The NFPA deﬁnes assembly occupancies as any place where a large number of people congregate for the purposes of:
entertainment, worship, meet-ings, or for awaiting transportation.
categories of assembly halls are:
places of worship, exhibit halls, arenas, and nightclubs and showplaces.
If the occupancy has the same designated use but has a load of fewer than ___ people, then it falls under a different occupancy category, such as_____.
The most important factor to consider in these structures is ___ _____.
The life hazard associated with places of assembly is a signiﬁcant concern because these structures tend to be densely populated and include large numbers of people at one time. This danger is also compounded by the patrons’ ____ ____ and familiarity with the building.
lack of experience
Some of the worst ﬁres in U.S. history (in terms of mass casualties and deaths) have occurred in places of _____.
In emergen-cies, most people tend to respond by doing what is familiar and comfortable to them, so they tend to exit:
using the same route they used to enter the facility
The ﬁre department must pre-establish other tactical objectives, including staging areas; mandatory _____ _____; water supplies, as well as _____ and ______ assignments; triage areas; ____ ____ ___; and clear routes in and out of the complex for medical units.
sprinkler and standpipe
helicopter landing zones
The pre-establishedtactical objectives, must be ____ and ______—not just on paper, but through actual on-site drills to see how long it may take to accomplish each objective.
rehearsed and learned
Assembly occupancies can be large with ___ ____ plans. Fire ﬁghters can easily become ____ in these buildings, especially under smoke conditions.p.306
A RIC at every ____ ____ for ﬁre ﬁghters should be established. The IC must quickly realize the ______ needed to protect working companies who are otherwise committed.
Using building ____ ______ rather than signs could help avoid this potential problem.
The goal of evacuation is to remove the ____ ___ ___ ____or, in some cases, ____ ____of the structure, as quickly and as safely as possible.
occu-pants from the entire structure
In some large structures the deci-sion may be made not to _____ the patrons from the building, but to move them to a safe ____ ____ __.
location within it
Assembly structure occupants will likely have been overcome by the ____ and ___ ____ before the arrival of the ﬁrst-due companies.
smoke and ﬁre conditions
Companies who have conducted adequate ____ ______ will know where the main exits are located, so they can remove occupants from as many exits as possible._____ ____ may involve opening as many doors as possible and pulling people from the building.
_____ and _____ the ﬁre quickly greatly reduces ____ ____ hazards, which is a primary con-cern at places of assembly.
Locating and conﬁning
Fireﬁghting companies should not ____ ____ _____ until the ﬁre is located.
commit hose lines
Using ___ _____ _____ is key to extinguishing ﬁre in places of assembly, especially in large buildings that are longer and wider than the amount of handline hose available.
built-in ﬁre protection systems
Fire ﬁghters may be able to control air movement throughout the building through the :
heating, ven-tilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system
The ____ ___ ____ needs to be involved in the plans review process, site visits during construction, and simulated emergency training scenarios conducted.
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ)
Quick and effective _______ of the building must be established early in the ﬁre scenario. _____ _______plays a critical role in ventilation operations.
Buildings can be constructed with brick and heavy timber wood frames, such assembly halls; block and steel trusses, with large attached family centers; or they can be constructed with a basic wood frame.
Places of Worship Construction
Fire ﬁghters should evaluate the ____ to determine the _____ and ____ evacuation paths for occu-pants.
quickest and safest
some questions ﬁre ﬁghters should ask are:
*this is during pre-incident plannaing.
1. Where do the exits channel the occupants? 2. Will the discharge of occupants interfere with ﬁre apparatus placement or ﬁre operations?
3. Will access to the facility be compromised by vehicles exiting the parking lot(s)?
Fire ﬁghters should also evaluate the different types of ﬁre protection and prevention systems in the building. Some questions they should ask during this process are:
*this is during pre-incident plannaing.
1. Is the building totally or only partially sprinklered?
2. Are there large, undivided public areas not equipped with sprinklers where ﬁre can grow unchecked?
Many places of worship have ___ and ____.
basements and lofts
A ______ common ﬁre hazard in these struc-tures is they often have open avenues for quick ﬁre spread. Heat becomes trapped in high ceiling areas and can evolve into ﬂashover conditions before ﬁre ﬁghters can feel it below.