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Rocks bang into each other and become smaller and more rounded
All rainfall is slightly acidic because of the dissolved carbon dioxide. The term acid rainrefers to rain that is extra acidic because of large amounts of dissolved gases such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. These can make nitric acid and sulfuric acid as well as many others
A substance is reacted with an alkene to form a compound with a single bond between the two formerly double bonded carbon atoms. An example is the decolourisation of bromine
One long single molecule is made from many short chain monomers. All the starting material is incorporated in the final polymer. An addition reaction takes place each time the chain is extended
The mixture of gases which we breathe! Most of the air (almost 4/5) is nitrogen with oxygen making up 1/5 and small amounts of argon (1%) and other gases in even smaller amounts. Carbon dioxide is only present in very small quantities. Water vapour is present in varying amounts depending on where you are in the world
Substances that have been released into the air that are not natural. In the past, people have not been very concerned about waste being put into the atmosphere. Many thought that a tall chimney would remove the problem. Nowadays we are much more careful and take more care to dispose of problem gases, smoke and dusts in a more responsible way
A hydrocarbon that has only single bonds. It is a saturated hydrocarbon
A mixture of different metals. Bronze, brass, duralumin are some typical examples of alloys
The smallest particle tha can be recognised as being an element. If you break an atom into its smaller pieces (protons, neutrons and electrons) you can no longer identify a particular element
BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATION
If ever you write a chemical eqaution using symbols it MUST be balanced. That means that there must be the same number of each kind of atom on either side of the equation
An igneous rock which cooled quickly from magma. The rapid cooling (perhaps under water) caused it to have small crystals
A substance that will neutralise an acid is called a base. When an acid reacts with a base, a salt and water is formed. If a base is soluble in water, it is called an alkali
Rocks can be broken down in many ways. Biological weathering is the breakdown of rocks by biological action. A good example is where the roots of plants growing in cracks in rocks causes them to split
When boiling, a liquid is evaporating as fast as it can. If you look at a boiling liquid (careful!) you will see that it is forming bubbles in the body of the liquid
This is the maximum temperature a liquid can achieve. For water, the boiling point is 100oC (at standard atmospheric pressure). Pure liquids have a single steady boiling point
BOILING POINT RANGE
In the fractional distillation of crude oil, the substances are collected in groups (fractions) according to their boiling point range
- There are three main kinds of bonds at GCSE level.
- An ionic bond holds two ions (of opposite charge) together by electrostatic attraction. Ionic bonding occurs between a metal and a non-metal. A good example is sodium chloride.
- A covalent bond uses a shared pair of electrons to hold two atoms together. This usually occurs between two non-metal atoms. There are covalent bonds between the atoms in ammonia.
- A metallic bond is formed by a delocalised sea of electrons surrounding the very tightly packed metal atoms.
A solution of sodium chloride (common salt) in water is called brine
A bubble contains a gas. Bubbles in a liquid when it is boiling contain the vapour of that liquid. Bubbles of gas can be formed during a chemical reaction
It was believed to be an ash-like substance which is left when the phlogiston leaves a metal. Although we now believe that metals form metal oxides when they burn, we no longer believe the phlogiston theory
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