chapter 13

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mulett
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305435
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chapter 13
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2015-07-21 02:12:58
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strategiesandtactics
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Comercial Occupancies
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  1. ______ ______ can gener-ally be categorized as either mercantile, business, or industrial properties

    p.272
    Commercial occupancies
  2. The best way to prepare for building hazards is through _________. Fire fight-ers should take the time and effort to thoroughly look at all components of the structure and its contents.

    p.273
    preplanning
  3. Fires in ________  ______ and structures can be some of the most difficult to control and extinguish. There are increased hazards and dangers to fire fighters due to the various amounts of fire loading and unknown contents, which may range from ordinary combustibles to hazardous chemicals.

    p.273
    Commercial occupancies
  4. The main concern for the first company to arrive on scene due to the size of these buildings and the potentially unknown location of the fire are.
    p.273
    placement of apparatus and personnel
  5. Consider assign-ment of more than one ____ when more than one entrance is used.

    p.273
    RIC
  6. There are several safety issues that fire fighters should consider when attack-ing a fire in a commercial building. First of all, a _______ could occur with little warning, because commercial buildings often have high ceilings, making it harder to assess the true intensity of the heat and fire. Another item of concern is the ______ of the building and/or the _____ of its contents.

    p.274
    • flashover
    • lay-out
    • layout
  7. It is recommended that fire fighters working without hose lines during search operations use a ____ ___.

    p.274
    guide rope
  8. The ____ and _____ effort must begin in the areas that are most threatened by fire and smoke, and then fire fighters should work outward from there.

    p.275
    search and rescue
  9. Remember, most peo-ple tend to leave the _____ ___ they entered. _____ and _____ efforts should be sure to address these exit areas quickly and to ensure that these areas stay protected if threatened by the fire spread.

    p.275
    • same way
    • Search and rescue
  10. Evacuation for incidents in commercial structures should begin in the areas of the structure most ________ by the fire and smoke.

    p.275
    threatened
  11. Evacuation in larger commercial structures can be conducted with the use of a ______ ______ system, _____ ______ system, fire fighters, or any combination depend-ing on what equipment and staffing is available.

    p.275
    • public address
    •  building alarm
  12. In large, multistory commercial structures, exposure protection involves prevent-ing fire from spreading ______ and ________ throughout the building to uninvolved areas. Expo-sure protection in small commercial buildings in a congested downtown area requires the placement of large hose lines or  _____ _____flowing water on closely exposed buildings
    • horizontally and vertically
    • master streams
  13. Large hose lines of ____ inches or more are often necessary for extinguishment operations at commer-cial structures.

    p.277
  14. The several different types of com-mercial occupancies that fire fighters may encounter during their careers:

    .p.272
    • strip malls/strip centers,
    • large commercial buildings
    • two- and three-story com-mercial occupancies,  
    • stand-alone commercial occupancies
  15. ______ ______ are structures designed for retail businesses, such as supermarkets, department stores, drug stores, and shopping centers.

    p.272
    Mercantile proper-ties
  16. ______ properties are often occupied by professionals providing various services to the public. Some examples of business properties are courthouses, barber shops, and offices for doc-tors, lawyers, and dentists.

    p.272
    Business
  17. An ______ occupancy could be a factory or a manufacturing location.

    p.272
    industrial
  18. Confinement 

    Confining fires in commercial structures can be dif-ficult, and the challenges fire fighters face will vary depending on the type of structure. In strip mall complexes, for example, the fire may extend through both horizontal breaches in the walls and through a ______ _______.

    p.276
    common cockloft
  19. In gen-eral, these are long, narrow one-story buildings that are partitioned throughout to create the number of separate occupancies desired. They are typically built with masonry exterior walls but have a variety of roof types.

    p.278
    strip mall
  20. Almost every strip mall/strip center structure has _________ or ___________. These types of roofs continue to plague the fire service because of their potential for rapid failure and collapse under fire conditions.

    p.279
    lightweight wood or metal roof assemblies
  21. Roofs in strip malls.
    ____ ____ ____allow fire to spread through conduction. Tar, which is a major component of metal decks and wood decks, is _____ and _____ .

    p.279
    • Metal roof decks
    • combustible and also can ignite
  22. ____ ______ roof assemblies fail because when wood truss roofs and connection points are subjected to fire conditions, the truss may burn ______ ______

    .p.279
    • Lightweight wood
    • completely through
  23. If fire fighters observe a truss or truss section failing, ____ _____ _____.

    p.280
    , they should evacuate immediately
  24. An additional hazard associated with strip cen-ters is the ________ _______ located above the main entrances that typically run the entire length of the building. Usually, these are merely decorative and offer no ______ ______to the main building itself.p.280
    • covered walkways
    • structural support
  25. The _____ _____ _______ is attached to or supported by the main structure on one end.

    p.280
    cantilever-covered walkway
  26. The roof assembly of the ______ _______ is basically an extension of the main roof, and in this case, although decorative, this space is _____ to the attic and ______ of the main structure.
    • cantilevered walkway
    • open
    •  inte-rior
  27. These covered walkways can be either ______ , or they may be supported on the street or parking lot side of the covered walkway by ____ ______. 

     p280
    • cantilever
    • posts or pillars
  28. The covered walkways that are supported by posts or pillars are typically _______ and are just _____ _____ _____.
    • decorative
    • attachments to the wall of the main structure.
  29. ______ and ________ or chases may exist due to the placement or changing of business signs and other similar building modifications or renova-tions.

    p.281
    Wall breaches and channels
  30. Because occupancies are constantly changing, the structure’s interior, and sometimes exterior, is continually undergoing some sort of structural modification. These changes might include:
    • • Breaches in the fire walls for duct work
    • • Poke-throughs for wiring or piping
    • • Openings created for travel routes
    • •Pass-throughs for movement of stock or merchandise
    • • Openings to accommodate machinery operation
  31. Strip Malls

    IC should con-sider whether the fire fighters are making significant progress on the fire. If they are not doing so within a reasonable time, the IC should consider ____ ____ ____ of the building before the _____ or _____ ______ _____ and fire fighters are injured.p.282
    • pulling crews out
    • roof or the cov-ered walkway collapses
  32. If the search and rescue group finds stairs in a one-story building, they should ____ ____ _____ and then cautiously proceed with the search. For safety reasons, they should consider that the loft may not have been built to code and could ______ without warning.

    p.282
    • notify command immediately
    • collapse
  33. In strip mall construction the potential for fire to spread throughout the structure via _____ and _____ _____ is too great.

    p.282
    cock-lofts and common attics
  34. Adjoining occupancies are also considered to be exposures and fire fighters should take appropriate actions to protect them. Actions include:
    • • Gaining access to each adjoining occupancy and having a hose line ready
    • • Opening the ceiling areas that are adjacent to the main fire and protecting adjacent structures from horizontal fire spread through the cockloft


    p.282
  35. Strip centers/strip malls often have open attic spaces that run horizontally over several businesses, if not the entire structure. This allows fire to run _______ ________.

     p.282
    unchecked horizontally
  36. If fire is already overhead and extinguishing attempts are having no effect, fire fighters should ____ _____ and ___ _____ exposure and repeat the same actions.

    p.282
    back out and move to the next immediate.
  37. Fire fighters should gain access to the occupancies adjacent to the ___ ______. From inside, fire fighters should____ _____ ____, open walls, and check for any kind of _____ _____ occupancies.

    p.282
    • fire occupancy
    •  pull down ceilings
    •  opening between
  38. Strip Mall

    They should ven-tilate the adjacent structure and be mindful of ways in which fire can travel unnoticed, such as through ______.

    p.282
    conduction
  39. Controlling fires in strip malls/strip centers requires a ___ ____ ______  operation, but only when it is safe to do so.


    p.283
    rapid offensive interior
  40. Strip Mall

    Ventilation is a very important operation that must take place during initial operations. ______ ________ can be performed relatively quickly because the front or main entrance of these structures usually has large amounts of ____ that can be taken out.

    .p.283
    • Horizontal ven-tilation
    • glass
  41. Strip Mall

    To assist with horizontal ventilation, the implementa-tion of ____ _____ _____ is often useful.
     p.283
    positive pressure ventilation (PPV)
  42. The opening used for the exit point should be at least  ____  times the size of the opening used to pressurize the structure.

    p.283
    1 1/2
  43. Strip Mall

    When choosing this PPV, several items must be considered before implementation: p.283
    • • Can PPV be done safely?
    • • In which direction is the wind blowing?
    • • Where is the fire located?
    • • Will this effort spread and worsen the fire?
    • • Can the structure be pressurized, or are there too many openings to allow this to happen?
    • • Will the exit point for the smoke force the fire toward any exposures?
  44. One other way to apply PPV in strip malls/strip centers is to pressurize the ______ _______ but not the store that is on fire. This approach may help to ____ ______ _____.

    p.283
    • adjoining occupancies
    •  slow the smoke spread
  45. _______ could and should begin in the early stages of an incident, and it can begin with something as simple as not breaking that last window if there is no need.

    p.284
    Salvage
  46. The first, most obvious common construction feature of these structures is the large, open spaces within them.

    Large Commercial Structures
  47. An example of a large commercial structure that is in nearly every community is a _____ or  ________.
    grocery store, or supermarket
  48. The ______ _______ , or relatively_____ ____ _____, was used to span the required distances in large commercial buildings.

    p.284
    • bowstring truss
    • light-weight steel
  49. Large Commercial Structures

    The next common feature is the construction of the exterior ___ ____ _____.

    .p.285
    load-bearing walls
  50. The main building materials used for load-bearing walls are:
    steel, con-crete, or a combination of the two
  51. Large Commercial Structures 

    Many structures use ____ as the main construc-tion material throughout the floors, walls, and roofs. Basically, it serves as the skeleton of the building.

    p.285
    steel
  52. Large Commercial Structures 

    The roof coverings of these structures are: Wood is rarely used to construct roofs in these structures.

    p.285
    a metal deck, a membrane, or pre- or post-tensioned concrete
  53. In older large commercial structures, the roof assembly was typically a _____ ______, although some were made with ____ ____ _____ attached to the concrete-block bearing walls, which run the desired span.
    • bowstring truss
    • lighter-weight steel beams
  54. Large Commercial Structures 

    Like the prefabricated lightweight trusses of today, the _____ _____ roof assembly is made with wood, which significantly adds to the fire load and can potentially collapse rapidly.

    p.286
    bowstring truss
  55. Large Commercial Structures 


    The ____ ____ roof is typically covered with a metal skin, which is topped with some form of______________.


    p.286
    • steel beam
    • rigid insu-lation, tar, and gravel
  56. Large Commercial Structures 

    Another associated roof hazard is decorative _____ or  ______ used on or above roof level.
    par-apets or banding
  57. Large Commercial Structures 

    These components are not designed for structural support; they are merely used for decorative pur-poses, so they often fail early under fire conditions.

    p.286
    par-apets or banding
  58. Large Commercial Structures 

    Parapets or banding are constructed with materials that range in phys-ical strength and durability, such as:
    p.286
    Styrofoam ® , rigid insulation, and concrete.
  59. Large Commercial Structures 

    Roof _____ is a factor in roof failures.

    p.286
    loading
  60. ____ ____ add a significant amount of weight to the roof structure of older large commercial structures that were not designed to handle the weight. When the roof assembly is subjected to fire conditions, the ____ absorbs the heat and is more susceptible to collapse.p.287
    • HVAC units
    • steel
  61. Large Commercial Structures 

    Many newer structures use ___ ______ as the base of the roof.

    .p.287
    concrete sections
  62. Large Commercial Structures 

    Concrete roofs must be _____ in some way to prevent them from cracking and falling down.

    287
    stressed
  63. Large Commercial Structures 

    These columns are often an ___ ___ encased in concrete.
    I-beam
  64. Large Commercial Structures 

    In addition, the walls in these structures typically have ___ _____,_____ _____, and other openings that allow fire spread, so efforts to locate and control these openings must be made.

    p.287
    • poke-throughs
    • ventilating ducts
  65. Large Commercial Structures 

    The next safety issue is the _____ ____.

    p.288
    covered walkway
  66. Large Commercial Structures 

    The term heavy timber  is exactly that; it was not uncommon to have a piece of timber that was ___ by ____. or larger as its outside dimensions. Although the typi-cal definition is considered to be ____ by ____., the larger dimension is common.

    p.288
    • 12 in. by 12 in
    • 8 in. by 8 in
  67. Large Commercial Structures 

    ______  tends to act as an insulator. With the fire charring or pyrolyzing the wood, the fire actually helps the structural supports withstand destruction for longer periods of time.

    p.288
    Charring
  68. Large Commercial Structures 

    A first step in ____ _______ should be to make contact with the store owner or manager and determine whether anyone is in the building. If so, try to determine the person’s likely location and initially ___ _____ _____ in that area.

    p.288
    • search and rescue
    •  focus the search
  69. Large Commercial Structures 
    Confinement and Extinguishment

    There is often need for numer-ous hose lines to be operating—great care must be used to avoid _____ _____. The first line should be placed between the _____ and ______, whether that is a hallway or a stairway. Backup lines are necessary to ensure adequate flow and to cover ___ _____.

    p.289
    • opposing streams
    • fire and the means of egress
    • internal exposures
  70. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures
    Examples of this type of commercial structure are:

    .p.290
    office buildings, taxpayers, or malls
  71. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    Although two- and three-story commercial structures do not necessarily have ____ ____ ____, many do.

    p.290
    large open spans
  72. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    In office-type structures, the roof is often sup-ported in ___ _____.

    p.290
    many locations
  73. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    The roofs of these structures are typi-cally ___, made with a ___ _____, insulation, ___ and _____, but in older structures the main com-ponent of the roof is____.

    p.290
    • flat
    • metal deck
    • tar, and gravel
    • wood
  74. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    Most of the older structures typically used _______ and or _______ as the exterior walls’ structural material, whereas newer structures (those that have been constructed in the last few decades) have exterior walls made of large ______ ______ that are cast on or off the site with ____utilized to tie them together and support them vertically.

    p.291
    • concrete block and/or brick
    • concrete slabs
    • steel
  75. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    Another common construction feature is the flooring. The most common type of floor is _______.

    p.291
    concrete
  76. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    Possible vertical openings include:

    p.291
    • • Escalators and/or stairwells
    • • Elevators for occupants and freight
    • • Ventilation shafts and/or ductwork
    • • Open chases for piping and electrical service
    • • Conveyer belts between floors to move stock
  77. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures

    On the roofs of two- and three-story commercial structures, fire fighters must continually be aware of heavy _____ _____ _____ and _____.

    p.291
    HVAC units, exhaust fans, and the like
  78. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures
     taxpayer

    A big concern with this type is the ___ ____ ___ that run horizontally over the structure. These structures rarely have any ___ ____ ____, allowing the fire to run unchecked horizontally. Attic spaces in the taxpayer structures are often used by occupants for __ ____ ____, thus increasing the already high probability of rapid fire spread.

    p.292
    • open attic spaces
    • fire-stopping walls
    • personal storage areas
  79. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures taxpayer


    If the structure happens to have a fire wall, it will be run up to, but not through, the ____. Because the roof assemblies and roof decks are mostly made of____, the fire may eas-ily extend to the other areas of the roof through ____ ___ or fire brands.
    • roof
    • wood
    • radi-ated heat
  80. In this type of construction method, the wood sizes used are typically larger than the ___ ____ ___ sizes typically used today, and they are secured using ____ and ___ rather than a gusset plate, making them more stable.
    • two-by-four wood
    • nails and spikes
  81. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures 
    Exposure Protection

     
    The immediate exposures are usually the floor just ___ ___ ____ or ___ _____ or hallways of the fire occupancy. The exposure in the most immediate danger depends mostly on the  ____ _____.


    P.293
    • above the fire
    • adjoining rooms
    • construction type
  82. Two- or Three-Story Commercial Structures 
    Extinguishment

    The way to prevent autoexposure is to ____ _____ _____ on the exterior of the structure ____ ____ ____ _____ and attempting to spread vertically.

    p.293
    • train hose streams
    • above where the fire is venting
  83. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    Examples of this type of occupancy are:  structures that stand alone and are not part of another structure

    p.294
    convenience stores, corner bars, or pubs
  84. Stand-alone commercial occupancies are typically built using _____ _____. These structures were originally built using ____. In recent decades, ____, ____ and ____have also been used, although using wood is still common.

    p.294
    • simple construction
    • wood
    • concrete, brick, and steel
  85. The walls of these structures are typically constructed using concrete block, but wood with a brick façade may also be used. They may also be constructed using precast concrete,

    p.294
    Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies
  86. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    The floors are usually _____, although they may also be____, especially if there is a basement.

    p.294
    • concrete
    • wood
  87. The small stand-alone building can be a ___ ___ for fire fighters.

    p.295
    death trap
  88. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    _____ ______ and ____ ____lines may be required to ensure that fire fighters are not disoriented inside structures that have many: 

    p.295
    • Safety ropes or searching off hose
    • shelves, racks, refrigerator units, and display cases
  89. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    The heavy fire loads common in these structures create a lot of _____ ____.p.295
    radi-ated heat
  90. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    A ______ and ______ _____ attack often controls the situation. Advance lines that are capable of flows of at least _____ . Because a drop ceiling can hide and contain a fire, ______ may occur when a portion of the ceiling is opened

    .p.295
    • quick and aggressive interior
    • 125 GPM
    • backdraft
  91. Stand-Alone Commercial Occupancies

    Ventilation can be accomplished quickly in these small structures by using the____ method.

    p.29
    PPV

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