Card Set Information
biochemistry nutrition NBEO
biochemistry and nutrition NBEO
What is the chemical make-up of collagen?
Glycine + something else+ vitamin C
How many amino acids make up a protein?
How many amino acids make up a poly peptide?
Is amino acid concentration higher or lower in aqueous than blood plasma?
Is protein concentration higher or lower in aqueous than blood plasma?
What two types of tertiary structures are there?
What type of tertiary structure do enzymes have?
What type of tertiary structure does collagen have?
What do enzymes do?
Lower the activation energy needed to initiate reaction
Which type of tertiary structure is water soluble?
Which type of tertiary structure is water insoluble?
What is the most abundant protein in the body?
What part of the eye has type 1 collagen?
What part of the eye has type 2 collagen?
What part of the eye has type 4 collagen?
How many quaternary structures does insulin have?
How many quaternary structures does hemoglobin have?
Which antibody can cross the placenta?
Which antibody is the first one made?
Which antibody is found in secretions such as tears and breast milk?
For competitive inhibition: what does it mean when KM is high?
Shift to the right
For competitive inhibition: what does it mean when KM is low?
What does exergonic mean?
energy is released, ex. Glycolysis
What endergonic mean?
Energy is required
What is enthalpy?
Heat given off
What is entropy?
Measure of randomness
In Bioenergonics, what is the best way to get a reaction going?
-G and -H
What is NADPH used for?
To make steroids, fatty acids, cortisol, RNA, DNA, gluthiaonone
Via pentose phosphate shunt
What electron carriers are used in the Krebs cycle?
What does oxidation mean?
LEO (lost electron = oxidation)
What does reduction mean?
GER (gained electron= reduction)
What monosaccharides are there?
What disaccharides are there?
Maltose (glucose + glucose)
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
What are glycosaminoglycans?
Polysaccharide made up of repeating disaccharide units
What are proteoglycans?
One or more covalently linked GAC chains
Where does glycolysis occur?
What is the rate limiting step in glycolysis?
What does glycolysis produce?
What is glycolysis?
The breakdown of glucose
If there is O2 at the end of glycolysis, what happens?
Krebs then oxidative phos.
2 Pyruvates are converted to acetyl COA yielding 2 NADH
If there is no O2 at the end of glycolysis, what happens?
Lactic acid cycle
Where is NADPH produced?
pentose phosphate shunt
What does Krebs cycle produce?
Each pyruvate from glycolysis becomes acetyl CoA and enters the TCA cycle
Each TCA cycle produces 6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
What is produced in oxidative phosphorylation?
36 total ATPs from glucose
Where does the pentose phosphate shunt occur?
What does the pentose phosphate shunt occur?
12 NADPH per glucose
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
Liver and sometimes kidneys
What does the sympathetic system do to glucose?
Releases glucose into the blood
What does the parasympathetic system do to glucose?
Stores in within cells
Where does glycogenesis occur?
Muscle and liver
What is glycogenesis?
Storage of glucose
Performed in the liver
What is glycogenolysis?
Breakdown of glucose storage (glycogen)
Performed in the liver
What does the brain use during fasting conditions for energy?
How many calories per gram are produced by lipids?
4 for all the other substances (carbs & proteins)
What types of ketone bodies are there?
what are ketone bodies?
A breakdown of fatty acids
What types of cholesterols are there?
Salt <> aldosterone
Sugar <> cortisol
Sex<> androgens and progesterone
What skin condition around the eyes is associated with high cholesterol?
What are essential fatty acids?
We must get them from our diet
What essential fatty acids are there?
Omega 3 (ALA)
Omega 6 (ARA)
What disorder is caused by Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
What vitamins are fat soluble?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin D?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in vitamin E?
What disorder is caused by deficiency in vitamin A?
Keratinization of cornea
What disorder is caused by deficiency of vitamin K?
When is heparin used?
Acute IV situations
What nitrogenous bases are purines?
Pure as Gold
What nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?
What nitrogenous base bonds have the most strength?
What vitamins act as antioxidants?
What vitamins have no disorders associated with excessive intake?
What is the most plentiful antibody?
How do noncompetitive inhibitors shift the curve?
What effect does the parasympathetic system have on glucose?
What effect does the sympathetic system have on glucose?
What do the blot tests do?
Southern looks at genes within DNA
Western looks at protein. Diagnosis of AIDS
Northern looks at RNA