biochem NBEO.txt

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cjensen20
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305182
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biochem NBEO.txt
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2015-07-14 08:08:21
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biochemistry nutrition NBEO
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biochemistry and nutrition NBEO
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  1. What is the chemical make-up of collagen?
    Glycine + something else+ vitamin C
  2. How many amino acids make up a protein?
    100+
  3. How many amino acids make up a poly peptide?
    4+
  4. Is amino acid concentration higher or lower in aqueous than blood plasma?
    Higher
  5. Is protein concentration higher or lower in aqueous than blood plasma?
    Lower
  6. What two types of tertiary structures are there?
    • Globular
    • Fibrous
  7. What type of tertiary structure do enzymes have?
    Globular
  8. What type of tertiary structure does collagen have?
    Fibrous
  9. What do enzymes do?
    Lower the activation energy needed to initiate reaction
  10. Which type of tertiary structure is water soluble?
    Globular
  11. Which type of tertiary structure is water insoluble?
    Fibrous
  12. What is the most abundant protein in the body?
    Collagen
  13. What part of the eye has type 1 collagen?
    Bowman's membrane
  14. What part of the eye has type 2 collagen?
    Vitreous humor
  15. What part of the eye has type 4 collagen?
    Descemet's membrane
  16. How many quaternary structures does insulin have?
    2
  17. How many quaternary structures does hemoglobin have?
    4
  18. Which antibody can cross the placenta?
    IgG
  19. Which antibody is the first one made?
    IgM
  20. Which antibody is found in secretions such as tears and breast milk?
    IgA
  21. For competitive inhibition: what does it mean when KM is high?
    • Low affinity
    • Shift to the right
  22. For competitive inhibition: what does it mean when KM is low?
    • High affinity
    • Shift downward
  23. What does exergonic mean?
    • -G
    • energy is released, ex. Glycolysis
  24. What endergonic mean?
    Energy is required
  25. What is enthalpy?
    • H
    • Heat given off
  26. What is entropy?
    • S
    • Measure of randomness
  27. In Bioenergonics, what is the best way to get a reaction going?
    -G and -H
  28. What is NADPH used for?
    • To make steroids, fatty acids, cortisol, RNA, DNA, gluthiaonone
    • Via pentose phosphate shunt
  29. What electron carriers are used in the Krebs cycle?
    • NADH
    • FADH
  30. What does oxidation mean?
    LEO (lost electron = oxidation)
  31. What does reduction mean?
    GER (gained electron= reduction)
  32. What monosaccharides are there?
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  33. What disaccharides are there?
    • MLS
    • Maltose (glucose + glucose)
    • Lactose (glucose + galactose)
    • Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
  34. What are glycosaminoglycans?
    Polysaccharide made up of repeating disaccharide units
  35. What are proteoglycans?
    One or more covalently linked GAC chains
  36. Where does glycolysis occur?
    Cytosol
  37. What is the rate limiting step in glycolysis?
    Phosphofructokinase
  38. What does glycolysis produce?
    2 pyruvates
  39. What is glycolysis?
    The breakdown of glucose
  40. If there is O2 at the end of glycolysis, what happens?
    • Krebs then oxidative phos.
    • 2 Pyruvates are converted to acetyl COA yielding 2 NADH
  41. If there is no O2 at the end of glycolysis, what happens?
    Lactic acid cycle
  42. Where is NADPH produced?
    pentose phosphate shunt
  43. What does Krebs cycle produce?
    • Each pyruvate from glycolysis becomes acetyl CoA and enters the TCA cycle
    • Each TCA cycle produces 6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP
  44. Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
    Inner mitochondrial membrane
  45. What is produced in oxidative phosphorylation?
    • 36 total ATPs from glucose
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH
  46. Where does the pentose phosphate shunt occur?
    Cytoplasm
  47. What does the pentose phosphate shunt occur?
    12 NADPH per glucose
  48. Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
    Liver and sometimes kidneys
  49. What does the sympathetic system do to glucose?
    Releases glucose into the blood
  50. What does the parasympathetic system do to glucose?
    Stores in within cells
  51. Where does glycogenesis occur?
    Muscle and liver
  52. What is glycogenesis?
    • Storage of glucose
    • Performed in the liver
    • Parasympathetic process
  53. What is glycogenolysis?
    • Breakdown of glucose storage (glycogen)
    • Performed in the liver
    • Sympathetic process
  54. What does the brain use during fasting conditions for energy?
    Ketone bodies
  55. How many calories per gram are produced by lipids?
    • 9
    • 4 for all the other substances (carbs & proteins)
  56. What types of ketone bodies are there?
    • Acetoacetate
    • d-hydroxybutyrate
    • acetone
  57. what are ketone bodies?
    A breakdown of fatty acids
  58. What types of cholesterols are there?
    • Salt <> aldosterone
    • Sugar <> cortisol
    • Sex<> androgens and progesterone
  59. What skin condition around the eyes is associated with high cholesterol?
    Xanthelasma
  60. What are essential fatty acids?
    We must get them from our diet
  61. What essential fatty acids are there?
    • Omega 3 (ALA)
    • Omega 6 (ARA)
  62. What disorder is caused by Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency?
    Beriberi
  63. What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)?
    Anemia
  64. What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)?
    Scurvy
  65. What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
    Pernicious anemia
  66. What vitamins are fat soluble?
    DEAK
  67. What disorder is caused by deficiency in Vitamin D?
    • Rickets
    • Osteomalacia
  68. What disorder is caused by deficiency in vitamin E?
    Hemolysis
  69. What disorder is caused by deficiency in vitamin A?
    • Night blindness
    • Bitot's spots
    • Keratinization of cornea
  70. What disorder is caused by deficiency of vitamin K?
    Hemorrhages
  71. When is heparin used?
    Acute IV situations
  72. What nitrogenous bases are purines?
    • Pure as Gold
    • AG
  73. What nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?
    Pyrates CuT
  74. What nitrogenous base bonds have the most strength?
    CG
  75. What vitamins act as antioxidants?
    ACE
  76. What vitamins have no disorders associated with excessive intake?
    EK
  77. What is the most plentiful antibody?
    IgG
  78. How do noncompetitive inhibitors shift the curve?
    Upward
  79. What effect does the parasympathetic system have on glucose?
    Storage (glycogenesis)
  80. What effect does the sympathetic system have on glucose?
    • Lysis (glycolysis)
    • Growth hormone
    • Epinephrine
    • Steroids
  81. What do the blot tests do?
    • Southern looks at genes within DNA
    • Western looks at protein. Diagnosis of AIDS
    • Northern looks at RNA

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