basement fires: If ___ ____ can be vented without jeopardizing the interior crews, this action must be taken
    exterior windows
  42. Overhaul must be thorough, but leave the area of ____ ____ intact
    fire origin
  43. One of the biggest hazards encountered in first-floor fires is the potential speed of ___ ____.
    fire spread
  44. The first-floor fire can be located in the kitchen, _____ _____, family room, bedroom, or ____.
    • living room
    • bathroom
  45. A second hazard is the possible _______ of firefighting crews
  46. One of the key elements in setting strategic goals and tactical objectives in first-floor fires is determining the _____ _____of the fire.
    exact location
  47. One of the most critical elements to fire fighter safety is a good ____ __ to determine hazards.

  48. Search and Rescue for the first and second floor ideally should be completed _______; however, if not possible, the ____ floor is first, followed by the  floor.

    • simultaneously
    • first
    • second
  49. The first hose line should be used to ____ the fire and allow _____ and ____to begin
    • contain
    • search and rescue
  50. In most small, one-story ranches, ____ _____is not necessary. Properly placed ___ with the right windows removed opens the structure and allows the smoke to lift and be removed.
    • vertical ventilation
    • PPV
  51.  In the two-story structure with smoke and fire conditions that require vertical ventilation, the ventilation hole should be placed over the ___ ___ if safe to do so. If egress is a concern, it should be placed over the ______, allow-ing the smoke to be drawn up the stairs and out of the building.
    • fire area
    • stairway
  52. The biggest concern for fire fighter safety when fighting fires in upper floors is the ___ of ___.
    lack of egress
  53. (VES) fire fighter should _______ shut the ____ to the bedroom to seal it from the hall
    • immediately
    •  door
  54. Opening the window first, then starting the PPV is typically a more useful _______ method
  55. If the fan is turned on before the appropriate windows have been opened, the smoke, heat, and fire can be ____ ____down onto the hose line crews.

    blown back
  56. Other hazards encountered in attics include low sloping roofs, ____ ____, electrical wires, lack of safe entrance and ____ ____, extreme weight, and the potential for ____ ____.
    • unstable floors
    • egress points
    • rapid collapse
  57. Electrical wires and other utilities such as plumb-ing and cable generally run through the __ __, causing tangle hazards for fire fighters
    attic space
  58. When fire fighters are forced into attics to fight fire, everyone on the ______ must work for the safety of those fire fighters
  59. Do not count on or use a ___ ____ as the only entrance to an attic. Placing a ______to the attic provides this secondary means of egress
    • scuttle hole
    • ladder
  60. These fires must be attacked from____ to be extinguished. Fire fighters are required to get into the attic area and advance the hose line under the heat and smoke conditions.
  61. An attack from above the roof with a _____ ____ or _____ _____can help to knock down most of the fire in an attic fire.
    ladder pipe or tower ladder
  62. Another method of extinguishing attic fires is the _____ ______.
    piercing nozzle
  63. The interior entry door from the garage goes into the:
    kitchen or utility room of the house
  64. The current housing stock in the United States offers at least ____ common styles of attached garages on the single-family home
  65. In most of the single-story or two-story homes with a basement, the garage is an ____ of the structure
  66. The _____ ____ can be found in most two-story houses. The garage roof is separate from the living area roof and ties into the side of the house.
    second style
  67. The ___ ____ can be found in either one- or two-story houses. The garage is under part of the living quarters of the house above. In many cases, the area above the garage has the _____.
    • third style
    • bed-rooms
  68. Overhead doors can also be hazardous. There are two common types of garage doors, with either door being made of:
    wood, aluminum, or light steel.
  69. It is impera-tive that either of the door styles be braced in the ____ ___ during firefighting operations to prevent them from accidentally closing and trapping fire fighters
    open position
  70. There are two different schools of thought regarding attacking a garage fire. .
    One recommended practice is to attack the fire from the unburned side of the fire, as normal . For this attack to work properly, the garage must also be ventilated

    Another school of thought involves fighting the fire from the garage side. When this is done, the fire officer must consider and address the integrity of the interior entry door to the living quarters.
  71. If the door must be cut with a saw, cut about __ inches in from each side to avoid the hardware and rollers.
  72. In the _______ of an attached garage, crews must also be sent to check above the fire.
    third style
  73. For every _____ fires that break out, 21 victims will die in mobile homes (Manufactured home), whereas fewer than __ will die in single- or two-family dwellings.
    • 1000
    • 7
  74. The use of horizontal ventilation by removal of win-dows and doors is the easiest way to vent a _______ home
  75. A quick fire knockdown from the exterior may be a good first tactical move based upon the extent of the fire. This action will accomplish two initial concerns:
    • (1) It will begin efforts for exposure protection, 
    • (2) it will allow crews to enter the manufactured home to complete fire control
  76. In some _______ _____, there is a door on the back side of the structure approximately in the mid-dle or back third of the structure
    manufactured homes
  77. At no time should a person be sent to the roof to try _____ _____.
    vertical ventilation
  78. The primary concerns for fire fighters entering marijuana grow houses or clandestine drug labs are . There are many reports of residential fires that turned out to be rented homes converted into marijuana-growing facilities
    • electrocution, 
    • propane/natural gas/flammable liquid explosions,
    • structural collapse,
    • chemical hazards,
    • toxic and corrosive atmospheric hazards, improperly contained toxic chemicals,
    • and booby traps
  79. In all building construction methods, the most common danger is the ____ _____and fire throughout these structures because of their openness
    spread of smoke
  80. Common fires in one- and two-family dwellings can be divided into the following categories: –
    • Basement fires 
    • First-floor fires
    • Upper-floor fires
    • Attic fires
    • Attached garage fires
    • Manufactured home fires
  81. 1.    When thinking about homes with normal fire loads, which of the following would be true? 
    A.   Modern furnishings are made with fire-resistive materials and therefore do not ignite easily.  
    B.   Modern furnishings will burn hotter and faster than legacy materials.  
    C.   Modern furnishings produce less smoke than legacy furnishings.
    D.   Legacy materials will generally lead to flashover in 3 to 4 minutes as compared to 6 to 8 minutes for modern furnishings.  
    B.   Modern furnishings will burn hotter and faster than legacy materials
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. 2.    Which of the following is not a construction method for wood-frame-constructed homes?

    A.   Post and frame  
    B.   Balloon frame  
    C.   Platform frame  
    D.   Panel frame
    D.   Panel frame
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. 3.    When discussing search and rescue in sin-gle-family homes, it is noteworthy that the leading specific location where civilian fire fatalities occur is the: 
    A.   basement.
    B.   bedroom.  
    C.   living room.  
    D.   kitchen.  
    B.   bedroom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. 4.   The biggest concern for fire fighter safety when fighting fires in upper floors is: 

    A.   lack of egress.  
    B.   advancing the hose line.  
    C.   lack of ventilation openings.  
    D.  Fire Spread.
    A.   lack of egress.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Card Set:
Chapter 11
2015-07-14 04:17:02
one two family dwellings

strategies and tactics
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