route of cultivating sugar cane: Caribbean, Africa, New England.
Sugar Triangle of Americas
Genus: Saccharum. Family Poaceae.
This is grown for 3 years in
succession, then they let the field fallow (resting) – b/c it's
not a perennial plant.
What is the family name for the Morning Glory family?
Ipoema Batatas is a sp. from the Morning Glory family. It's harvested as a root from South America. What is the common name?
Why do people burn cane after it is cut?
They effectively remove all the leaves, and leaves the stalk of sugar. Also, intense heat given off begins the process of reducing the water in the stalk to concentrate the sugar.
What is a perennial plant?
Lives on and reproduces indefinitely.
Sweet potatoes are _______ in temperate places, but perennial in tropics.
________ is the component left after boiling crushed sugar cane to remove the crystalline sugar. Also used as a food source for livestock.
_______ sugar is not cleaned, has larger grains, and tends to clump together b/c there's a thin layer of molasses.
_______ sugar is just cleaned sugar. AKA Granulated sugar.
_________ sugar is tiny crystal sugar with corn starch added to prevent them from adhering to each other.
_________ sugar is just granulated sugar with molasses added.
The scientific name for the common beet is _______ _______.
Genus name for true yams?
Sweet potatoes are easier to grow than true yams because yams thrive in ________ climates.
A yam is a _______ root, just like a sweet potatoes. But they are very large.
Yams are poisonous if eaten raw because of _____ ______ in the skin. Must be cooked.
____ ______ are yams that grow right off the vine.
Yucca root is also known as ______ or _______. The scientific name is ________ _________.
cassava, manioc, manihot esculenta
______ roots are the most important tropical root throughout tropics because it grows in the worse conditions. Native to south America.
Starch from yucca is turned into ______, which is used as a thickening agent.
Roots of the yucca plant have a ________ compound.
Some of the foods that we get from the flower of a plant: _______, _______ and _______.
Broccoli, cauliflower, artichokes.
Some foods that we get from leaves: ______, ______ greens, ______ greens, _____, ______ sprouts, _______ and garlic.
spinach, mustard, turnip, kale, brussel, onions
Some foods we get from stems: ______, _______, _______ (my favorite), ______ cane and ________.
broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, sugar, potatoes
This is the scientific name for the mustard family: ________, or the old name after the cross shape of the four petals ________.
This is the primary genus of brassicaceae (mustard family) and contains broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnips, mustard and brussel sprouts, cabbage. *Note, many of these are same sp (oleracea)., just variations.
The ________ was considered the poor man's food.
________ is the sunflower family, it's old name is _______.
The most popular genus of asteraceae is _____.
________ is the genus name of the asteraceae family plant that we eat. The cultivated version of this plant is called lettuce.
There is a sp. of lettuce called _______ _____, it produces hickory.
______ comes from east Asia and is known for its high iron content, although only a small portion of it can be ingested b/c it's bound to ______ ______.
Spinach, calcium oxilate
The sp. _______ _______ is the potato, from S. America. Grown at high altitudes.
A _____ is an underground storage system in plants.
______ is made by stomping on potatoes and freezing the remains over and over again in order to have potato starch for later.
The _____ _____ famine occurred in 1845, and is the reason we call potatoes Irish potatoes.
_____ sugar is just refined sugar with molasses added to it.
Spices and herbs have no real nutritional value. _____ are described as being hot and bitter, and ______ are described as being aromatic and subtle - typically taken from leaves and stems.
________ or the old name _______ is the mint family.
_______ are true mint plants b/c they find purpose in medicines and foods; these include: _______ (peppermint) or ______ (spearmint).
Marentha, pepperita, spicata
________ is the genus name for rosemary; it is common along coastlines of Mediterranean and it's flowers look like sea foam. Used to disguise taste of meat, also used in perfumes or hair conditioners.
______ is the genus name for oregano, whose use soared after WW2.
______ is the genus name of thyme. It has the highest antifungal / antiseptic property than any mint plant. Also has the tiniest leaves.
The genus_____ is where sage comes from; popular use in cooking turkey or eurosausages. Comes from the word 'salvation'.
Marentha, rosmarinus, origanum thymus and savlia are all genera coming from the _____ family.
lamiaceae or mint
The family iridaceae contains the genus_____ which contains the spice saffron. It's regarded as the most expensive spice in the world as it is only attained from stamen. Intensive yellow color.
_____ _____ is the scientific name of black pepper, originating in SE Asia. *Important trade for European continent.
______ is the leading exporter of black pepper on the planet.
The fruit which is black pepper is a small ______.
White pepper only comes from the ______ of the fruit.
_____ (the seed) and _____ (the fleshy covering) originates in the south pacific. Fruit is large peach size fruit containing a big seed covered with red flesh.
The spice _______ was used to flavor the alcohol rum.
________ and _______ were the islands which were famous for cultivating nutmeg.
A devastating fungus destroyed the nutmeg crop in SE Asia, and so the small island of _______ became world known for it's nutmeg cultivation.
_________ is the family that contains the genus vanilla.
______ is the 2nd most expensive spice in the world, comes from an orchid.
The most labor intensive part of getting vanilla spice is ________ the orchid it comes from.
The _______ process of the vanilla fruit is what gives it the intense flavor.
Real vanilla _____ is made from vanilla beans, while imitation vanilla made from fermented wood pulp - makes the same sort of aroma.
The genus name for the new world spice 'allspice' is called ________.
The spice _______ resembles a combination of 3 spices: cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Common in the Caribbean.
Vanilla is a ___ world spice.
Trees on the island of _______ are renowned for cultivating the best quality allspice.
By 1700 BC ______ and ______ produced extensive writings about medicinal plants. One having over 700 formulas.
Egypt and Babylonia
If you chew the bark of this tree, it would relieve minor aches and pains. Genus name Salix. Where we get the term salicylic acid.
___________ was known as the father of medicine. Was the first guy to talk about illnesses in terms of natural causes.
Root diggers were drug merchants in midieval times that were known as __________.
The period of time that medicinal stuff was growing was called the ______ __ of Greece.
This man conquered the known world at age 19. He also brought plants back to his friend Theophrastus.
Alexander the Great
_______ was a teacher whose specialty was zoology.
_________ was the father of botany. Was the first to record technical features and descriptions of plants.
__________ is not only the genus name of yams, but is also the name of the father of pharmacology. He traveled with the Roman Army and collected plant/ medical info - wrote a 5 volume book called __ ______ ______.
De Materia Medica was the authority on medicine for _____ years. It described ___ spp. and described ____ drugs.
1500, 600, 1000
__________ undid the tried and true methods of De Materia Medica by popularizing "Doctrine of Signatures".
The "_______ __ _______" was based on Paeacelsus' claim that God gave him insight into medicinal properties by placing 'signs' in plants.
Doctrine of Signatures
What are six secondary plant substances used medicinally?