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How much blood does the heart pump per min?
What is the prototype for Inotropics?
What is the MoA of Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
- increased CO
- decreased HR (-chronotropic)
- indirect diuretic
What is a "loading dose"
Dose / 3 q8hr 3x
What is the normal level for K+?
What are the uses for Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
- Tx HF
- Tx Atrial Arrhythmias
- Tx Sinus Tachycardia
What are common ADE for digoxin (Lanoxin)?
N/V, Anorexia, blurred vision, dipolopia, HALOS,Bradycardia, tachycardia, PVCs
What is a serious ADE for digoxin (Lanoxin)
What are some contraindications for Digoxin (Lanoxin)?
- V tach
- V Fib
What are the S&S of Digoxin Toxicity?
- Blurred vision
What is the treatment for Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity?
- Stop Drug
- Treat symptomatically
What is Dysrhytmia or Arhythmia
- change in automaticity (rate)
- change in conductivity
- OR both
What are dysrhytmias and arrhymias brought on by?
- Hyper/Hypo Kalemia
What does PVC stand for?
Premature ventricular contraction
What do Cardiac drugs alter in the heart?
The electrical impulses
What are the 4 types of dysrhthmia or arhythmia?
- Nodal or Junctional
What are the flat lines on and EKG called?
What does the T wave represent on an EKG
What does the QRS wave represent on an EKG?
depolarization of ventricles
What is the prototype for Class I- Na Channel Blockers
What is the MoA for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
blocks movement of Na into cardiac cells --> slows down conduction
What is Lidocaine (xylocaine) used for?
tx of rapid ventricular arrhythmias
What are some common ADE for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
- "lidocaine crazies"
What are some serious ADE for Lidocaine (xylocaine)?
What is contraindicated with Lidocaine (xylocaine)
- Digoxin Toxicity
- Heart Failure
- Heart Block
- Allergic to med
What is the prototype for Class II: Beta Adrenergic Blockers?
What is the MoA of Propranolol (Inderal)?
- Block SNS --> Slows ventricular conduction
What is Propranolol (Inderal) used for?
- tx rapid ventricular arrhythmia
What are the common/serious ADE for Propranolol (Inderal)?
- Common: Bradycardia, hypotension, lethargy
- Serious: Bronchoconstriction
What is the prototype for Class III: K CHannel Blockers?
What is the MoA of Amiodarone (Cordarone)?
Slows repolarization and prolongs refractory period
What is Amiodarone (Coradarone) used for?
Tx life threatening arrhythmias
What are the common ADE of Amiodarone (Coradarone)?
- CNS depressant
- GI stimulation
What are the serious and black box warnings for Amiodarone (Cordarone)?
- Pulmonary toxicity
- Exacerbation of arrhythmia being tx
What is the prototype for Class IV: Ca channel blockers?
What is the MoA of Verapamil (Calan)?
What is Verapamil (Calan) used to treat?
What are common ADE of Verapamil (Calan)?
- orthostatic hypotension
What are serious ADE of Verapamil (Calan)?
Name some non-pharmacological treatments go arrhytmias
- Treat the underlying disorder
- Valsalva or carotid artery massage
- Ablation (destroy group of offending cells)
destroying a group of offending cells
What are the 2 main causes of Angina?
- Increased Myocardial O2 demand
- Decreased O2 supply to myocardium
build up of plaque over time and vessel narrows
stiffening or thickening of the vessel walls and the walls no longer dilate/constrict
How is stable or Classic Angina relieved?
rest and/or nitroglycerine
Name the 3 classifications of antianginal medication
- Beta Blockers
- CA Channel Blockers
What is the prototype for nitrates?
What is the MoA of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)
- Dilates veins > decreases preload
- Dilates coronary arteries > increases myocardial flow
- Dilates arterioles > decrease afterload
decreasing amount of blood getting to the R side of the heart so the heart doesn't have to work as hard
What are the uses of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)?
Tx and px angina
What are the Common and Serious effects of Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat) -Nitrates?
- Common: Headache, orthostatic hypotension
- Serious: Severe hypotension
What are some contraindications with Nitrates (Nitroglycerine (Nitrostat))
What do you need to be aware of when handling Transdermal Nitro?
What is the prototype for Beta Blockers?
What are the MoA of propranolol (Inderal)?
- Decreased HR > -chronotropic/-inotropic
- Decreased BP > decreased myocardial workload and O2 demand
How is propranolol used for as px and tx?
- management of angina
- tx HTN and Arrhythmias
What are some common and serious ADE of propranolol (Inderal)?
- Common: Hypotension, bradycardia, lethargy
- Serious: Bronchoconstriction, heart block
When do you hold propranolol (Inderal)?
What is the prototype of Ca Channel Blockers?
What is the MoA of Verapamil (Calan)
slows the movement of extracellular Ca into the cell
What is Verapamil (Calan) used for?
- Tx Angina when NTG or BB don't work
- Tx HTN
What are the common and serious ADEs of Verapamil (Calan)?
- Common: Constipation, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, edema
- Serious: hypotension, bradycardia
For verapamil (Calan)
if given orally, how long should you wait to check vitals
If given IV?
What are the 4 categories of Diuretics?
- Thiazide (Hydrocholothiazide)
- Loop (Lasix)
- K sparing (spironolactone (Aldactone))
- Osmotic (Mannitol (Osmitrol))
What is the type of drug and prototype of thiazide?
What is the type of drug and prototype of Loop?
- Furosemide (Lasix)
What is the type of drug and prototype of K+ sparing aldosterone Antagonist?
- Spironolactone (Aldactone)
What is the type of drug and prototype of Osmotic?
- Mannitol (Osmitrol)
What are the uses for hydrochlorothiazide?
Is Hydrocholothiazide quick acting or not?
Not for immediate diuresis
What is lost when taking hydrochlorothiazide?
What is lost when taking Lasix (Furosemide)?
What is lost when taking spironolactone (aldactone)?
Which diuretic increases K+?
What is lost when taking Mannitol (Osmitrol)?
What is furosemide (lasix) used for?
- Renal diuresis
Is Furosemide (Lasix) rapid or slow?
What is cautioned with spironolactone (Aldactone)?
Do NOT use K supplements
What is Mannitol (Osmitrol) used for?
- Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Is Mannitol used short term or long term and how is it administered?
What are the K+ levels?
What are the 2 important things that are important to record when a patient is taking a diuretic?
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