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Xenopsylla cheopis primary vector of Bubonic plague
- ndotoxins cause disseminated intravascular coagulation
- causing tiny clots,
- ischaemic necrosis from the clots.
- DIC results in depletes clotting resources and no longer control bleeding
Plague vaccine is a vaccine used against
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis)
- is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium
Tularemia gotten from?
- via arthropod vectors leas ticks.
- Resevoirs Rodents, rabbits, and hares
- contact with contaminated animals or material
- poorly cooked flesh of infected, water, or by inhalation
Cause of Tularemia
bacterium Francisella tularensis. A Gram-negative, nonmotile coccobacillus,
Francisella tularensis afeects what cells an dhow
- live as a parasite within host cells.
- It primarily infects macrophages,
Spotted fever infects
- the cells lining blood vessels
- severe manifestations involve the respiratory system,
- central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, or renal system.
Vector of spotted_fever
- zoonotic diseases
- ticks are the natural hosts, serving as both reservoirs and vectors of R. rickettsii.
caused by Rickettsiae
Typhus in greak means
smoky or hazy, describing the state of mind of those affected
Treatment for typhus
- Coxiella burnetii obligate inracellular need just one
- inhalation of particles in the air
- milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals not tick borne
Diagnosis of Q fever
Diagnosis is usually based on serology (looking for an antibody response) rather than looking for the organism itself
Treatment of Q ferevr
- Q-Vax inactivated vaccine
- doxycycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and hydroxychloroquine.
syptoms of Q fever
- incubates 2 to 3 weeks
- flu like, fever, profuse sweat, head ache myalgia
- can progress to pneumonia
- chronic is like inflammation and can affect the heart
About Coxiella burnetii
- Q fever
- gram negative
- spore in soil
- has been used as a bio weapon
Symptoms may of
- include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a circular skin rash called erythema migrans
- Left untreated, involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system.
- Gram negative spirochete
- can survive without iron
vaccine for borrella dugdoferi
- LYMErix but withdrawn
- available for dogs
- drugs: doxycycline (in adults), amoxicillin (in children), erythromycin (for pregnant women)
post lyme disease
arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and/or encephalomyelitis.
Toxic shock syndrome
- bacterial toxin
- Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal TSS
tss by staphylococcus aureus
high fever, accompanied by low blood pressure, malaise and confusion, which can rapidly progress to stupor, coma, and multi-organ failure.characteristic rash, often seen early in the course of illness, resembles a sunburn
TSS by Streptococcus Pyogenes
- no rash
- pre existing skin wound
- becomes painful then frogress into similar staphylococcus aureus symtoms but no rash
Special Note about TSS
- Super Antigen bypass antigen presenting and initiate non specific activation of tcells and mass cytokine rlease
- In patients with TSS, up to 20% of the body's T cells can be activated at one time. This polyclonal T-cell population causes a cytokine storm, followed by a multisystem disease.