Why was education most important to the founders of the early republic?
Because they saw it as a venue to produce a populace capable of functioning in a democratic republic
When did Federal Law start supporting education?
It began in 1785 with the Land Ordinance Act
Who did Jefferson propose education should be free for?
Children for three years and then extended for the poor on a merit basis (scholarships for the very best) through university-level training
Benjamin Rush felt strongly that first Pennsylvania and then the entire nation should have what?
A unified school system
How did Webster's dictionary come about?
As a result from his desire to create a distinctively American language
Who believed that educating women would serve to provide "agreeable companion[s]" for reasonable men?
Who published a spelling book that also tried to teach the values that were important to the new republic, e.g. thrift, honest work, and the dangers of alcohol?
The practice of asking teaching assistants to teach some of a professor's classes may be a carry-over from the old system.
Who believed that young black people should be educated because it was morally right and economically necessary for the new nation?
The monitorial system was....
A way of getting basic education to a very large number of students at the same time
If you attended a Sunday School in the 1820s, you would probably learn what?
Reading, and good conduct
Most of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution had
Been educated as apprentices, at home, or by other private means
How did early American thinkers feel that American education should be?
Jefferson's vision of education for American children
Was never fulfilled in his lifetime
Benjamin Rush argued that supporting schools through taxes was
Fair because the financial benefits of an educated populace outweighed the costs of education
What were the purposes of education in early colonial New England?
To put religion into the students, to create good citizens, and to give students economic self-sufficiency
Which colony felt it less important to teach a specific religion to all of its children?
In what area of the colonies was it most important to promote the status quo?
New England, Mid-Atlantic colonies, and the South
Although religion was a basic part of all colonial education, in what area of the colonies was it considered most vital?
A dame school in New England was somewhat analogous to a modern day what?
What were the basic skills girls were taught in New England?
Reading and household skills including counting
Where were the "old field schools" most often found in?
In which of the following colonies were girls most likely to be educated?
Pennsylvania and Delaware
How was discipline usually maintained through?
In all of the colonies, what became an important vehicle for educating middle-class boys?
How were children viewed to be in a typical school adhering to the principles of the enlightenment?
Individuals who could be taught to reason and who could enjoy learning
What were the major purpose of the Latin grammar school?
To prepare boys to enter the university
What were the preferred methods of instruction in the early colonies?
Lecture, recitation, and repetition
In the colonial New England, what did the curriculum in town schools consisted mainly of?
The four Rs-readin', writing', 'arithmetic, and religion
Which of the British colonial areas viewed education to be a responsibility of the town or community in which a student lived?
What was the religious group that took the most responsibility for educating the poor and the minority groups in the Mid-Atlantic colonies
In all of the colonies, how was the teacher seen as?
A stern dispenser of knowledge
Locke believed that the role of education was to produce
Sensory experiences that stimulate learning to fill the "blank slate" of the mind
What did Rousseau believe that education should centered on?
Franklin envisioned an academy in which in addition to Latin, Greek, history and philosophy would be taught
What was one of the great changes that occurred in American philosophy in the early 1800s of education?
States rather than parents had the ultimate responsibility for educating the children
Who was the leading spokesman for the common school movement?
Why did Horace Mann feel that women would make the best teachers?
Because women were less expensive to employ
How did John Hughes disagree with Horace Mann's views?
They thought that different versions of the Bible should be used in schools
What did Mann and Beecher agree on?
That women were uniquely constituted to be teachers
In the common schools, how did girls sit?
They sat on the opposite side of the school from the boys
What was one of the reasons for starting the common school movement?
To level the educational playing field between rich and poor
Before the Civil War, many southern states
Made educating black children illegal
In both the North and the South, where black children were educated, they were usually
Segregated from the white children
Who was the leading author of children's reading texts in the common school period?
What did John Hughes want?
Schools that taught Catholic doctrine
As a result of the continuing dispute about the station of only Protestant values in public schools
Most state legislatures banned religious education in state supported schools
When it became common for women to become teachers
They were paid only about half as much as men
Normal schools were
Who was Catherine Beecher?
The leading force behind making education a respectable occupation for women
Who was secondary education available before 1900?
Only to the privileged
Why were the private academies developed?yy
To prepare the sons of merchants and craftsmen to be successful vocationally
When it opened in 1821, the free public high school, in Boston,
Was unique in the new republic
Free, tax-supported, supported secondary education in all of the states became a common phenomenon in all of the states as a result of
A Michigan Supreme Court decision that stated that it is illogical to have free elementary schools and a state university but only private secondary schools
By the turn of the 20th century, what percent of American 17 year olds graduated from high school?
What were the purposes that the Committee of Ten ascribed to high school?
Prepare students to make a living, prepare students to contribute to society, and to prepare some student stop enter the university
In the early 1900s, what were most high schools made up of?
Middle-class white males and females
Surprisingly enough, what did many black parents support?
Segregation in public schools
Booker T. Washington advocated for what kind of education for black children?
W.E.B. DuBois favored what for talented black students?
Who was the most militant in demanding equal educational privileges for black people?
Who was successful in creating a teachers' college and an industrial institute, both of which are now major universities?
Booker T. Washington
The Morrill Act was responsible for establishing land-grant universities where were to focus on what?
Agricultural and mechanical arts
As late as 1915 about two million children between the ages of 10 and 15 were
Working on farms and in factories and not going to school
What were the two factors that contributed most to compulsory education laws?
The need to protect children from workplace abuse and the need for a more educated work force
What group of scholars was the junior high school first recommend by?
The Committee of Ten
What was proposed as a reason for establishing the junior high school?
Decrease the dropout rate, vocational exploration, and developmental differences between younger and older adolescents
Who was the founder of the kindergarten?
While the Kirtland School was open to both men and women, it was established primarily for what?
To give the young elders the necessary education to effectively teach the gospel
The Kirtland School was so popular that it had to be restricted to who?
Older students who wanted to study penmanship, arithmetic, grammar, and geography
When the Saints were driven from Missouri and established themselves in what would be Nauvoo,they built a school
As soon as a room could be arranged for use as a classroom
Who was the first teacher in Nauvoo?
Eliza R. Snow
What were the problems encountered by the Nauvoo school?
Overcrowding, absenteeism, and meeting the needs of the individuals in the heterogeneous groups that were taught
In Nauvoo, students were given religious instruction through what?
Hymns and prayers that opened and closed classes as well as a blending of religious principles with the "regular" subject matter
What did Brigham Young advocate?
Learning both the things of God and the things of the world
What was Brigham Young an excellent example of?
A life-long learner who valued education
How were the first elementary schools in Utah financed?
By tuition from the students' families
What did non LDS citizens of the Utah territory want?
They wanted tax-supported schools that would have no religious entanglements
What was Brigham Young Academy originally established as?
A high school
What was the original Salt Lake Academy known as now?
LDS Business College
Where was Karl Maeser a principal at?
Brigham Young Academy
What was the current Brigham Young University Idaho originally known as?
Bannock Stake Acadmey
What did the Bannock Stake Academy originally begin as?
An elementary school
What did Brigham Young instruct that LDS schools should do?
That schools should not even teach the alphabet without the spirit of God
Who was the first principal of the Bannock Stake Academy?
At least one point in their histories, all of the Church academies have included what in their curricula?
During the Great Depression (1929-1941), finances became so tight for Ricks College that....?
The church Board of Education tried to give it to the state of Idaho twice
What does the lemon test tell us?
If an act of government follows constitution establishing clause (freedom of religion)
In the 1950's, education seemed, on the surface, to be almost universal in the United States; however, not for who?
Ethnic minorities, women, the disadvantages, and the disabled received substandard to poor educational services
What did Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas, a landmark court case, prohibit in schools?
How does de facto segregation differ from de sure segregation?
De facto segregation happens naturally and de sure segregation is mandated by law
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 allow discriminatory schools to do?
Be sued in federal courts and denied federal aid to education
What did the Elementary and Secondary Education act do?
It increased federal support of education
Currently, segregated schools
Are common due to personal choice, housing, and neighborhood
What is the federal program Head Start designed to prepare?
3-5 year olds from disadvantaged homes to start school on an even basis with their more affluent peers
Title 1 of the ESEA is designed to assist local school districts to educate children
From low-income families
What does bilingual education provide?
Instruction in core subjects in both English and the native language
What does Lau v. Nichols require?
Students be given instruction in their native language until they an function on a competitive basis in academic English
As late as the mid 1970s, most state laws allowed for the exclusion from public school of students who were deemed uneducable as a result of what?
IDEA is a federal law that is concerned primarily with giving people with handicaps
What does IDEA require children with handicaps?
To be educated in the least restricted environment possible
"Least Restricted Environment" means that handicapped children must be educated how?
As much as possible like children without disabilities
What can teachers expect to teach in regular education classes?
Students from varied ethnic backgrounds, from every socio-economic level, and with a wide variety of cognitive and physical abilities
What is mandated by IDEA?
-Handicapped children must be a free and appropriate education
-They must have an Individualized Education Plan in place which stipulates how their disabilities are to be accommodated int eh public school setting
-They must be educated in a setting that gives an educational experience that is as much as possible like that of their un-handicapped peers
What did Mary Wollstonecraft advocate for in 1789?
Educational rights for women
What does Title IX of the Education Amendments Act prohibit?
Gender discrimination in any education program or activity that receives federal financial assistance
Over the last quarter century female participation in sport on the high school level has what?
Where does Title IX not have a provision that guarantees women equal rights to participation?
Who was the chief justice of the Supreme Court and wrote the ruling in the Brown v. the Board of Education case?
Who was the advocate for the rights of disabled children?
The report that claimed that if another nation had imposed our education system on the United States, we would consider it an act of war was who?
A Nation at Risk
What were the recommendations of the A Nation at Risk report?
-High school graduation requirements will rise to include four years of english, three years of mathematics, three years of science, three years of social studies, and at least one half year of computer science
-School districts will adopt measurable standards and high expectations for academic performance and student conduct
-School districts will expand the time available for learning, including a very large increase in homework and eliminating social promotion
What was the committee who created the National Education Goals 2000 plan composed of?
The governors of all 50 states
How did the federal government encourage schools to implement the schools 2000 plan?
By giving out more than 2 billion dollars in federal grants to states and school districts
On the date set by the Educate America Act, the academic improvement of the Schools 2000 plan were...
One of the requirements of Schools 2000 was for districts to increase....
Who recommended holding educators and elected officials responsible for initiating educational reform?
A Nation at Risk
What was a result of the Schools 2000 plan?
48 states introduced standardized tests in every subject area to determine whether students had achieved competency in each subject area
Who was the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) revision of ESEA was directed at?
All students and teachers in the nation
What did the NCLB require schools use to prove that they were meeting their average yearly progress (AYP) goals?
AYP (four to six percent improvement in the number of students who reached the "proficient" level on the standardized tests) was measured by the performance of what?
Each of the sub-groups in the school
What could be applied in the 6th year under NCLB if a school did not meet its AYP goals for five consecutive years?
-The state could take over the school
-School could be changed to a charter school
-A private company could be chosen to manage the school
Under President Obama, what does educational reform target?
-Increasing students' feelings of self-efficacy
-Standards and performance assessment
It appears that a new educational focus of the current administration will be......
Probably the most significant changes in the future of education will come about as a result of what?
Increased technology that can facilitate a variety of learning opportunities and time schedules
What are the characteristics of the majority of modern American schools?
-They function on an agricultural calendar
-They are housed in buildings based on an industrial age factory model, with different rooms dedicated to separate subject areas in secondary school
-They are administered by a centralized hierarchy
Changed curriculum in the schools to focus on practical skills rather than Latin
-Father of American education
-Promoted free public education now as the Common School
-Spokesman for progressivism
-Focus on student/teacher interaction
-Believed "the Talented Tenth" of blacks would become the leaders of their race if they could receive a classical(academic) education similar to what was provided potential leaders of the White society
Booker T. Washington
-Advocated practical education over an academic education
-Felt that by learning a trade and skills, Blacks would have the resources to become self-sufficient
Thomas E. Ricks
-Stake president who wanted a school (Bannock or Ricks college) set up