Chapter 12

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mulett
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305364
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Chapter 12
Updated:
2015-07-19 03:02:50
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Stategiesandtactics
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Multifamily dwellings
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  1. For the purpose of this chapter, multiple-family dwellings are occupancies that house _____ or _____ _____.

    p.242
    three or more families
  2. Multi- Family buildings also present serious life-safety risks to fire fighters because of the ____ and _____ of interior layouts.
    size and complex-ity
  3. A fire on an upper floor necessitates a quick, upper-floor ____ and ____ and possible ____ ____ operations, while occupants ____ the fire are usually out of harm’s way. A lower-floor fire endangers occupants on __ floors.

    p.243
    • search and rescue
    • roof-cutting
    • below
    • all
  4. Muti-Family Dwellings

    Many of the same basic elements of fire fighter safety can be applied to all structure fires that have been presented thus far, such as: 

    p.243
    accountability, the assign-ment of a safety officer, the use of rapid interven-tion crew
  5. In Multi-Family dwellings when firefighters are  operating on upper floors it would require the placement of the RIC in a position from which they can respond quickly to a fire fighter in need.  Where should RIC be placed:

    .p.243
    inside the fire building but away from the fire area
  6. In a large building, an accountability officer should be placed at _____ ____.
    p.244
    entrance points
  7. In terms of accountability, because of the poten-tial size of multiple-family dwellings and the num-ber of entrances, there must be an accounting of the responders in the building and where they are at any given time. This can be accomplished through the assignment of ____ _____ ____ _____.
     p.244
    accountability officers at entry and exit points
  8. Victims often require rescue by ______ or  _______  ladders, which creates additional demands on available resources.p.244
    ground or aerial
  9. General priorities for a multiple-floor search include:

    p.244
    • Fire floor • Floor above the fire • Top floor • The rest of the building
  10. Search and rescue requires a great commitment of resources because of the area and number of people that may be affected at multifamily building incidents. The IC should be prepared to assign these resources and call for _____ ______ early in the incident, if needed.

    p.244
    additional resources
  11. Exposure protection needs at a multifamily building fire are varied. There are several elements that fire fighters should consider when protecting exposures in multiple-family dwellings, including other _____ of the  _____  _____ and _____ ______.p.245
    areas of the fire building and adjoining buildings
  12. If the hose line is not yet in place, simply _____ an apartment door can ____ the fire spread and help to confine the fire.p.245
    closing

    slow
  13. The location of the fire in the building dictates the _______ location.
    p.246
    ventilation
  14. Both  _____ and _____ ventilation are applicable in these buildings. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is particularly applicable to _______ ventilation.p.246
    • me-chanical and natural
    • stairwell
  15. Proper ___ ____ _____ and ______ practices are essential to successful outcomes.p.247
    hose line placement and venti-lation
  16. Apartment buildings built around the _____ were constructed using a ___ _____ brick exterior with ___ ___ materials used for the interior.

    p.247
    • 1900s 
    • fire-resistive
    • solid wood
  17. Apartment Buildings build around the 1900s were between __ and ___  stories in height, approximately __ __ wide and __ __ deep.
    • four and six 
    • 30 feet
    • 80 feet
  18. A typical older apartment building would have anywhere from__ to  ___ apartments per floor.
    p.247
    two to four
  19. Other possible avenues of fire extension in Older apartments are:

    p.247
    PRAAUD
    • • Pipe recesses
    • • Utility shafts (plumbing, electrical, etc.)
    • • Air/light shafts
    • • Dumbwaiter shafts
    • • Renovation/alterations
    • • Auto-extension from floor to floor
  20. A fire originating in an __ or ___ ___ or an apartment fire extending to the shaft can expose adjacent apartments, the floors above the fire apartment, and the adjoining build-ing to the fire.

    p.248
    air or light shaft
  21. Older apartment buildings typically have hazards that stem from the lack of fire protection built into concealed spaces, such as ____ ___. Another important factor to consider is that the building may have been _______ from age and usage prior to the fire.

    p.249
    • fire stops
    • deteriorating
  22. Getting the initial hose line between the building’s occupants and the fire may save more lives than trying to perform _____ _____.

    p.249
    multiple rescues
  23. A _____ ____ hazard upon arrival, such as people hanging out of windows or coming down fire escapes, may indicate an even greater life hazard within the building that is not visible from the street.

    p.249
    visible life
  24. For a basement fire, it is crucial that the first hose line is stretched through the front door to the cellar stairs to protect the ___ ____ for evacuating occupants.

    p.249
    interior hall
  25. Another vital function at older apartment fires is to have personnel proceed to the roof of the fire build-ing to _______ the stairway.
    ventilate
  26. The company assigned to this critical position of venting the stairway must gain access to the roof by way of an_____ ______ or by using an ______ or ______ _____. This position is never attained by going up the _____ _____of the fire building in this type of structure.
    • adjoining building 
    • aerial or tower ladder
    • interior stairs
  27. Vertical ventilation in mute-family dwellings : 

    p.250
    • • Relieves upper portions of heat and smoke
    • • Allows for a thorough search above the fire floor
    • • Creates a vertical flue for smoke and heat removal
    • • Limits horizontal fire spread
    • • Increases victims’ chances of survival
  28. The benefits of horizontal ventila-tion on multifamily dwellings are that it:


    p.251
    • • Allows for interior hose lines to rapidly attack the seat of the fire
    • • Minimizes heat and fire rolling over the attack team
    • • Allows for a thorough search of the fire apartment
    • • Expels products of combustion from the fire area
    • • Introduces fresh air into the fire apartment
    • • Increases survival time of unconscious victims
  29. Remember that _____ _____ could result in a backdraft and possibly expose members in the flow path to heat, smoke, and fire.

    p.251
    premature ventilation
  30. ____ in older apartment buildings, used in conjunction with horizontal ventilation, is also a viable option.

    p.251
    PPV
  31. When performing horizontal ventilation, it is important to _______ the opening. Doing so increases the survival time of overcome victims by expelling products of combustion and allowing fresh oxygen to enter. Additionally, horizontal ventilation must be coordinated with the ___ so that it can be coordinated with the attack hose line.p.251
    maximize

    IC
  32. Overhaul on older apartment buildings must focus on finding the ___ ___.

    p.251
    hidden fire
  33. Newer-type apartment buildings built in the late 1900s tend to be ___,____ and ___  than the older apartment buildings previously described

    p.252
    higher, wider, and deeper
  34. The biggest structural difference in newer apart-ment buildings is the introduction of unprotected ____ _____.

    p.252
    steel I-beams
  35. Because of the properties of steel, these structures can take on various config-urations such as __,___,__, and double __ buildings.

    p.252
    E-, U-, H

    -H
  36. Newer Apartment Building
    In most cases these buildings have at least ___ wing sections and an area called the ____ that separates the wings.

    p.252
    • two
    • throat
  37. Apartments are generally located in the sections, while the stairs and elevators are located in the _____, but it is not unusual to find an  located in the throat section as well.

    p.252
    • wing
    • throat
    • apartment
  38. Newer Apartment Buildings

    The building’s interior stairways are constructed with ___ ____ materials (e.g., metal treads with marble stairs and landings) surrounded by ___ ____ walls. Usually interior apartment walls are  at each floor.

    p.252
    • fire-resistive
    • fire-resistive
    • firestopped
  39. Unlike older apartment buildings that have only ___ ____, newer build-ings may have ___ _____ depending on the design.

    p.252
    • one stairway
    • multiple stairways
  40. types of stair layouts:
    • Isolated stairs.
    • Wing stairs
    • Transverse stair.
  41. These stairs serve a certain part of the building. They are a single set of stairs. In many cases, fire-resistive apartment build-ings are divided into sections. Each section has its own address, with its own entrance.
    Isolated stairs.
  42. ___ stairs are located in each wing of a building. There may be more than one stairway in that wing (for example, front and rear stairs), but you cannot go from one wing to another unless you are in the lobby.
    Wing
  43. ______ stairs are located on opposite sides of a building with multiple wings. 
    p.252
    Transverse
  44. Which type of stairs also firefighters to cross from one wing to another on each floor. They are connected via hallways.
    Transverse
  45. These stairs assist and ease evacu-ation, and hose lines can be stretched to any floor in the building from any stairway.

    p.253
    Transverse
  46. The ex-tensive use of ____ ____ allows a path for fire travel, as metal conducts heat and allows it to travel its length.

    p.253
    steel I-beams
  47. The key to confining a fire in newer apartment buildings is _____ the fire and getting the hose line to the____ ___ of the building in a reasonable ____ of ____.


    p.255
    • locating
    • right area
    • amount of time
  48. When long hose lines are required, fire fighters should look for a____,a space around the stairs where a hose line can be stretched. If a ___ is present in the building stairs, the hose line should be placed in the ___. One ___ ___ length of hose at the base of the stairs can usually reach five floors.

    p.255
    • 1.2.3 well
    • 4. 50-foot
  49. In newer buildings, the roof division can use an
    _____ ______ in the fire building, if it is iso-lated from the fire area. However, even if there is an adjoining building, using an ______ ______ is still the preferred method of getting to the roof.

    p.256
    • adjoining stairway
    • adjoining stairway
  50. Each apartment is usually served by two ___ ____ ____ enclosed stairs on each floor. Because the building is made with ___ _____ construction, loss of life is usually kept to a minimum.

    p.256
    • fire-resistive
    • fire-resistive
  51. In the event of an extensive cock-loft fire, _______ operations should take place to isolate the fire from remote sections of the build-ing. Again, this is a last resort, and performed after a sufficient vent hole is cut over the main body of fire.
    p.256
    trenching
  52. The trench should be started approximately ___ to ___ feet from the main ventilation hole, and fire fighters must always be assured of a second way to get off the roof.

    p.256
    20 to 30
  53. When ventilating newer apartment buildings, fire fighters can pull ceilings on the top floor to examine the cockloft. If fire has extended into the cockloft, ___ ____ should begin immediately.

    p.256
    roof cutting
  54. Fire-resistive multiple-family dwellings are well- constructed buildings, and fire is usually contained to the apartment on fire, unless the ____ to the entrance has been left open by evacuating tenants.

    p.256
    door
  55. Fire departments will use at least one ____ hose line to advance down a hallway where an apartment door has been left open, although fire departments will more often need to use __ ____hose lines for these types of fires.

    p.256
    • 2½-inch
    • two 2½-inch
  56. A fire fighter with a radio should remain at the ____ __to control water pressure in the hose line.
    valve wheel
  57. A final point to be made is that units taking ele-vators to get to the fire floor should stop at least____ floors below the reported fire floor and take the stairs the rest of the way.

    p.257
    two
  58. The floor ____ the fire generally does not become an exposure problem in fire-resistive multiple- family dwellings; however, this floor still must be searched.

    p.257
    above
  59. When operating in fire-resistive, multiple-family dwellings, at least one stairway needs to be designated as an ______ stairway.

    p.257
    evacuation
  60. Exposure protection in fire-resistive multiple- family dwellings should focus on the  on the same floor.

    p.258
    adjoin-ing apartments
  61. Depending on staffing levels, the ____ _____ engine companies should ensure that the first line gets put into operation. As engine companies are hooking up the attack lines, ____ ______ can attempt to locate the fire apartment.

    p.258
    • first-arriving
    • ladder companies
  62. After initial hose lines are stretched, the backup hose line should be stretched from at least __ ____ below the fire floor, from the___  stairway as the initial attack line.

    p.258
    • two floors
    •  same
  63. In most cases,____ _____ is not a major con-sideration in fire-resistive multiple-family dwell-ings because these buildings tend to have multiple floors, as well as other construction elements.

    p.259
    vertical ventilation
  64. Another type of multiple-family dwelling that tests firefighting forces is the ___ _____ building. These buildings are constructed solely of wood.


    p.259
    row-frame
  65. As many as_____ build-ings can be found in one row.
    p.259
    twenty
  66. Not only are row-frame build-ings quite long, they can also be as tall as ____ sto-ries and deep, with __ or ____ apartments per floor running from the front to the rear of the building.

    p.259
    • five
    • one or two
  67. Row-frame multiple-family dwellings were built at the turn of the ____ ____.
    20 th century
  68. A general concern in row-frame building fires is the ____ with which fire spreads and the great potential for_____ ____ under fire conditions, taxing fire department resources.


    p.261
    • rapidity
    • structural collapse
  69. Row-Frame Multiple-Family Dwellings

    The ____ with which water is applied to the fire and the speed of operations may very well dictate whether you lose one building or an entire block of buildings.



    p.261
    speed
  70. Fires spread in row-frame building in the following ways:


    p.26
    • • Utility shafts
    • • Air/light shafts
    • • Interior walls
    • • Building exterior (wood)
    • • Common cockloft
    • • Common cornices
    • • Common cellars
    • • Cellar beams that abut one another
  71. Row-Frame Multiple-Family Dwellings

    Fire fighters proceeding to the roof to perform oper-ations should make every attempt to use an ___ or ____ ____ to get to this position because this would be the safest way to access the roof.

    p.261
    aerial or tower ladder
  72. Row-Frame Multiple-Family Dwellings

    However, if the interior of a building must be used to get to the roof, use a building that is______ buildings away from the fire building.p.261
    several
  73. Row-Frame Multiple-Family Dwellings

    Units must notify the IC as soon as possible with the following information:

    p.261
    • • Location of the fire
    • • Fire extension
    • • Presence and location of shafts within buildings
    • • Exposure problems
    • • Need for additional hose lines
    • • Progress of roof operations
    • • Status of searches
  74. To confine the fire in the place or apartment of origin, a smaller hose line (__ or ___) is recommended due to its mobility and maneuverability.

    p.262
    1½ or 1¾ inch
  75. _______ multiple- family dwellings are built using non–fire-resistive construction and materials.

    p.263
    brownstone
  76. Brownstone Muti-Family Dwelling

    Built in the late 1800s and early 1900s, these buildings are typically ___ to ____ stories in height.p.263
    three to five
  77. Brownstone Muti-Family Dwelling

    Single-room occupancies are individual rooms in an apartment rented out to individuals. The individuals share the same _______ and ______.


    p.263
    bathroom(s) and kitchen
  78. As with row-frame multiple-family dwellings, brown-stones take up _____ ____. The major differences are that the building’s exterior is _____________, and brick walls separate each building. These walls extend through the ______, usually limiting fire to the structure of origin.

    p.263
    • entire blocks
    • noncombustible
    • cockloft
  79. High ceilings on the ____ , or parlor, floor may require the use of _____ pike poles to pull down ceilings.

    p.263
    • second
    • 10-foot
  80. Brownstone Muti-Family Dwelling


    There are several ways in which fire could extend vertically, including:
    • • Utility shafts
    • • Dumbwaiter shafts
    • • Pipe recesses
    • • Air/light shafts
    • • Forced hot air heating systems
    • • Sliding pocket doorsp.264
  81. When pocket doors are closed, it creates a void for ____ ___ _____.


    p.264
    vertical fire extension
  82. Garden Apartments

    Construction of these multiple-family dwellings began in the _____ during the baby boomer generation. These buildings are generally constructed of____ flooring, _____ studs, and a ____ roof. They may be covered by siding or brick veneer and may be two to four stories high.p.265
    • 1. 1940s
    • 2,3,4  wood
  83. Garden Apartments

    These buildings typically have ______ with large glass openings. Fire can extend rapidly through these large openings to upper floors and the cockloft.

    p.265
    balconies
  84. Garden Apartments

    The interior stairways serve each floor and sev-eral apartments on each floor. Although there may be hallway and stairway doors on each floor to limit fire and smoke spread, it is not uncommon to find these doors ___ ___.

    p.265
    propped open
  85. Garden Apartments

    Often additional apartments or tenant storage can be found in the______ .

    p.265
    basement
  86. _______ _____ by virtue of style are set back from the parking lot with landscape around them. Additionally, ____ ______ usually cannot be used because they cannot reach the building.


    p.265
    • Garden apartments
    • aerial ladders
  87. Garden Apartments

    The first hose line should be stretched through the ______ stairway to the apartment containing the fire, or in the case of a basement, to the basement entrance.

    p.266
    interior
  88. Garden Apartments

    ____ _____ lines should be positioned to support the confinement and extinguishment effort and should cover adjoining apartments and apart-ments above the fire.

    p.266
    Back-up hose
  89. Garden Apartments

    Hose lines may have to be placed ____ the _____  as well to protect the large balcony opening, should fire extend into these areas.


    p.266
    outside the building
  90. Both ______ and ______ ventilation are indi-cated for garden apartments, depending on the location of the fire.

    p.266
    horizontal and vertical

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