Cardiovascular Medications

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Cardiovascular Medications
2015-07-21 20:35:11
Cardiovascular Medications
Cardiovascular Medications-Week 4
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  1. How much blood does the heart pump per min?
    5-6 L
  2. What is the prototype for Inotropics?
    Digoxin (Lanoxin)
  3. What is the MoA of Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • +Inotropic
    • increased CO
    • decreased HR (-chronotropic)
    • Antiarrhytmic
    • indirect diuretic
  4. What is a "loading dose"
    Dose / 3 q8hr 3x
  5. What is the normal level for K+?
    3.5-5.2 mEg/L
  6. What are the uses for Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • Tx HF
    • Tx Atrial Arrhythmias
    • Tx Sinus Tachycardia
  7. What are common ADE for digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    N/V, Anorexia, blurred vision, dipolopia, HALOS,Bradycardia, tachycardia, PVCs
  8. What is a serious ADE for digoxin (Lanoxin)
    Ventricullar fibrillation
  9. What are some contraindications for Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • V tach
    • V Fib
    • Bradycardia
    • Heartblock
    • Hypokalemia
  10. What are the S&S of Digoxin Toxicity?
    • N/V
    • Confusion
    • Blurred vision
    • Bradycardia
    • PVCs
  11. What is the treatment for Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity?
    • Stop Drug
    • Treat symptomatically
  12. How is KCl given?
    • IV
  13. What is Dysrhytmia or Arhythmia
    • change in automaticity (rate)
    • change in conductivity
    • OR both
  14. What are dysrhytmias and arrhymias brought on by?
    • Ischemia
    • Hyper/Hypo Kalemia
  15. What does PVC stand for?
    Premature ventricular contraction
  16. What do Cardiac drugs alter in the heart?
    The electrical impulses
  17. What are the 4 types of dysrhthmia or arhythmia?
    • Sinus
    • Atrial
    • Nodal or Junctional
    • Ventricular
  18. What are the flat lines on and EKG called?
    isoelectric lines
  19. What does the T wave represent on an EKG
  20. What does the QRS wave represent on an EKG?
    depolarization of ventricles
  21. What is the prototype for Class I- Na Channel Blockers
    Lidocaine (xylocaine)
  22. What is the MoA for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
    blocks movement of Na into cardiac cells --> slows down conduction
  23. What is Lidocaine (xylocaine) used for?
    tx of rapid ventricular arrhythmias
  24. What are some common ADE for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
    • hypotension
    • Bradycardia
    • "lidocaine crazies"
  25. What are some serious ADE for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
    • Cardiac Arrest
    • Seizures
  26. What is contraindicated with Lidocaine (xylocaine)
    • Digoxin Toxicity
    • Heart Failure
    • Heart Block
    • Allergic to med
  27. What is the prototype for Class II: Beta Adrenergic Blockers?
    Propranolol (Inderal)
  28. What is the MoA of Propranolol (Inderal)?
    • Block SNS --> Slows ventricular conduction
    • -Chronotropic
    • -inotropic
  29. What is Propranolol (Inderal) used for?
    • tx rapid ventricular arrhythmia
    • HTN
    • Angina
  30. What are the common/serious ADE for Propranolol (Inderal)?
    • Common: Bradycardia, hypotension, lethargy
    • Serious: Bronchoconstriction
  31. What is the prototype for Class III: K CHannel Blockers?
    Amiodarone (Cordarone)
  32. What is the MoA of Amiodarone (Cordarone)?
    Slows repolarization and prolongs refractory period
  33. What is Amiodarone (Coradarone) used for?
    Tx life threatening arrhythmias
  34. What are the common ADE of Amiodarone (Coradarone)?
    • CNS depressant
    • GI stimulation
    • Hypotension
  35. What are the serious and black box warnings for Amiodarone (Cordarone)?
    • Pulmonary toxicity
    • Exacerbation of arrhythmia being tx
    • hepatotoxicity
  36. What is the prototype for Class IV: Ca channel blockers?
    Verapamil (Calan)
  37. What is the MoA of Verapamil (Calan)?
    Slows depolarization
  38. What is Verapamil (Calan) used to treat?
    • Tx arrhytmias
    • HTN
    • Angina
  39. What are common ADE of Verapamil (Calan)?
    • constipation
    • dizziness
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • edema
  40. What are serious ADE of Verapamil (Calan)?
    • Hypotension
    • Bradycardia
  41. Name some non-pharmacological treatments go arrhytmias
    • Treat the underlying disorder
    • Valsalva or carotid artery massage
    • Defibrillate
    • Pacemakers
    • Ablation (destroy group of offending cells)
  42. Define Abalation
    destroying a group of offending cells
  43. What are the 2 main causes of Angina?
    • Increased Myocardial O2 demand
    • Decreased O2 supply to myocardium
  44. Define Atherosclerosis
    build up of plaque over time and vessel narrows
  45. Define Arteriosclerosis
    stiffening or thickening of the vessel walls and the walls no longer dilate/constrict
  46. How is stable or Classic Angina relieved?
    rest and/or nitroglycerine
  47. Name the 3 classifications of antianginal medication
    • Nitrates
    • Beta Blockers
    • CA Channel Blockers
  48. What is the prototype for nitrates?
    nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)
  49. What is the MoA of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)
    • Dilates veins > decreases preload
    • Dilates coronary arteries > increases myocardial flow
    • Dilates arterioles > decrease afterload
  50. Define preload
    decreasing amount of blood getting to the R side of the heart so the heart doesn't have to work as hard
  51. What are the uses of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)?
    Tx and px angina
  52. What are the Common and Serious effects of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat) -Nitrates?
    • Common: Headache, orthostatic hypotension
    • Serious: Severe hypotension
  53. What are some contraindications with Nitrates (Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat))
    • hypotension
    • Viagra
  54. What do you need to be aware of when handling Transdermal Nitro?
    Wear gloves!
  55. What is the prototype for Beta Blockers?
    Propranolol (Inderal)
  56. What are the MoA of propranolol (Inderal)?
    • Decreased HR > -chronotropic/-inotropic
    • Decreased BP > decreased myocardial workload and O2 demand
  57. How is propranolol used for as px and tx?
    • management of angina
    • tx HTN and Arrhythmias
  58. What are some common and serious ADE of propranolol (Inderal)?
    • Common: Hypotension, bradycardia, lethargy
    • Serious: Bronchoconstriction, heart block
  59. When do you hold propranolol (Inderal)?
    • if systolic <90
    • if HR <60
  60. What is the prototype of Ca Channel Blockers?
    Verapamil (Calan)
  61. What is the MoA of Verapamil (Calan)
    slows the movement of extracellular Ca into the cell
  62. What is Verapamil (Calan) used for?
    • Tx Angina when NTG or BB don't work
    • Tx HTN
  63. What are the common and serious ADEs of Verapamil (Calan)?
    • Common:  Constipation, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, edema
    • Serious: hypotension, bradycardia
  64. For verapamil (Calan)
    if given orally, how long should you wait to check vitals 
    If given IV?
    • 30 mins
    • 2-5 mins
  65. What are the 4 categories of Diuretics?
    • Thiazide (Hydrocholothiazide)
    • Loop (Lasix)
    • K sparing (spironolactone (Aldactone))
    • Osmotic (Mannitol (Osmitrol))
  66. What is the type of drug and prototype of thiazide?
    • Diuretic
    • Hydrocholorothiazide
  67. What is the type of drug and prototype of Loop?
    • Diuretic
    • Furosemide (Lasix)
  68. What is the type of drug and prototype of K+ sparing aldosterone Antagonist?
    • Diuretic
    • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
  69. What is the type of drug and prototype of Osmotic?
    • Diuretic 
    • Mannitol (Osmitrol)
  70. What are the uses for hydrochlorothiazide?
    • HTN
    • Edema
    • CHF
  71. Is Hydrocholothiazide quick acting or not?
    Not for immediate diuresis
  72. What is lost when taking hydrochlorothiazide?
    • H2O
    • K+
    • NA 
    • Cl
  73. What is lost when taking Lasix (Furosemide)?
    • H2O
    • K+
    • Na
    • Cl
  74. What is lost when taking spironolactone (aldactone)?
    • H2O
    • Na
    • Cl

    Increases K+
  75. Which diuretic increases K+?
    Spironolactone (Aldactone)
  76. What is lost when taking Mannitol (Osmitrol)?
    • H2O
    • K+
    • Na
    • Cl
  77. What is furosemide (lasix) used for?
    • HTN
    • Edema
    • CHF
    • Renal diuresis
  78. Is Furosemide (Lasix) rapid or slow?
  79. What is cautioned with spironolactone (Aldactone)?
    Do NOT use K supplements
  80. What is Mannitol (Osmitrol) used for?
    • Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
    • Glaucoma
    • Oliguria/Anuria
  81. Is Mannitol used short term or long term and how is it administered?
    • Short Term
    • IV use
  82. What are the K+ levels?
  83. What are the 2 important things that are important to record when a patient is taking a diuretic?
    • Daily Weight
    • I and O