Card Set Information
Stops of inhibits growth of bacteria
Deals with bacterial infections
Gram + (aerobic or anaerobic?)
infection as a result of a procedure
implies that it's an infection developed in the hospital
Gram - (aerobic or anaerobic?)
infection were multiple organ are involved
bacteria in the blood
protective response to bacterial invasion
not necessarily an infection
invasion and multiple recpilcations of bacteria
Superinfection or Secondary infection
Assess for ____
Vaginitis (because antibiotic will suppress flora)
THRUSH (white patches in mouth/oralpharynx)
Diarrhea (b/c antibiotic suppresses flora)
determines identity of microbe
Determines which antimicrobial agent will be therapeutic
Contributing factors to bacteria resistance
Widespread use of anti-microbial drugs
Interrupted treatment (Don't finish pills)
Increase number of high risk pts (higher risk for developing infections)
Location (ex. ICU, Lg hospital)
How to treat an anaphylactic reaction
epinephrine and corticosteroids
What are symptoms of a localized infection?
redness, heat, edema, pain, drainage
What are some symptoms of systemic infection?
fever, increase HR, increased RR
high WBC (5,000-10,000)
Watch culture and sensitivity
What is a high level of WBC?
Which antibiotics interfere with cell wall synthesis?
What are some problems with penicillin (PCN)
Risk for severe allergic reactions
PCN resistant bacteria
When does PCN (Penicillin) allergic reactions generally happen?
Not on the first dose
Does PCN (Penicillin) cross the BBB? Placenta? Breast Milk?
What category is penicillin?
Category B tetrogenicity
What are the uses of Penicillin?
Tx Gram+ organisms
Bacterial endocarditis (infection of the inner layer of the heart)
What is the prototype for PCN (Penicillin)
What does given on an empty stomach mean?
1 hour before your eat
2 hours after you eat
What are the ADE for PCN (Penicillin)?
: N V D
: Allergic reaction
What is the black box warning on PCN (Penicillin)
Aqueous is the only one that can be given IV
Use PCN with caution when...
Pregnancy and Lactation
What is the prototype for Cephalosporin?
How is Cephalosporin (cefazolin) given?
What is cephalosporin used for?
(Given 30 min-2hrs pre op/ complete 30 mins per op)
has to be given for at least 30 mins, and has to be done prior to 30 mins before surgery
Placenta, breast milk
How is Cephalosporin (cefazolin) given?
PO- with food
IM - into a lg muscle
IV- pharmacist will usually mix it for you
What are some ADEs of Cephalosporin (cefazolin)?
What are some contraindications of Cephalosporin (cefazolin)?
anaphylactic reaction to PCN
What is Vancomycin used for?
Tx severe infections
What is VRE?
Vancomycin resistant enterococci
What is the mechanisms of action for vancomycin?
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
What is the caution for giving Vancomycin IV?
prevents red man syndrome
: release of histamine that causes red rash from head to toe
What are ADE of vancomycin?
Common: Rash, "red man syndrom"
Serious: Ototoxicity (effects hearing), Nephrotoxicity (watch Creatine levels)
How do you administer Vancomycin?
What is the MoA of Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, tetracyclines?
Inhibit protein synthesis of bacterial cell
affect ribosomes of bacterial cells, not normal cells
What is the prototype for aminoglycosides?
What are the uses of aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
serious gram- infections
Bowel Prep- gets rid of all fecal activity in GIT, decreases flora (used for surgeries)
Tx of Hepatic Coma or Hepatic encephalopathy (decrease in consciousness assc with liver failure)
absorbed by GIT?
Does not cross
Excreted unchanged by kidneys
When does serum aminoglycoside (gentamicin) peak and trough?
: 30-60 min after IV dose
: 30 min before next dose
What are the black box warning about aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
Nephrotoxicity (alt in urinary elimination)
Potentiates anesthetic neuromuscular blockers (may take longer for paralysis due to surgery to wear off)
What are some nursing assessments for aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
renal function (BUN 5-25, Creatine .5-1.5)
What are normal levels for BUN?
What are normal Creatine levels?
What are some contraindication for aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
What are the Black Box warnings for Aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
What is the prototype for Macrolides?
What are some uses for Macrolides (erythromycin)
Tx resp tract infections
Tx gram and infection
Substitue for PCN allergies
What are some contraindications to Macrolides (erythromycin)
What are some ADE to Macrolides (erythromycin)
What is the prototype for tetracycline?
What is tetracycline used for?
Tx of infection for: RT, GU, lyme, skin,
What are some contraindications of tetracycline?
: mom-hepatic necrosis, fetus-effects bones and teeth
Children < 8y/o
What are the MoA of Fluoroquinolones?
Antibiotic that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
What is the prototype for Fluoroquinalones?
What are some contraindications of Fluoroquinalones (ciprofloxacin)
Children <18 y.o
Adults > 60 y.o - causes arthropathy
Pregnant or lactating
How is Fluoroquinalones (ciprofloxacin) taken?
What is the black box warning for Fluoroquinalones (ciprofloxacin)
avoid high impact exercise and strenuous wt lifting due to possibility of tendon rupture
What are some ADE of fluoroquinalones (ciprofloxacin)
What is the MoA of Sulfonamides?
Antibiotis that inhibit metabolic pathways- antimetabolites
inhibits nucleic acids
What is the prototype of Sulfonamides
What are the uses for Sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim)?
: Vaginal infection, Dermititis, Burns
NOT for systemic infections
What are some contraindications of sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim)?
Late pregnancy or to newborns > kernicterus
: will displace the bilirubin and will rise and get to toxic levels
< than 2 months old
Hx of allergies to sulfa meds
Renal or hepatic failure
What are some ADE for sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim)?
: Rash, hives, itch, crystals in urine
What is stevens johnson syndrome?
JUST BE AWARE OF IT
hypersensitivity syndrome r/t:
What antibiotic is associated with C. Diff?
What are the symptoms of C.Diff?
Mild: water diarrhea 3x or more per day, abd cramping and tenderness
: Watery diarrhea 10-15x a day
blood, pus in stool
dehydration, Wt Loss
What is treatment for C Diff
What are the 6 steps to prevent C Diff?
Question whether antibiotics are needed
Test for C Diff right away
Disinfect EVERYTHING with bleach
Alert- all health care providers involved