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2015-07-23 19:23:38

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  1. What does the Seminal Vesicle give to sperm?
    Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
  2. What do the Bulbourethral = Cowper's glands secrete?
    Bicarbonate (neutralize lactobacilli)
  3. What does the Prostate secrete?
    • "The prostate HAZ it"
    • Hyaluroniclase
    • Acid phosphatase
    • Zinc
  4. What is the Capacitation reaction?
    Zn used to peel semen off
  5. What is the Acrosomal reaction?
    Sperm release enzymes to eat corona radiata
  6. What is the Crystallization reaction?
    wall formed after 1 sperm enters (to prevent polyspermy)
  7. Where does Testosterone come from? 
    Adrenal gland and testicles
  8. Where does DHT come from? 
    Testicles (at puberty)
  9. What is a Pseudohermaphrodite? 
    External genitalia problem
  10. What is a True Hermaphrodite? 
    Internal genitalia problem => has both sexes
  11. What is a Female Hermaphrodite? 
    Impossible b/c the default is female
  12. What is a Female Pseudohermaphrodite? 
    XX with low 21-OHase =>high testosterone
  13. What is a Male Hermaphrodite? 
    XY with no MIF
  14. What is a Male Pseudohermaphrodite? 
    XY that has low 17-OHase => low testosterone
  15. What is Hirsutism? 
  16. What is Virilization? 
  17. What is Testicular Feminization = 
    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?
    Bad DHT receptor -XY w/ blind pouch vagina
  18. What is McCune-Albright? 
    Precocious sexual development, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia "whorls of CT" , "Coast of Maine" pigmented skin macules
  19. What is Cryptochordism? 
    Testes never descended => sterility after 15mo, seminomas 
  20. Which stage of the menstrual cycle has the 
    highest estrogen levels?
    follicular stage has proliferative endothelium)
  21. what stage of the menstrual cycle has the 
    highest temperature?
    Ovulatory stage
  22. What stage of the menstrual cycle has the 
    highest progesterone levels?
    Luteal stage (has secretory endothelium)
  23. What form of estrogen is highest at menopause?

    What form of estrogen is highest at
     E1: Estrone (made by fat)
  24. What form of estrogen in highest in middle- 
    age females?
    E 2: Estradiol (made by ovaries)
  25. What form of estrogen is highest at 
    E 3: Estriol (made by placenta)
  26. What states have increased estrogen? 
    Pregnancy, liver failure , p450 inhibition, obesity
  27. What is Adenomyosis? 
    Growth of endometrium1 --> myometrium, enlarged "boggy " uterus w cystic areas
  28. What does DES taken by Mom cause in her daughter?
    • • Adenomyosis --> menorrhagia
    • • Clear Cell CA of vagina
    • • Recurrent abortions
  29. What is Kallman's syndrome? 
    No GnRH, anosmia (can't smell)
  30. What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome? 
    inc Cysts: no ovulation --> no progesterone (inc endometrial CA) --> can't inhibit LH, obese, hairy,acne
  31. What is Savage's syndrome? 
    Ovarian resistance to FSH/LH
  32. What is Turner's syndrome (XO)?
     High FSH , low E2 , ovarian dysgenesis
  33. What does the Progesterone challenge test tell you? 
    • Bleeds = > she has estrogen
    • Not bleed => she has no E 2 or ovaries
    • • high FSH --> ovary problem
    • • Low FSH --> pituitary problem
  34. What is Sheehan syndrome?
    • Post-partum hemorrhage --> pituitary, hyperplasia
    • infarcts --> no lactation
  35. What is Asherman's syndrome? 
    Previous D&C --> uterine scars
  36. What is Oligomenorrhea? 
    Too few periods
  37. What is Polymenorrhea? 
    Too many periods
  38. What is the most common cause of post- 
    coital vaginal bleeding?
    Cervical cancer
  39. What is the most common cause of post- 
    coital vaginal bleeding in pregnant women?
    Placenta previa
  40. What is the most common cause of vaginal 
    bleeding in post-menopause women?
    Endometrial cancer
  41. What is Chronic Pelvic Pain?
     Endometriosis until proven otherwise 
  42. What is Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding? 
    Diagnosis of exclusion, usually due to anovulation
  43. What is Dysmenorrhea? 
    PG-F causes painful menstrual cramps (teenagers miss school/work)
  44. What is Endometriosis? 
    Painful cyclical heavy menstrual bleeding=> ''powder burns, chocolate cysts" due to ectopic endometrial tissue
  45. What is Kleine regnung? 
    Scant bleeding at ovulation
  46. What is Menorrhagia? 
    Heavy menstrual bleeding
  47. What is Fibroids =Leiomyoma? 
    • Benign uterus SM tumor
    • • Submucosal type=> bleeding
    • • Subserosa! type => pain
  48. What is Metrorrhagia? 
    Bleeding or spotting in between periods
  49. What is Mittelschmerz? 
    Pain at ovulation
  50. What causes Syphilis? 
    Treponema pallidum (spirochete)
  51. What is Herpes? 
    ds DNA virus
  52. What is HPV? 
    ds DNA virus
  53. What is Chlamydia? 
    Obligate intracellular bacteria
  54. What causes Gonorrhea? 
    Gram- diplococcus
  55. What causes Chancroid? 
    H. ducreyi
  56. What causes Lymphogranuloma 
    Chlamydia trachomatis
  57. What causes Granuloma Inguinale?
     C. granulomatosis
  58. What causes Epididymitis? 
  59. What is Condyloma Lata? 
    Flat fleshy warts, ulcerate, 2° Syphilis
  60. What is Condyloma Accuminata? 
    Verrucous "cauliflower" warts ,koilocytes , HPV 6,11
  61. How does Herpes present? 
    1°: Painful grouped vesicles on red base

    2°: Painful solitary lesion
  62. How does Syphilis present? 
    1°: Painless chancre (1-6 wks)

    2°: Rash, condyloma lata (6 wks)

    3°: Neuro, cardio, bone (6yrs)
  63. How does Chancroid present? 
    Painful w / necrotic center, Gram- rod, " school offish" pattern
  64. How does Lymphogranuloma Venereum 
    Painless ulcers --> abscessed nodes --> genital elephantiasis
  65. How does Granuloma Inguinale present? 
    Spreading ulcer, Donovan bodies, granulation test
  66. How does Chlamydia present? 
    Cervicitis (yellow pus), conjunctivitis, PID  
  67. How does Gonorrhea present? 
    Palmar pustules, arthritis, urethral discomfort 
  68. What is Epididymitis?
     Unilateral scrotal pain decreased by support
  69. What causes Congenital blindness? 
  70. What causes Neonatal blindness? 
  71. What is Lichen simplex chronicus?
    Raised white lesions, chronic scratching
  72. What is Lichen sclerosis? 
    Paperlike vulva, itching, cancer risk
  73. What is Hidradenoma? 
    Sweat gland cysts
  74. What causes non-bacterial fetal infections?
    • "TORCHS"
    • Toxoplasma: multiple ring-enhancing
    • lesions, cat urine, parietal lobe
    • Others
    • Rubella: cataracts, hearing loss, PDA,
    • meningoencephalitis, pnemnonia,
    • "blueberry muffin" rash
    • CMV: spastic diplegia of legs,
    • hepatosplenomegaly, blindness,
    • central calcifications
    • HSV -2: temporal lobe hemorrhagic
    • encephalitis, need C/S prophylaxis
    • Syphilis: Rhagade's (lip fissure) , saber shin
    • legs, Hutchison's razor teeth,
    • mulberry molars
  75. What is Paget's disease of the breast? 
    Rash and ulcer around nipple, breast cancer
  76. What is Lobular carcinoma? 
    Cells line up single file, contralateral primary 
  77. What is a Comedocarcinoma? 
    Multiple focal areas of necrosis, " blackheads"
  78. What is Inflammatory carcinoma? 
    Infiltrates lymphatics, pulls on Cooper's ligaments,"pean d 'orange "
  79. What is Cystosarcoma phylloides?
    " Exploding mushroom", firm, rubbery, moveable,good prognosis
  80. What is Intraductal papilloma? 
    Nipple bleeding, most common breast CA
  81. What is Ductal carcinoma?
    worst prognosis breast cancer
  82. What is Sarcoma Botyroides? 
    Vagina cancer, ball of grapes
  83. What is a Sister Mary Joseph Nodule? 
    Ovarian CA spread to umbilicus
  84. What is Meig's syndrome? 
    Pleural effusion, ovarian fibroma, ascites 
  85. What are the side effects of estrogen? 
    weight gain, breast tenderness, nausea, HA
  86. What are the side effects of progesterone? 
    Acne, depression, HTN