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  1. Agency Relationship
    • 1                    Capacity
    • ·         Principal Contractual capacity
    • ·         Agent Minimal Capacity
    • 2                    Consent of both parties
    • 3                    Act of parties or operation of law
    • 4                    (writing if under statute of frauds)
    • 5                    (no consideration needed)
  2. Agent’s duties
    • 1                    Contractual duties
    • 2                    Loyalty
    • 3                    Obedience to lawful instructions
    • 4                    Reasonable care
  3. Principal duties
    • 1                    Contractual duties
    • 2                    Reasonable compensation
    • 3                    Indemnify / reimbursement for expenses
    • 4                    cooperation
  4.  Agency Remedies
    •                         Agent Remedies
    • 1                    Contractual remedies
    • 2                    Possessory lien
    •                         Principal Remedies
    • 1                    Contractual remedies
    • 2                    Tort remedies
    • 3                    Constructive trust
    • 4                    Action for secret profits
    • 5                    Withhold compensation
  5. Actual Authority
    • 1                    Agent reasonably believes
    • 2                    Express
    • ·         Expressed within four corners of agency agreement
    • 3                    Implied
    • ·         Reasonable belief based on principal’s actions
  6. Apparent Authority
    • 1                    Reasonable belief of third parties
    • 2                    Principal may be vicariously liable
  7. Inherent Authority
    • 1                    Principal bound by agent’s actions even without agent having actual or apparent authority
  8. Respondeat Superior
    • 1                    Employer vicariously liable for employees acting within the scope of their employment
    • 2                    Scope of Employment
    • ·         Detour – minor deviation, within scope
    • ·         Frolic – Major deviation, not within scope
    • 3                    Not responsible for independent contractors
  9. Agency Ratification
    • 1                    Principal validates agent’s actions
    • 2                    Transactions give retroactive effect
    • ·         Unless principal lacked contractual capacity
  10. Principal Third Party Liability
    1                    Contracts entered by agent
  11.  Agent Third Party Liability
    • 1                    If Principal disclosed
    • ·         Principal liable
    • ·         Agent not liable
    • 2                    If Unidentified/Undisclosed Principals
    • ·         Agent and Principal liable
  12. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Courts authority to hear a case
    • 2                    Ohio Common Pleas – Excess of $500
  13. Types of Personal jurisdiction
    • 1                    In Personam
    • ·         Power over a particular person
    • 2                    In Rem
    • ·         Jurisdiction over all persons regarding an item of property
    • 3                    Quasi In Rem
    • ·         Power to determine right of particular individuals with respect to a specific property
  14. Diversity of citizenship
    • 1                    Complete diversity
    • ·         No plaintiff of same state as any defendant
    • 2                    Excess of $75,000
  15.  Ancillary Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Court may entertain claims that could not by themselves invoke federal question
    • 2                    Must have a common nucleus of operative fact
  16. Ohio Personal Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Power of court over a particular person
    • 2                    Person must
    • ·         Present in Ohio at time of Service;
    • ·         Domicile in Ohio; or
    • ·         Consented to jurisdiction.
    •    o        Expressed
    •    o        Implied
    •      §  Asserts a claim in jurisdiction
    •      §  Voluntary appearance
    •      §  Nonresident motorists
    • ·         Meets Long Arm Requirements
  17. Federal Personal Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Minimum Contacts
    • ·         Systematic and continuous activity;
    • ·         In state activity forms basis; or
    • ·         Purposeful availment.
    • 2                    Reasonableness
    • 3                    Notice
  18. Erie Doctrine
    • 1                    In diversity cases Federal courts apply
    • ·         Own procedural law
    • ·         State substantive law
  19. Federal Question Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Federal question must be part of the plaintiff’s cause of action
    • 2                    Not from a defense
    • 3                    State must own more than half of corp in suit
  20. Pendant Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Involves both federal and state jurisdiction
    • 2                    Derive from common nucleus of operative fact
    • 3                    Court has discretion
  21. Ohio Long Arm Statute for Personal Jurisdiction
    • 1                    Transacting any business in Ohio
    • 2                    Contracting to supply services or goods in Ohio
    • 3                    Causing tortious injury
    • ·         Anywhere by an act or omission in Ohio
    • ·         In Ohio by an act or omission outside Ohio
    • ·         In Ohio by breach of warranty
    • 4                    Real Property in Ohio
    • 5                    Contracting to Insure in Ohio
    • 6                    Party to Marriage resides in Ohio
    • 7                    Ohio Torts
    • 8                    Torts by Crimes in Ohio
  22. Notice
    • 1                    Service of process effected pursuant to statute and court rules
    • 2                    must meet constitutional requirements of notice
  23. Service
    • 1                    On individual
    • 2                    Guardian of a minor
    • 3                    Guardian of an incompetent
    • 4                    Superintendent of the facility of an institutionalized incompetent
    • 5                    Agents of Corporation or LLC
    • 6                    Partner, limited partner, manager, or member of a partnership by certified mail
    • 7                    Officer of a government agency
    • 8                    Prisoners on the individual
  24. Venue proper where
    • 1                    Defendant resides
    • 2                    Defendant’s principal place of business
    • 3                    Activity that gave rise to claim for relief
    • 4                    Property situated (acts concerning property)
    • 5                    Claim for relief arose
    • 6                    Plaintiff resides is under long arm statute
    • 7                    executor, administrator, guardian or trustee appointed
  25. Change of venue
    • 1                    Original venue improper
    • ·         Upon filing of timely motion, Court transfers to proper venue
    • ·         If timely objection not made, right to transfer waived
    • 2                    Original venue proper
    • ·         Upon its own or party motion may transfer to adjoining county if fair or impartial trial cannot be had in current county
  26. Removal to federal court
    • 1                    Federal court must have jurisdiction
    • 2                    Federal district that encompasses state court
    • 3                    Only defendants can remove
    • 4                    Cannot be removed based on diversity if any defendant a citizen of forum state
    • 5                    Notice of removal filed in 30 days
    • ·         If only becomes removable later, 30 days for first removable
    • 6                    1 year rule can be disregarded if plaintiff acts in bad faith to defeat removal
  27. Complaint
    • 1                    Commences action
    • 2                    Must contain
    • ·         Short and plain statement of the claim
    • ·         Demand for judgment for relief
  28. Interlocutory injunctions
    • 1                    Preliminary injunction
    • 2                    Temporary restraining order
  29. More detailed pleadings
    • 1                    Capacity – duty to raise negative averment
    • 2                    Fraud or Mistake – stated with particularity
    • 3                    Conditions precedent – Made specifically and with particularity
    • 4                    Timing – time and place averments are material
    • 5                    Special Damages – Elements specifically stated
  30. Fictitious Party
    • 1                    Ohio allows assigning fictitious name to pleading for unknown individuals
    • 2                    Must be amended when name discovered
    • 3                    Ohio only, federal rules does not provide for this
  31. Rule 12(B) Motions
    • 1                    1. Lack of subject matter jurisdiction
    • 2                    2. Lack of Personal Jurisdiction
    • 3                    3. Improper venue
    • 4                    4. Insufficiency of process
    • 5                    5. Insufficiency of service of process
    • 6                    6. Failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted
    • 7                    7. Failure to join a party needed for a just adjudication
    • 8                    2-5 at the time he files a motion or answer
    • 9                    Subject matter – anytime
    • 10                State a claim or join a party – before trial
  32. Answer Affirmative defenses
    • 1                    accord and satisfaction
    • 2                    arbitration and award
    • 3                    assumption of the risk
    • 4                    contributory negligence
    • 5                    duress
    • 6                    estoppel
    • 7                    failure of consideration
    • 8                    fraud
    • 9                    illegality
    • 10                injury by fellow employee
    • 11                laches
    • 12                license
    • 13                payment
    • 14                release
    • 15                res judicata
    • 16                Statute of Frauds
    • 17                Statute of limitations
    • 18                discharge in bankruptcy
    • 19                waiver
  33. Rule 11 Signature requirement
    • 1                    attorney read document
    • 2                    good grounds to support the document
    • 3                    document in not interposed for delay
  34. Permissive Joinder
    • 1                    claim arising out of same series of occurrences or transactions
    • 2                    Question of fact or law relating to the parties
  35. Compulsory joinder
    • 1                    complete relief cannot be given to existing parties in her absence
    • 2                    disposition in her absence may impair her ability to protect her interest in the controversy
    • 3                    her absence would expose existing parties to substantial risk of double or inconsistent obligation
    • 4                    Has interest in litigation as assignor, assignee, subrogor, or subrogree
  36. Counterclaims
    • 1                    Compulsory
    • ·         Arises out of same transaction or occurrence
    • ·         Unless claim subject to pending action when commence, requires third parties court does not have jurisdiction over, or plaintiff brought suit by attachment and court does not have jurisdiction over defendant
    • 2                    Permissive
    • ·         Does not arise from same transaction or occurrence
    • ·         Falls within compulsory exemption
  37. Cross-Claims
    • Co-plaintiff against co-plaintiff or
    • co-defendant against co-defendant
  38. Impleader
    1                    defendant may bring in person not a party who is or may be liable to him for all or part of plaintiff’s claim
  39. Interpleader
    1                    Allows a plaintiff to initiate a lawsuit in order to compel two or more other parties to litigate a dispute
  40. Class action
    • 1                    So numerous joinder of all members impracticable.
    • 2                    Questions of law or fact common to the class.
    • 3                    Named parties’ claims or defenses are typical of the class.
    • 4                    Fair and adequate representation of a class members
    • 5                    Requires
    • ·         Separate action would create inconsistent results;
    • ·         Injunctive or declaratory relief appropriate; or
    • ·         Questions of fact or law common to members
  41. Class Action Fairness Act
    • 1                    Any class member is diverse from any defendant
    • 2                    Exceeds $5 Million
    • 3                    At least 100 members
  42. Federal Initial Disclosures
    • 1                    Names addresses and telephones of those likely to have discoverable information
    • 2                    Copies or descriptions of items which party may use to support claim
    • 3                    A computation of damages
    • 4                    Copies of Insurance Agreements
  43. Shareholder Derivative Suit
    • 1                    Shareholder at time of transaction
    • 2                    Action not collusive
    • 3                    Demand made on directors
  44. Work Product
    1                    Materials gathered by a party, their attorney, or their agent, in preparation for trial.
  45. Interrogatories
    • 1                    Written questions
    • 2                    28 days to respond
    • 3                    Only parties to case
  46. Physical or mental exams
    1                    ordered where good cause shown
  47. Production of documents
    1                    must be subpoenaed
  48. Default judgment
    1                    Party fails to appear, plead, defend, or obey court order.
  49. Dismissals
    • 1                    Voluntary dismissal
    • ·         Without prejudice
    • ·         Unless previously dismissed
    • 2                    Involuntary dismissal
    • ·         With prejudice
    •    o        Failure to prosecute
    •    o        Failure to comply with rues or court order
    • ·         Without Prejudice
    •    o        Lack of jurisdiction
    •    o        Failure to join a party
  50. Summary judgment
    • 1                    No genuine issue of material fact
    • 2                    Reasonable minds can come to but one conclusion
    • 3                    After responsive motion
  51. Motion for judgment on the pleadings
    judgment on the face of the pleadings
  52. Ohio Jury verdict
    • 1                    Three-forths or more concur
    • 2                    General Verdict – jury decides one side to win
    • 3                    General Verdict with Interrogatories – Jury decides who wins and provides answers to question presented by the court.
    • 4                    Special Verdict – not available
    • 5                    12 for criminal
    • 6                    8 for civil
  53. Federal Jury trail
    • 1                    Request 14 days after filing
    • 2                    At least 6, not more than 12
  54. Directed Verdict
    1                    When viewed most favorable to the party against the verdict, reasonable minds could come to but one conclusion
  55. Judgment notwithstanding the verdict (JNOV)
    • 1                    Verdict returned could not have been reached by reasonable persons
    • 2                    Filed within 28 days 
  56. Relief from judgment
    • 1                    court may relive party if
    • ·         party suffered mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect
    • ·         party presents newly discovered evidence which could not have been discovered with due diligence in time to move for a new trial
    • ·         Fraud, misrepresentation, or misconduct by adverse party.
    • ·         Judgment satisfied, released or discharged or prior judgment on which it was based was vacated or reversed
    • ·         Justice requires relief from judgment
  57. Note
    • 1                    A promise to pay
    • 2                    Maker – party promising to pay
    • 3                    Payee or Bearer – To whom payment is promised
  58. Certificate of Deposit
    • 1                    Made by a bank
    • 2                    acknowledgment of money received
    • 3                    A promise to pay 
  59. Draft
    • 1                    order to pay
    • 2                    Drawer orders Drawee to pay money to Payee or Bearer
  60. Negotiability
    • 1                    Written and Signed
    • 2                    Unconditional
    • 3                    Promise or order to pay
    • 4                    A fixed amount of money
    • 5                    Is payable to order or bearer
    • 6                    On demand or at a definite time
    • 7                    Contains no unauthorized promise or undertaking
  61. Holder
    • 1                    Right to enforce and negotiate the instrument
    • 2                    Must have possession
    • 3                    Must be bearer, payee, or have all necessary signatures on the instrument
  62. Holder in due course
    • 1                    Must be a holder
    • 2                    Must take for value
    • 3                    Must take in good faith
    • 4                    Must not have notice of claims or defenses at time of took for value and possession
    • 5                    Cannot raise personal defenses
  63. Negotiable instruments claims and defenses
    • 1                    Forgery
    • 2                    Fraud in Factum
    • 3                    Alteration of the Instrument
    • 4                    Incapacity to Contract
    • 5                    Infancy
    • 6                    Illegality
    • 7                    Duress
    • 8                    Discharge in Insolvency Proceedings
    • 9                    Statute of Limitation
    • 10                Suertyship of defenses
    • 11                Discharge known to HDC
  64. Dishonor
    1                    Maker or drawee does not pay within the allowed time after presentment
  65. Liability to Holder
    • 1                    Maker – Primary
    • 2                    Drawer – Secondary
    • 3                    Drawee – Primary if accepts by signature
    • 4                    Acceptor – Primary, notice of dishonor required if bank
    • 5                    Indorser – Secondary
    • 6                    Transferor – Secondary
    • 7                    Accommodation Party – Depends on the capacity in which the party is signed
  66. Unauthorized signatures
    • 1                    Ficticious payee’s signature forged
    • 2                    Entrusted Employee forges signature
    • 3                    Negligence contributes to forgery
    • 4                    Bank statement rule violated
    • 5                    Bank certifies
  67. Transfer Warranties
    • 1                    Entitled to enforce
    • 2                    Signature are authentic and authorized
    • 3                    No Alteration
    • 4                    No defenses or claims of a party are good against the transferor
    • 5                    No knowledge of insolvency proceedings
  68. Presentment warranties
    • 1                    Unaccepted Draft
    • ·         Entitled to Enforce
    • ·         No knowledge that drawer’s signature is unauthorized
    • ·         No alteration
    • 2                    Other Instruments
    • ·         Entitled to enforce
  69. Discharge
    • 1                    Payment
    • 2                    Cancellation or renunciation
    • 3                    Impairment of recourse or collateral
    • 4                    Reacquisition
    • 5                    By Delay in presentment of a check
    • 6                    Failure to Give notice of Dishonor
    • 7                    Acceptance of a draft by a bank
    • 8                    Alteration
  70. Corporation formation
    • 1                    Sign and submit articles to secretary of state
    • 2                    Notify shareholders of organizational meeting
  71.  Articles of Incorporation
    • 1                    Contain Corporation name,
    • 2                    Place of Principal Office in Ohio
    • 3                    Number of Authorized shares
    • 4                    Default rules
    • 5                    Appointment of agent
  72.                         Professional Association
    • 1                    Professionals may form a P.A.,
    • 2                    only members of a particular profession may be shareholder in it
  73. Stocks
    • 1                    Outstanding shares – shares  sold to investors
    • 2                    Treasury Shares – Reacquired stocks are considered issued, but not outstanding
  74. Directors
    • 1                    At least 1
    • 2                    Elected by shareholders at annual meeting
    • 3                    Term may not exceed 3 years
    • 4                    Removed by majority vote of shareholders (vacancy filled by shareholders)
    • 5                    Vacancies filled by either shareholders or remaining director majority
    • 6                    Meetings Required
    • ·         Unless unanimous consent to forgo
    • ·         Minimum 2 days notice needed
    • ·         Conference call allowed
    • ·         Quorum – majority of shareholder’s on the board
  75. Corporation De Jure
    • 1                    Formed according to statute
    • 2                    Insulates against personal liability of shareholders
  76. Corporation De Facto
    • 1                    Complies with most statutory provisions of formation
    • 2                    Exercise corporate privilege
    • 3                    Insulates against personal liability of shareholders
    • 4                    Corporation subject to quo warranto proceeding by state
  77. Corporation formed by Estoppel
    • 1                    Parties act as if there is a corporation
    • 2                    No statutory provisions of formation required
    • 3                    Insulates against personal liability of shareholders for contract but not tort.
  78. Piercing the corporate veil
    • 1                    No separate mind, will, or existence from its own
    • 2                    Used corporation to commit fraud
    • 3                    Injury or unjust loss to the plaintiff resulted
  79. Promoters
    • 1                    Can enter into contract on behalf of future corporation
    • 2                    Considered joint ventures
    • 3                    Owe fiduciary duties to the corporation
    • 4                    Personally liable to third parties until novation after formation
    • Have a right to reimbursement
  80. Voting trust
    • 1                    Agreement to transfer shares to a trustee
    • 2                    10 year maximum but renewable
    • 3                    Legal ownership transferred to trustee
    • 4                    Shareholders retain beneficial ownership
  81. Pooling agreement
    • 1                    An agreement among shareholders to vote a certain may
    • 2                    Can be perpetual
    • 3                    Shareholders retain both legal and beneficial ownership
  82. Preferred shareholders
    • 1                    Right to receive dividends before common shareholders
    • 2                    No accumulation for past years unless sufficient earnings
    • 3                    No right to share in distributions of common shares unless provided they are participating
  83. Shareholder liability
    • 1                    No fiduciary duty
    • 2                    Except in closed corporations
  84. Officers
    • 1                    President, Secretary, and Treasurer required
    • 2                    May have a chairperson of the board of directors
  85. Merger
    1                    One or more corporations merging into another corporation
  86. Consolidation
    1                    2 or more corporations may combine to form a new corporation
  87. Partnership Formation
    • 1                    Agreement
    • 2                    Writing generally not required
    • 3                    Capacity
    • 4                    Legality of Purpose
    • 5                    Consent
    • 6                    Statement of partnership authority
  88. Partnership rules
    • 1                    Every partner may perform business and manage; equal voting power (absent other agreement)
    • 2                    Partners share equally in profits (absent other agreement)
    • 3                    Partners are personally liable to third parties for obligations
    • 4                    Requires unanimous agreement to admit new partners
    • 5                    Partners owe fiduciary duties to each other
    • 6                    Every partner may dissolve an at-will partnership
  89. Partnership Property
    • 1                    Titled in the partnership name
    • 2                    Instrument transferring title notes the titleholder’s capacity as a partner or the existence of a partnership
    • 3                    Purchased with partnership funds
  90. Partnership Liability
    • 1                    Partners liable for all contracts
    • 2                    Partners liable for entire amount of partnership
    • 3                    Joint and severally liable
    • 4                    Incoming partner not liable for past partnership activity
    • 5                    Outgoing partner’s liable for activity during partnership
    • ·         Still can be liable after disassociation
  91. Partnership Dissociation
    • 1                    Notice of partners express will
    • 2                    Happening of agreed event
    • 3                    Expulsion by unanimous vote
    • 4                    Partner’s bankruptcy
    • 5                    Death or incapacity
    • 6                    Appointment of a receiver
    • 7                    Termination of a business entity that is a partner
  92. Partnership Dissolution
    • 1                    Requires partnership business to be wound up
    • 2                    At will partnership
    • ·         Notification of a will to withdraw by a partner
    • 3                    Definite term partnership
    • ·         Expiration of a definite term
    • ·         Consent of all partners
    • ·         At least half the remaining partners wish to dissolve
    • 4                    Happening of an event agreed in the partnership agreement
    • 5                    Happening of an event that make it unlawful
    • 6                    Issuance of a judicial decree on application by a partner
    • ·         That frustrates economic purpose
    • ·         Not reasonably practical to carry on business
    • ·         Business cannot practically be carried on
    • 7                    Issuance of a judicial decree on application by transferee
    • ·         After term expires
    • ·         At any time partnership is at will
  93. Distribution of partnership assets
    • 1                    Creditors, Creditor partners, then partner accounts
  94. Formation of an LLP
    • 1                    Vote sufficient to amend a partnership agreement
    • 2                    Statement of qualification filed with secretary of state
    • ·         Name and address of partnership
    • ·         Statement that partnership wishes to be an LLP
    • ·         Deferred effective date
  95. LLP Liability
    • 1                    Partners are not personally liable for partnership obligations
    • 2                    Liable for own wrongdoing
  96. Limited Partnership Formation
    • 1                    Certificate of LP filed with secretary of state
    • ·         Signed by all general partners
    • ·         Name of partnership
    • ·         Address
    • ·         Each general partner
  97. LP liability
    • 1                    General partner subject to all liabilities
    • 2                    Limited partner not liable for partnership obligations unless
    • ·         Also a general partner
    • ·         Participates in control of the business
    • ·         Knowingly allows name to be used in the name of the partnership
  98. LP rights
    • 1                    Share of profits and losses
    • 2                    Assign their interest
    • 3                    Transact business with the partnership
    • 4                    Withdraw
    • 5                    Apply for dissolution
    • 6                    General partner
    • ·         Rights of a partner in a regular partnership
    • ·         Right to manage
    • 7                    Limited Partner
    • ·         Vote on specific matters
    • ·         Obtain partnership information
    • ·         Bring a derivative action
  99. LP Dissolution
    • 1                    Occurrence of time stated in certificate of LP
    • 2                    Occurrence of the time or event in the partnership agreement
    • 3                    Written consent of all partners
    • 4                    Withdrawl of a general partner
    • 5                    Judicial dissolution
  100. LP Distribution of Assets
    • 1                    Creditors; then
    • 2                    General and limited partners to satisfy liabilities for interim distribution; then
    • 3                    General and limited partners for return of contributions; then
    • 4                    General and limited partners for profits and property in proportions
  101. LLC formation
    • 1                    Certificate of organization filed with secretary of state
    • ·         Name of LLC
    • ·         Indicatia of an LLC
    • ·         Address of registered office
    • ·         Name and address of its registered agent
  102. Member managed LLC
    1                    Owe duty of care and loyalty to each others and the LLC
  103. Manager managed LLC
    • 1                    Only managers subject to duty of loyalty
    • 2                    Only members may authorize or ratify an act by a manager that would otherwise violate the duty of loyalty
  104. LLC Dissolution
    • 1                    An event or circumstance that operating agreement states causes dissolution
    • 2                    Consent of all the members
    • 3                    90 consecutive days without any members
  105. Judicial dissolution of LLC
    • 1                    LLC activities are unlawful
    • 2                    Not reasonably practicable to carry on the companies activities
    • 3                    Controlling members have acted in illegal or fraudulent manner
    • 4                    Controlling members oppressive and/or acted in a manner directly harmful to applying member 
  106. Administrative dissolution of an LLC
    1                    Secretary of state may dissolve if fails to submit required fee or annual report
  107. Abandoned property
    • 1                    Gave up possession
    • 2                    Intent to give up title
    • 3                    Finders rights
    • ·         Intent to acquire possession
    • Acquired possession
  108. Lost property
    • 1                    Lose it
    • 2                    Accidentally or involuntarily
    • 3                    Finder’s rights
    • ·         Entitled to property over everyone except true owner
    • ·         Unless finder a trespasser or highly private locus
  109. Misplaced property
    • 1                    Voluntarily place it somewhere and forget to take it with you
    • 2                    Finder’s rights
    • ·         Owner of locus entitled to possession against all except true owner
  110. Gift Inter Vivos
    • 1                    Donative intent
    • 2                    Delivery
    • 3                    Acceptance
  111. Delivery of a Gift
    • 1                    Actual Physical Delivery
    • ·         Physical delivery
    • ·         Done acquired dominion and control
    • 2                    By written instrument
    • ·         Writing must manifest donative intent
    • ·         Describe subject matter
    • ·         Signed by donor
    • ·         Delivered
    • 3                    Constructive
    • ·         Physical delivery impractical
    • ·         Donor surrenders as much control as he possess
    • 4                    Donee already in possession
    • 5                    Gift through Agent
    • ·         Donee’s agent, effective upon delivery to agent
    • ·         Donor’s agent, effective upon delivery to donee
    • 6                    Symbolic
    • ·         Manuel delivery impossible or impracticable
    • ·         May hand over object symbolic of delivery
  112. Treasure Trove
    • 1                    Concealed
    • 2                    Gold or silver, (modern trend paper money)
    • 3                    In refined form
    • 4                    Owner unknown
    • 5                    Traditional, finder prevails
    • 6                    Modern view, lost property rules
  113. Engagement rings
    • 1                    Conditional gift in contemplation of marriage
    • 2                    Must be returned if condition of marriage not met
  114. Gift Causa Mortis
    • 1                    Donative Intent
    • 2                    Delivery
    • 3                    Acceptance
    • 4                    Death contemplated
    • 5                    Personal property only
  115. Gift Causa Mortis Revocation
    • 1                    Donor revokes
    • 2                    Donor Recovers
    • 3                    Donee dies before donor
    • 4                    Donor dies from a different source than anticipate
  116. Bailments
    • 1                    Custody
    • 2                    Intent to serve as a bailee
  117. Bailee’s duty of care
    • 1                    Benefit of bailor – Gross negligence
    • 2                    Mutual benefit – Ordinary Care
    • 3                    Benefit of Bailee – Great Diligence
    • 4                    Bailee departs from terms of bailment or fails to redeliver item – Absolute liability
  118. Discipline of attorneys
    • 1                    Public reprimand
    • 2                    Suspension – not less than 2 years
    • 3                    Disbarment
  119. Ohio Disciplinary Prohibitions
    • 1                    Violating Rules of Professional conduct
    • 2                    Illegal acts effecting honesty or trustworthiness
    • 3                    Conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, deceit, or misrepresentation
    • 4                    Conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice
    • 5                    Imply ability to improperly influence government gency or official
    • 6                    Assisting a judge or judicial officer in violation of Rules of Professional conduct
    • 7                    Discrimination prohibited by law
    • 8                    Any other conduct that adversely effects a lawyers fitness to practice law
  120. Law firm name
    • 1                    No trade names
    • 2                    Lawyers in public office not used in name
    • 3                    Named partners must work for firm
  121. Firm advertising
    • 1                    True and not misleading
    • 2                    Contain name and address of at least 1 attorney in the firm
    • 3                    Cannot contain unjustified expectations 
  122. Attorney solicitation
    • 1                    Allowed solicitation
    • ·         Personal contact not motivated by pecuniary gain
    • ·         Other lawyers
    • ·         Close personal friends
    • ·         Target mailings
    • ·         Prepaid group legal services
    • 2                    Impermissible Solicitation
    • ·         In person contact motivated by pecuniary gain
    • ·         A person that make it known they do not wish to be solicited
    • ·         Solicitation that involves coercion, duress, or harassment
  123. Attorney-Client Relationship
    • 1                    Client manifests intent that there is representation
    • 2                    Attorney agrees; or
    • 3                    Attorney fails to make clear that he is not representing and client reasonably relies
  124. Lawyer as a witness
    • 1                    Can’t be a necessary witness for a client
    • 2                    Except
    • ·         Uncontested matters
    • ·         Testimony relates to nature/value of legal services rendered in case
    • ·         Disqualification would cause substantial harm to client
  125. Consent to attorney client conflict
    • 1                    Completely and diligently represent each
    • 2                    Not prohibited my law
    • 3                    Does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client
    • 4                    Informed consent confirmed in writing
  126. Financial interest adverse to client
    • 1                    Terms attorney acquired interest fair and reasonable to the client
    • 2                    Fully disclosed
    • 3                    Client has opportunity to seek advice of independent counsel
    • 4                    Informed consent in a writing signed by client
  127. Reasonable attorney fee
    • 1                    Time and labor
    • 2                    Novelty and difficulty
    • 3                    Requisite skill
    • 4                    Customary fee
    • 5                    Experience and reputation
    • 6                    Interference with other employment of the attorney
    • 7                    Time limitations imposed by the client
  128. Contingent fees
    • 1                    Cannot charge in domestic relations or criminal cases
    • 2                    Recovery of back child support allowed
  129. Retainer
    • 1                    Advance in fees
    • 2                    Availability
    • 3                    Cannot be nonrefundable
  130. Attorney accounts
    • 1                    Operating account
    • 2                    Client trust account
    • ·         Ohio Bank
    • ·         Maintained in Ohio
    • ·         Interest to Ohio Legal assistance foundation
  131. Attorney record keeping
    • 1                    At least 7 years after termination
    • 2                    Keep fee agreement
    • 3                    Record for each client
    • 4                    Monthly reconciliation
  132. Ex Parte Communications
    • 1                    Jury, not allowed
    • 2                    Judge, only de minimus
  133. Attorney withdrawal
    • 1                    Not materially adverse to client
    • 2                    Client used lawyer’s services to perpetuate crime or fraud
    • 3                    Client’s objective is repugnant to lawyer
    • 4                    Client fails to fulfill substantial obligation to attorney
    • 5                    Unreasonable financial burden
    • 6                    Clients informed consent to withdraw
    • 7                    Lawyer sells practice
    • 8                    Other good cause
  134. Clients decisions in representation
    • 1                    Acceptance or rejection of settlement offers
    • 2                    Plea to be entered in a criminal case
    • 3                    Waiver of jury trial in a criminal case
    • 4                    Whether to testify in a criminal case
  135. Attorney candor toward tribunal
    • 1                    Attorney may not
    • ·         Make false statement
    • ·         Fail to correct a false statement
    • ·         Fail to disclose adverse legal authority
    • ·         Offer false evidence 
  136. MCLE Requirements
    • 1                    24 hours every 2 years
    • 2                    2 ½ hours of ethics
  137. Scope of Article 9
    • 1                    Contractual security
    • 2                    Sales of accounts chattel paper, payment intangibles, and promissory notes
    • 3                    Commercial consignments
    • 4                    Agricultural liens
    • 5                    Leases
    • 6                    Seller’s retention of title
    • 7                    Not interest in land, except fixtures
  138. Tangible collateral
    • 1                    Consumer goods
    • 2                    Inventory
    • 3                    Farm products
    • 4                    Equipment
    • 5                    Intangible or semi-intangible collateral
    • ·         Instruments
    • ·         Documents
    • ·         Chattel Paper
    • ·         Accounts
    • ·         Deposit accounts
    • ·         Investment property
    • ·         Commercial tort claims
    • ·         General intangibles
  139. Attachment
    • 1                    Agree to create
    • ·         Creditor takes possession;
    • ·         Debtor’s authentication; or
    • ·         Creditor takes control
    • 2                    Value given by secured party
    • 3                    Debtor have rights in the collateral
  140. Perfection
    • 1                    Attachment; and
    • 2                    One of the following
    • ·         Filing financing statement
    • ·         Taking possession
    • ·         Taking control
    • ·         Automatic (consumer goods)
    • ·         Temporary perfection (20 days)
  141. Financing statement
    • 1                    Debtor and secured party’s name and address
    • 2                    Indication of collateral
    • 3                    If real property, description, record owner, and real property records
  142. Priority
    • 1                    Buyer in ordinary course of business
    • 2                    Holder in due course
    • 3                    Transferee of money or funds from deposit accounts
    • 4                    Purchasers of chattel paper or instrument
    • 5                    Possessory lienholder
    • 6                    Article 2 claimant with possession of goods
    • 7                    PMSI
    • 8                    Perfected security interests and attached judicial liens
    • 9                    Purchaser
    • 10                Unperfected security interests
    • 11                Debtor
  143. Purchase Money Security Interest (PMSI)
    • 1                    Has super priority over prior perfected security interests
    • 2                    Inventory
    • ·         Perfected at time debtor gets possession
    • ·         Written notification to perfected interests
    • 3                    Goods
    • ·         Super priority if perfect within 20 days after debtor receives possession
  144. Ohio assignment of security notice
    • 1                    10 days’ notice before sale
    • 2                    Publish notice
  145. Abatement
    • 1                    Intestacy; then
    • 2                    Residuary; then
    • 3                    General legacies; then
    • 4                    Specific devises and bequests
  146. Intestate Succession
    • 1                    Dies without will;
    • 2                    Decedent’s will denied probate; or
    • 3                    Does not dispose of all property.
  147. Issue
    • 1                    A person's lineal descendants
    • 2                    Does not include spouses, ancestors, and collaterals (siblings, cousins, aunts, and uncles)
  148. Intestate Succession order
    • 1                    Issue
    • 2                    Parents
    • 3                    Descendants or Parents / Siblings of their issue
    • 4                    Maternal and/or paternal grandparents
    • 5                    Descendant’s next of kin
    • 6                    Stepchildren or their issue
    • 7                    State
  149. Adoption
    • 1                    Treated as birth children to adopting family
    • 2                    Cut off of birth parents inheritance
    • ·         Except in adopting child of spouse who is a birth parent
  150. Simultaneous death
    • 1                    120 hour rule
    • 2                    Applies to all transfers
    • 3                    Unless instrument provides otherwise
  151. Death caused by heir or beneficiary
    • 1                    Feloniously and intentionally brings about death of descendant
    • 2                    Forfeits any interest in the estate
  152. Parent who abandons child
    1                    Not entitled to inherit from the child
  153. Advancement of intestate share
    • 1                    Declared as such in contemporaneous writing by donor, or
    • 2                    Acknowledged as such in writing by done
  154. Execution of a will
    • 1                    In writing
    • 2                    Signed at the end by the testator
    • 3                    Attested and subscribed by 2 or more competent witnesses in the conscience presence of the testator
    • 4                    Witnesses saw testator sign or heard acknowledge her signature
  155. Holographic wills
    • 1                    Entirely handwritten by testator and has no attesting witnesses
    • 2                    Ohio does not recognize holographic wills
    • ·         Unless validly executed in another state
  156. Oral wills
    • 1                    Valid if
    • ·         Distributing personal property
    • ·         Testator’s last illness
    • ·         Reduced to writing within 10 days
    • ·         Witnesses prove testator was of sound mind and memory
  157. Incorporation by reference
    • 1                    Will must refer to the document
    • 2                    Document must be in existence at time will is created
    • 3                    Will must sufficiently describe the writing
    • 4                    Manifest an intent to incorporate the document
  158. Revocation of a will
    • 1                    Testamentary capacity; and
    • 2                    Prior to death.
    • 3                    Subsequent instrument;
    • 4                    By physical act; or
    • ·         Cannot partially revoke by physical act
    • 5                    Proxy
    • ·         At testator’s direction in testator’s presence, or
    • ·         With written authority outside presence
  159. Marriage effect on a will
    • 1                    Marriage has no effect
    • 2                    Divorce revokes all provisions in favor of former spouse
  160. Revival of wills
    1                    Cannot be revived unless re-executed
  161. Joint wills
    • 1                    A single instrument by two or more testators
    • 2                    Revocable prior to death even if pursuant to contract stating no revocation
  162. Reciprocal wills
    • 1                    Separate wills by 2 or more testators
    • 2                    Contain reciprocal provisions
  163. Anti-Lapse statute
    • 1                    Saves gift if the predeceasing beneficiary
    • ·         Was testator’s stepchild, grandparent, or descendant of the testator’s grandparent
    • ·         Lest descendants that survived by at least 120 hours
  164.  Ademption
    • 1                    By extinction
    • ·         Not in testator’s estate at death
    • ·         Specific devises and bequests only
    • 2                    By satisfaction
    • ·         Property given inter vivos
  165. Elective Share
    • 1                    Surviving spouses elective share
    • 2                    If 0-1 children, no more than half (1/2) the estate
    • 3                    If 2+ children, no more than one third (1/3) the estate.
    • 4                    Must be made within 5 months
    • 5                    Paid first from spouses share than abatement rules
  166. Spouses share of other assets
    • 1                    Entitled to mansion house for one year
    • ·         If sold entitled to reasonable rental value for remaining time.
    • 2                    $40,000 allowance limit
    • 3                    Up to 2 automobiles
    • ·         May not exceed $40,000
    • ·         If 2 automobiles chosen, less expensive automobile applies against $40,000 allowance
    • 4                    1 watercraft and outboard motor, unless disposed of in will
  167. Grounds to contest a will
    • 1                    Defective execution
    • 2                    Revocation
    • 3                    Lack of testamentary capacity
    • 4                    Lack of testamentary intent
    • 5                    Undue influence or duress
    • 6                    Fraud
    • 7                    Mistake
  168. Testamentary capacity
    • 1                    At least 18
    • 2                    Mental capacity
    • ·         Understand nature of act
    • ·         Understand nature and extent of property
    • ·         Know persons who are natural objects of her bounty
    • ·         Appreciate her relationship to family members
    • 3                    Insane delusion may affect part or all of will
  169. Undue influence
    • 1                    Susceptible testator
    • 2                    Opportunity
    • 3                    Improper influence was in fact exerted
    • 4                    Will result of undue influence
  170. Fraud in execution of a will
    • 1                    Testator willfully deceived as to
    • ·         Character or content of the instrument
    • ·         Extrinsic facts that would induce the will or a particular disposition
    • ·         Facts material to a disposition
  171. Mistake
    • 1                    Testator mistaken as to nature of the instrument
    • 2                    The testator’s mistake in inducement appears on the face of the will
  172. Will ambiguity
    • 1                    Attempt to follow testator’s intent
    • 2                    Construction, If attempt undetermined
    • ·         Favor those who take intestate;
    • ·         Favor construction that avoids intestacy
    • ·         Favor construction consistent with perceived plan
    • ·         Every portion of the will should be given effect
    • ·         Between totally inconsistent clauses, the latter is most likely the final intent
  173. Will substitutes
    • 1                    Life Insurance – priority over will, unless provided in policy
    • 2                    Totten trusts – deposit in bank account for another person, revocable trust
    • 3                    Joint Survivor accounts
    • ·         Share account with right of survivorship
    • ·         Most states evidence depositor did not intend it to be a gift admissible
    • ·         Ohio survivorship conclusive absent fraud, undue influence, or duress
    • 4                    Deeds – valid nontestamentary trust
    • 5                    Retirement benefits – pass to beneficiary
    • 6                    Contracts – valid if the comply with formalities required for a will
  174. Intentional Tort Prima Facia case
    • 1                    Act by Defendant – Volitional Movement by defendant
    • 2                    Intent
    • ·         Specific – Specific consequences
    • ·         General – Substantial certainty
    • ·         Transferred intent – Intent to commit one intentional tort may be transferred to another
    • 3                    Causation – Was a substantial factor
  175. Battery
    • 1                    Harmful or offensive conduct;
    • 2                    To Plaintiff’s person;
    • 3                    Intent; and
    • 4                    Causation.
  176.  Assault
    • 1                    Act by defendant creating a reasonable apprehension in plaintiff;
    • 2                    Of immediate harmful or offensive conduct to plaintiff’s person;
    • 3                    Intent; and
    • 4                    Causation.
  177. Not Assault
    • 1                    Words not enough
    • 2                    Conditional threats
  178. False Imprisonment
    • 1                    Confines or restrains plaintiff
    • 2                    To a bounded area
    • 3                    Intent
    • 4                    Causation
  179. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
    • 1                    Act by defendant amounting to extreme and outrageous conduct
    • 2                    Intent or recklessness
    • 3                    Causation
    • 4                    Damages – severe emotional distress
  180. Extreme and outrageous conduct
    • 1                    Transcends all bounds of decency; or
    • 2                    If not may be if
    • ·         Continuous in nature
    • ·         Directed toward a certain plaintiff
    • ·         Committed by certain type of defendant – common carrier / inn keepers
  181. Trespass to land
    • 1                    Physical invasion
    • 2                    Intent
    • 3                    Causation
  182. Trespass to chattels
    • 1                    Act by defendant that interferes with plaintiff’s right of possession
    • 2                    Intent
    • 3                    Causation
    • 4                    Damages
  183. Conversion
    • 1                    Act by defendant that interferes with plaintiff’s right of possession
    • 2                    So serious that it warrants paying full value of chattel
    • 3                    Intent
    • 4                    Causation
  184. Defenses to intentional torts
    • 1                    Consent
    • 2                    Self-Defense
    • 3                    Defense of others
    • 4                    Defense of property
    • 5                    Privilege of arrest
    • 6                    Necessity
    • 7                    Discipline
  185. Consent
    • 1                    Expressed
    • 2                    Implied
    • ·         Inferred from custom or usage of plaintiff’s conduct
    • 3                    Cannot consent to criminal acts
    • 4                    Must have capacity to consent
    • 5                    Must be within scope of consent
  186. Deadly Force
    • 1                    Self-Defense
    • ·         Deadly force when presented with deadly force
    • ·         Even if initial aggressor who presented nondeadly force, if other party escalates
    • 2                    Defense of others
    • ·         Same as self-defense
    • 3                    Defense of property
    • ·         No deadly force allowed
    • 4                    Ohio Distinction
    • ·         Requires retreat before resorting to deadly force
    • ·         Except in own home
  187. Defamation
    • 1                    Defamatory language
    • 2                    Of or concerning the plaintiff
    • 3                    Publication
    • 4                    Damage to plaintiff’s reputation
  188. Libel
    • 1                    Written or printed defamatory language
    • 2                    General damages presumed
    • 3                    Includes radio and tv
  189. Slander
    • 1                    Adversely reflect one’s conduct in a business or profession;
    • 2                    One has a loathsome disease;
    • 3                    One is or was guilty of a crime involving moral turpitude; or
    • 4                    A woman is unchaste.
  190. Matter of public concern defamation
    1                    Must also prove falsity and fault
  191. Public official defamation
    • 1                    Must prove actual malice
    • ·         Knowledge statement false; or
    • ·         Reckless disregard as to whether it was false.
    • 2                    Has fame or notoriety or voluntarily assumes role in a controversy
  192. Defamation defenses
    • 1                    Consent
    • 2                    Truth
    • 3                    Absolute privilege – judicial proceeding
    • 4                    Qualified Privilege – reports of proceeding
  193. Invasion of Privacy
    • 1                    Unauthorized use of plaintiff’s picture
    • 2                    Prying or intruding highly offensive
    • 3                    Places plaintiff in a false light highly offensive to reasonable person
    • 4                    If public interest, actual malice required
    • 5                    Causation
    • 6                    Emotional distress and mental anguish sufficient damages
    • 7                    Defenses
    • 8                    Right of Privacy
  194. Misrepresentation
    • 1                    Misrepresentation of material past or present fact
    • 2                    Scienter – knew or beleived it was false
    • 3                    Intent
    • 4                    Causation
    • 5                    Justifiable reliance
    • 6                    Damages – actual pecuniary loss
  195. Negligent misrepresentation
    • 1                    Misrepresentation in a business or professional capacity
    • 2                    Breach of duty
    • 3                    Causation
    • 4                    Justifiable reliance
    • 5                    Damages
  196. Interference with business relations
    • 1                    Valid contractual relationship
    • 2                    Defendant’s knowledge of relationship
    • 3                    Intentional interference
    • 4                    Damages
  197. Wrongful institution of legal proceeding
    • 1                    Malicious prosecution
    • ·         Institution of criminal proceedings
    • ·         Termination in plaintiff’s favor
    • ·         Absence of probable cause
    • ·         Improper purpose
    • ·         Damages
  198. Negligence
    • 1                    Duty
    • 2                    Breach of duty
    • 3                    Breach actual and proximate cause
    • 4                    Damage
  199. Duty of Care
    • 1                    Foreseeable plaintiff
    • 2                    Standard of care
  200. Standards of care
    • 1                    Reasonable persons standard
    • 2                    Professionals
    • ·         National standard of care
    • 3                    Children
    • ·         Standard of child of like age, education, intelligence, and experience
    • 4                    Common carriers and inn keepers
  201. Licensees
    • 1                    Enters land for own business
    • 2                    Duties
    • ·         Warn or make safe dangerous conditions
    • ·         Exercise reasonable care
  202. Invitees
    • 1                    Enter land in response to an invitation
    • 2                    Duties
    • ·         Warn or make safe dangerous conditions
    • ·         Exercise reasonable care
    • ·         Duty to make reasonable inspections
  203. Duty to Trespassers
    • 1                    Undiscovered
    • ·         No duty
    • 2                    Discovered or anticipated
    • ·         Warn or make safe known concealed artificial conditions that may cause serious bodily harm or death
    • ·         Reasonable care for active operations
    • ·         No duty for natural conditions 
  204. Public Necessity
    • 1                    Defendant commits a property tort in an emergency to protect the community as a whole
    • 2                    Absolute defense
  205. Private Necessity
    • 1                    Defendant commits a property tort in order to protect his own interest
    • 2                    Qualified Defense
    • 3                    Must pay for actual damages done.
    • 4                    Remains liable for compensatory damages
    • 5                    Not liable for nominal or punitive damages
    • 6                    As long as emergency continues, plaintiff must allow defendant to remain on plaintiff’s land in a position of safety
  206. Res Ipsa Loquitur
    • 1                    Accident causing injury is type that would not normally occur but for negligence
    • 2                    Negligence attributed to defendant
    • 3                    Establishes prima facie case only
  207. Actual Causation
    • 1                    But For
    • 2                    Substantial factor for joint causes
  208. Proximate Causation
    1                    Harm foreseeable
  209. Independent Intervening factors
    • 1                    Negligent acts of third persons
    • 2                    Crimes and intentional torts of third persons
    • 3                    Acts of God – Force Majeure 
  210. Negligence Damages
    • 1                    Personal Injury
    • 2                    Property
    • 3                    Punitive if wanton and willful, reckless, or malicious
  211. Negligence Defenses
    • 1                    Contributory negligence
    • ·         Complete bar
    • 2                    Assumption of the Risk
    • 3                    Comparative Negligence
    • ·         Contributory negligence with partial recovery still available for defendant conduct
  212. Strict Liability
    • 1                    Nature of Defendant’s activity imposes absolute duty to make safe
    • 2                    Dangerous activity was actual and proximate cause of plaintiff’s injury
    • 3                    Plaintiff suffered damage to person or property
  213.  Abnormally dangerous activity 
    • 1                    Activity involves a foreseeable risk of reasonable harm, even when reasonable care is being exercised
    • 2                    Activity is uncommon in area where defendant conducts it
    • 3                    Dangerous activity
    • 4                    Strict Liability
  214. Animal Liability
    • 1                    Multistate
    • ·         No strict liability for domesticated animals
    • ·         Exception
    • o        If knowledge of vicious propensities liable
    • o        Knowledge if dog previously bit someone
    • 2                    Ohio
    • ·         No first bite rule
    • ·         Strict liability for dogs
    • ·         Exceptions where dog is taunted or tormented
    • No strict liability for trespasser
  215. Product Liability
    • 1                    Defect
    • 2                    Existence of defect when the product left defendant’s control
  216. Types of Products Liability Actions
    • 1                    Intent
    • 2                    Negligence
    • 3                    Strict Liability
    • 4                    Implied Warranty of Merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose
    • 5                    Representation theory
  217. Defects
    • 1                    Manufacturer – failed to perform safely as ordinary customer would use
    • 2                    Design – could have made product safer without serious impact on price or utility
    • 3                    Government Safety Standards – Noncompliance
    • 4                    Inadequate warnings
  218. Strict Tort Liability
    • 1                    A commercial supplier of a product
    • 2                    Producing or selling a defective product
    • 3                    Actual and proximate cause
    • 4                    Damages
  219. Implied Warranties of merchantability
    • 1                    Merchantability
    • ·         Average Acceptable Quality
    • ·         Generally fit for a particular purpose
    • 2                    Fitness for a particular purpose
    • ·         Seller knows or has reason to know particular purpose for which goods are required
  220. Representation Warranty
    • 1                    Expressed Warranty
    • 2                    Breach
    • 3                    Causation
    • 4                    Damages
  221. Misrepresentation of facts
    • 1                    Statement was of a material fact concerning quality
    • 2                    Seller intended to induce reliance
  222. Nuisance
    • 1                    Private Nuisance
    • ·         Substantial and unreasonable interference with another private individual’s use or enjoyment or property
    • 2                    Public Nuisance
    • ·         Act that unreasonably interferes with the health, safety, or property right of the community
  223. Loss of consortium
    • 1                    In any claim where plaintiff is married, uninjured spouse gets cause of action against all defendants
    • 2                    Any defense against injured spouse may be used against uninjured spouse
    • 3                    Damages
    • ·         Loss of services
    • ·         Loss of society (companionship)
    • ·         Compensation for loss of sex
  224. Criminal Law Merger
    • 1                    Common Law
    • ·         Conduct constituting Felony and Misdemeanor
    • ·         Only a felony
    • 2                    Modern Law
    • ·         No merger
    • ·         Except cannot be charged with solicitation and completion of the crime
  225. Omission to Act
    • 1                    Legal duty to act
    • 2                    Defendant has knowledge of the facts giving rise to the duty to act
    • 3                    It is reasonably possible to perform the duty
  226. Specific Intent Crimes
    • 1                    Conspiracy
    • 2                    Asssault
    • 3                    Forgery
    • 4                    False Pretenses
    • 5                    Embezzlement
    • 6                    First Degree Premedditated Murder
    • 7                    Larceny
    • 8                    Attempt
    • 9                    Burglary, Robbery
    • 10                Solicitation
  227. General Intent Crimes
    • 1                    Battery
    • 2                    Kidnapping
    • 3                    False Imprisonment
    • 4                    Rape
  228. Malice Intent Crimes
    • 1                    Common Law Murder
    • 2                    Arson
  229. Strict Liability Crimes
    • 1                    Statutory Rape
    • 2                    Selling Liquor to Minors
    • 3                    Bigamy
  230. Mens Rea
    • 1                    Purposely – conscious object to engage
    • 2                    Knowingly – awareness that conduct of a particular nature
    • 3                    Recklessly – Conscious Disregard of a substantial and unjustifiable risk
    • 4                    Negligently – failure to be aware of a substantial and unjustifiable risk
  231. Parties to a crime
    • 1                    Principal – commits crime
    • ·         Liable for principal crime
    • 2                    Accomplice – aids or encourages principal
    • ·         Liable for principal crime if intent to aid in that crime
    • 3                    Accessory after the fact – Aids another to escape
  232. Withdrawal from a crime
    • 1                    Before crime committed
    • 2                    Repudiation
    • 3                    Attempt to neutralize
    • ·         Liable for separate less serious crime
  233. Solicitation
    • 1                    Inciting, counseling, advising, urging, or commanding another to commit a crime
    • 2                    Intent that person solicited  commit the crime
  234. Conspiracy
    • 1                    An agreement between two or more persons
    • 2                    Intent to enter into the agreement
    • 3                    An intent by at least two persons to achieve the objective of the agreement
    • 4                    Common Law requires an overt act
  235. Attempt
    • 1                    Intent to commit crime
    • 2                    Overt act
    • 3                    Falls short of completing
  236. Insanity
    • 1                    M’Naghten Rule
    • ·         Disease of mind
    • ·         Caused by defect
    • ·         Lacked ability to know wrongfulness of actions or understand the nature and quality
    • 2                    Irresistible Impulse
    • ·         An impulse that defendant cannot resist
    • 3                    Durham
    • ·         But for the mental illness, defendant would not have done the act
    • 4                    A.L.I. or M.P.C.
    • ·         Lacked substantial capacity to
    •    o        Appreciate criminality; or
    •    o        Conform his conduct to the requirements of law
  237. Entrapment
    • 1                    Criminal design originated with law enforcement officers
    • 2                    Defendant was not predisposed to commit the crime prior to contact by the government
  238. Criminal Battery
    • 1                    Unlawful application of force
    • 2                    Bodily injury or an offensive touching
  239. Aggravated Battery
    • 1                    Battery
    • 2                    Deadly Weapon
    • 3                    Serious bodily harm
    • 4                    Battery of a child, woman, or police officer
  240. Criminal Assault
    • 1                    Attempt to commit battery; or
    • 2                    Intentional creation or reasonable apprehension
    • 3                    Aggravated Assault – With deadly weapon or intent to rape
  241. Mayhem
    • 1                    Common Law
    • 2                    Dismemberment
  242. Homicide
    • 1                    Murder
    • 2                    Manslaughter
    • 3                    Felony Murder
  243. Murder
    • 1                    Intent to kill;
    • 2                    Intent to inflict great bodily injury;
    • 3                    Reckless indifference to an unjustifiably high risk to human life; or
    • 4                    Intent to commit a felony (felony murder).
  244. Voluntary Manslaughter
    • 1                    Sudden and intense passion
    • 2                    Defendant in fact provoked
    • 3                    Was not sufficient time between provocation and killing
    • 4                    Did not cool off
  245. Involuntary Manslaughter
    • 1                    Killing
    • 2                    With criminal negligence
  246. Criminal False imprisonment
    • 1                    Unlawful confinement
    • 2                    Without valid consent
    • 3                    M.P.C. – also interferes substantially
  247. Kidnapping
    • 1                    False Imprisonment
    • 2                    Movement or concealment
  248. Rape
    • 1                    Intercourse without consent
    • ·         By either force,
    • ·         threat of force,
    • ·         incapacity of consenting, or
    • ·         fraud
  249. Statutory Rape
    • 1                    Intercourse with person under age of consent
    • 2                    Consent irrelevant
    • 3                    Strict liability, even in mistake
  250. Larceny
    • 1                    A taking
    • 2                    And carrying away
    • 3                    Of tangible personal property
    • 4                    Of another
    • 5                    By trespass
    • 6                    With intent to permanently deprive
  251. Embezzlement
    • 1                    Fraudulent
    • 2                    Conversion
    • 3                    Of personal property
    • 4                    Of another
    • 5                    By person in lawful possession
  252. False pretenses
    • 1                    Obtaining title
    • 2                    To personal property of another
    • 3                    By an intentional false statement of a past or existing fact
    • 4                    With intent to defraud the other
  253. Robbery
    • 1                    A taking
    • 2                    Of personal property of another
    • 3                    From the other’s person or presense
    • 4                    By force or threats of immediate death or physical injury
    • 5                    With intent to permanently deprive
  254. Extortion
    1                    Corrupt collection of an unlawful fee by an officer under color of office
  255. Receipt of Stolen Property
    • 1                    Receiving possession and control
    • 2                    Of stolen personal property
    • 3                    Known to have obtained in a manner constituting a criminal offense
    • 4                    By another person
    • 5                    With intent to permanently deprive the owner of his interest in it
  256. Forgery
    • 1                    Making or alternating
    • 2                    A writing
    • 3                    So that it is false
    • 4                    With intent to defraud
  257. Malicious Mischief
    • 1                    The malicious
    • 2                    Destruction of or damage to
    • 3                    The property of another
  258. Burglary
    • 1                    A breaking
    • 2                    And entry
    • 3                    Of a dwelling
    • 4                    Of another
    • 5                    At nighttime
    • 6                    With the intent to commit a felony in the structure
  259. Arson
    • 1                    Malicious
    • 2                    Burning
    • 3                    Of the dwelling
    • 4                    Of another
  260. Perjury
    1                    Intentionally taking of a false oath
  261. Bribery
    • 1                    Common law – corrupt payment or receipt for an official action
    • 2                    Modern statutes – may be extended to nonpublic officials
  262. Search and Seizure
    • 1                    Reasonably expectation of privacy?
    • 2                    Valid Warrant?
    • 3                    Valid Warrantless Search?
  263. Arrests
    1                    Probable Cause
  264. Fourth Amendment Protection
    • 1                    Persons
    • 2                    Houses
    • 3                    Papers
    • 4                    Effects
  265. Warrant Validity
    • 1                    Issued by neutral and detached magistrate
    • 2                    Probable cause and particularity
    • ·         If did did officers rely in good faith
    • 3                    Warrant properly executed
  266. Exception to warrant
    • 1                    Consent
    • 2                    Automobile
    • 3                    Terry Stop
    • 4                    Search Incident to arrest
    • 5                    Plain View
    • 6                    Inventory
    • 7                    Exigent Circumstances
    • 8                    Special needs
  267. Search incident to arrest
    • 1                    Arrest lawful
    • 2                    Contemporaneous
    • 3                    Within wingspan
  268. Terry Stop
    • 1                    Reasonable Suspicion
    • 2                    Supported by articulable facts
  269. Exclusionary Rule
    • 1                    Unconstitutionally obtained evidence is inadmissible at trial
    • 2                    All fruit of the poisonous tree must also be excluded
  270. Knock and announce
    • 1                    Police must knock and announce before entering forcefully
    • 2                    Exception
    • ·         Futile
    • ·         Dangerous
    • ·         Would inhibit investigation
  271. Confession relevant amendments
    • 1                    14th – Due Process
    • 2                    6th – right to counsel
    • 3                    5th – Miranda doctrine
  272. Pretrial identification
    • 1                    Line ups
    • 2                    Show ups
    • 3                    Photo arrays
  273. Grand Juries
    • 1                    Issue Indictments
    • 2                    Private proceedings
  274. Competency to stand trial
    • 1                    Lack of rational as well as factual understanding of the charges and proceedings
    • 2                    Lacks sufficient present ability to consult with lawyer with reasonable degree of understanding
  275. Guilty Pleas
    • 1                    Made voluntarily and intelligently (all pleas)
    • 2                    Understands nature of charge and crucial elements
    • 3                    Knows maximum penalty and mandatory minimum
    • 4                    Right not to plead guilty
    • 5                    Waives right to trial
  276. Double jeopardy attaches
    • 1                    Jury Trial – jury sworn
    • 2                    Bench Trial – first witness sworn
    • 3                    Guilty plea – when court accepts plea
  277. Appeals
    • 1                    No constitutional right to an appeal
    • 2                    Indigent’s given right to counsel at state expense on first appeal
  278. Juvenile Courts
    • 1                    Written notice of charges
    • 2                    Assistance of counsel
    • 3                    Opportunity to confront and cross-examine witnesses
    • 4                    The right not to testify
    • 5                    Right to have guilt established by proof beyond reasonable doubt
  279. Relevance
    • 1                    Tends to make existence of any fact,
    • 2                    Of consequence to the outcome
    • 3                    More or less probable than it would be without the evidence
  280. Habit Evidence
    • 1                    To show a person’s regular response to a specific set of circumstances
    • 2                    Frequency
    • 3                    Particularity
  281. Policy evidence exclusions
    • 1                    Liability Insurance – to prove negligence or ability to pay
    • 2                    Subsequent remedial measures – prove negligence or culpability
    • 3                    Settlement offers – as to validity of the amount of a claim
    • 4                    Withdrawn guilty pleas – all circumstances
    • 5                    Offers to pay and payment of medical expenses – to prove culpable conduct
  282. Accident history evidence
    • 1                    Inadmissible
    • 2                    Unless event caused plaintiff’s injuries
  283. Evidence of Prior Acts
    • 1                    Motive
    • 2                    Intent
    • 3                    Mistake
    • 4                    Identity
    • 5                    Common plan or scheme
  284. Evidence Authentication
    • 1                    Admissions
    • 2                    Witness testimony
    • 3                    Handwriting verifications 
  285. Real Evidence
    • 1                    Actual physical evidence
    • 2                    Authenticated
  286. Documentary evidence
    • 1                    Must be relevant
    • 2                    Authentication
  287. Ancient documents
    • 1                    20 years old
    • 2                    Such condition as to be free from suspicion as to authenticity
    • 3                    Was found in such a place where such writing would likely be kept
  288. Best Evidence Rule
    • 1                    Original document must be produced
    • 2                    Secondary evidence available only if original is unavailable
  289. Character Evidence
    • 1                    Character an essential element of the case
    • 2                    Circumstantial evidence of the person’s conduct on a particular occasion
    • 3                    Witnesses bad character to impeach credibility
    • 4                    Inadmissible to prove criminal conduct of a defendant
    • ·         Unless good character presented by defense
    • 5                    Inadmissible in civil cases
  290. Parol evidence Rule
    • 1                    Agreement reduced to writing with the intent that it embody the full and final expression of the bargain
    • 2                    The Writing is the only evidence of it
    • 3                    Exceptions
    • ·         Incomplete or ambiguous
    • ·         Reformation of contract
    • ·         Challenge to validity of the contract
  291. Testimony of Witnesses
    • 1                    Competency
    • ·         Have personal knowledge
    • ·         Testify truthfully
    • 2                    Opinions by lay witnesses are generally inadmissible
    • ·         Unless rationally based on witness perception,
    • ·         Helpful to a clear understanding of testimony
    • ·         Not based on scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge
  292. Examination of a witness
    • 1                    Leading questions improper on direct
    • 2                    Cannot read testimony
    • 3                    Present recollection may be revived through use of writing or any other thing to refresh present recollection
    • 4                    Past recollection may be recorded if
    • ·         Witness had personal knowledge at one time
    • ·         Writing made by witness
    • ·         Writing timely made
    • ·         Writing accurate
    • ·         Witness has insufficient recollection
  293. Admissible Lay Opinions
    • 1                    Speed
    • 2                    Appearance
    • 3                    Voice
    • 4                    Emotion
    • 5                    Sense recognition
    • 6                    Intoxication
    • 7                    Rational or irrational Conduct
    • 8                    Value of own service
  294. Impeachment of a witness
    • 1                    Casting adverse reflection on witness
    • 2                    Impeachable witnesses
    • ·         Adverse party
    • ·         Hostile
    • ·         Required by law
    • ·         Surprise testimony
    • 3                    May be rehabilitated
  295. Evidence of sexual misconduct
    • 1                    Admissible
    • 2                    Sexual assault case
    • 3                    To show Defendant’s propensity
    • 4                    Ohio only allowed if Prior Acts MIMIC rules apply
  296. Ohio Hearsay exception for Descedent’s Estate
    • 1                    Statements concern same subject matter
    • 2                    Rebut interested witnesses testimony
    • 3                    Descedent had personal knowledge of the matter
  297. Expert witness qualifications
    • 1                    Education, and/or required Experience
    • 2                    Scientific or other specialized knowledge that will be helpful to jury in deciding fact
  298. Expert Opinion
    • 1                    Personal Opinion;
    • 2                    Other evidence in trial record through hypothetical question
    • 3                    Facts outside record if reasonably relied upon by expert in field
  299. Attorney-Client privilege
    • 1                    Confidential communications
    • 2                    Between attorney and client
    • 3                    During professional legal consultation
    • 4                    Client only may waive
    • 5                    Privilege applies indefinitely
  300. Physician-Patient Privilege
    • 1                    Professional relationship
    • 2                    Information acquired in course of treatment
    • 3                    Information necessary for treatment
  301. Marital privileges
    • 1                    Spousal immunity
    • ·         Only one spouse compelled to testify
    • ·         Only witness-spouse may invoke immunity
    • ·         Only during marriage
    • 2                    Confidential marital communications
    • ·         Communications made in reliance of intimacy of marital relationship
    • ·         Both spouses have privilege
    • ·         Privilege survives marriage
  302. Past criminal conviction testimony
    • 1                    Only convictions where false statement necessary as an element to that crime
    • 2                    If not, must be a felony
    • 3                    Court can exclude if probative value outweighed by undue prejudice
  303. Hearsay
    • 1                    Statement
    • 2                    Offered to prove truth of the matter
    • 3                    Exceptions
    • ·         Business records
    • ·         Dying Declaration
    • ·         Declaration of intent
    • ·         Excited Utterance
    • ·         Forfeiture by wrongdoing
    • ·         Fromer testimony
    • ·         Present sense impression
    • ·         Present state of mind
    • ·         Present physical condition
    • ·         Public records
    • ·         Statement against interest 
  304. Advisory Opinions
    • 1                    Courts may not render advisory opinions which lack
    • ·         actual dispute between adverse parties; or
    • ·         Any legally binding effect
  305. Ripeness
    • 1                    Mootness Federal courts may only decide controversies that are ripe for judicial review
    • 2                    Pre-enforcement review not ripe unless
    • ·         Substantial hardship in absence of review
    • ·         Issues and record are fit for view
  306. Mootness
    • 1                    Federal courts may only decide live controversies
    • 2                    Live if in suit for
    • ·         declaratory or injunctive relief, challenged law, or conduct continues to injure
    • ·         damages and not made whole
  307. Standing
    • 1                    Injury
    • 2                    Causation
    • 3                    Redressability
  308. Third party standing
    • 1                    Close relationship
    • ·         Plaintiff injured
    • ·         Third party unable or unlikely to sue
    • ·         Plaintiff can represent 3rd party
    • 2                    Organizations
    • ·         Members have standing
    • ·         Members injury related to purpose of organization
    • ·         Member participation not required
    • 3                    Free speech overbreadth
    • ·         Substantial overbreadth in terms of law’s legitimate to illegitimate sweep
    • ·         Not commercial speech
  309. Political Questions
    • 1                    Not decided
    • 2                    Constitutionally committed to another branch of government; or
    • 3                    Inherently incapable of judicial resolution.
  310. Sovereign Immunity
    • 1                    States bared
    • ·         Except waiver,
    • ·         Plaintiff other states or federal government
    • ·         Bankruptcy
    • ·         Clear abrogation by congress under 14th amendment to prevent discrimination
    • 2                    State officers not barred
    • ·         Injunctive relief
    • ·         Money damages
    • 3                    States not barred from suing other states
  311. Federal Powers
    • 1                    Legislative Powers – Article 1
    • 2                    Executive power – Article 2
    • 3                    Judicial Powers – Article 3
  312. Enumerated Powers
    • 1                    Powers of legislature
    • 2                    Commerce power
    • 3                    Taxing and Spending Power
  313. Limits on interstate commerce
    • 1                    Legislature cannot regulate noneconomic activity in area traditionally regulated by states; or
    • 2                    Compel participation in commerce
  314. Executive power
    • 1                    Enforcement
    • 2                    Appointment and removal
    • 3                    Ability to deploy troops
    • ·         (only congress can declare war)
    • 4                    Negotiate treaties
  315. Impeachment
    • 1                    House passes articles of impeachment by majority vote
    • 2                    Senate convicts 2/3
    • 3                    Removal requires both
  316. Presidential Immunity
    • 1                    Immune from civil suits with official responsibilities
    • 2                    No immunity for private suits
  317. Dormant commerce Clause
    Prohibits state laws that discriminate or unduly burden interstate commerce
  318. Privileges and Immunities of article 4
    • 1                    Prohibits state laws that discriminate against out of state US citizens regarding
    • ·         Commercial activities
    • ·         Fundamental rights
  319. Privileges or Immunities of 14th amendment
    • 1                    Prohibits state laws from interfering with
    • ·         Interstate travel
    • ·         Petitioning government
    • ·         Not the bill of rights
  320. State actions
    • 1                    Public functions done by private party that are traditionally and exclusively done by the government
    • 2                    State Involvement is significant
  321. Due Process
    • 1                    Federal Government application – 5th Amendment
    • 2                    State application – 14th Amendment
    • 3                    Individual has a right to a fair process when government acts to deprive life, liberty, or property.
    • 4                    If deprivation
    • ·         Notice
    • ·         Opportunity to be heard
    • ·         Before a neutral decision maker
  322. Rational Basis
    • 1                    Legitimate state interest
    • 2                    Rationally related
    • 3                    Burden on challenger
    • 4                    Presumption valid
    • 5                    Classifications
    • ·         Disability
    • ·         Wealth
    • ·         Age
    • ·         Alienage by congress and state related governance
    • ·         All other classifications
  323. Intermediate scrutiny
    • 1                    Important state interest
    • 2                    Substantially related
    • 3                    Burden on the State
    • 4                    No Presumption
    • 5                    Classifications
    • ·         Gender
    • ·         Illegitimacy
    • ·         Undocumented alien child
  324. Strict Scrutiny
    • 1                    Compelling state interest
    • 2                    Narrowly tailored
    • 3                    Burden on the State
    • 4                    Presumption Invalid
    • 5                    Classifications
    • ·         Denial of fundamental rights
    • ·         Alien classifications by state
    • ·         Race
    • ·         National Origin
  325. Fundamental Rights
    • 1                    Marriage
    • 2                    Procreation
    • 3                    Contraception
    • 4                    Custody, care, and upbringing of children
    • 5                    Living with extended family
    • 6                    Interstate travel
    • 7                    Abortion (undue burden rather than strict scrutiny)
  326. Non-Fundamental rights
    • 1                    Rational basis
    • ·         Economic rights
    • ·         Physician assisted suicide
    • ·         Education
    • 2                    Unspecified
    • ·         Private consensual adult sexual intimacy
    • ·         Refuse medical treatment
    • ·         Bear arms
  327. Taking requirements
    • 1                    Public Use
    • 2                    Pays Just compensation
  328. Ex post facto
    • 1                    Neither state nor federal government may pass legislation that retroactively alters criminal liability
    • 2                    Categories
    • ·         Cannot criminalize act that was innocent when done;
    • ·         Make crime greater than when committed;
    • ·         Set punishment greater than when act was done; or
    • ·         Reduces evidence required to convict from what was required at tie of act
  329. Freedom of speech
    • 1                    Protection of speech
    • 2                    Unprotected
    • ·         Incitement
    • ·         Fighting words
    • ·         True Threats
    • ·         Obscenity
    • ·         Child Pornography
    • ·         Defamation with actual malice
    • ·         Commercial Speech (false and misleading)
    • 3                    Partially protected
    • ·         Defamation about public officials, figures or concern
    • ·         Commercial Speech (not false and misleading)
  330. Commercial Speech
    • 1                    Substantial government interest
    • 2                    Narrowly tailored
  331. Free Speech Test
    • 1                    Content-based
    • ·         Strict Scrutiny
    • 2                    Content-neutral
    • ·         Intermediate Scrutiny
  332. Public Employee Speech
    • 1                    Unprotected
    • ·         Private Concern
    • ·         Pursuant to official duties
    • 2                    Protected
    • ·         Matters of public concern
  333. Free Exercise Clause
    • 1                    Regarding to exercise of religion
    • 2                    Discriminatory laws given strict scrutiny
    • 3                    Neutral laws of general applicability are not subject to the free Exercice Clause
    • ·         Except religious organizations
  334. Establishment clause
    • 1                    Government must remain neutral with respect to religion
    • 2                    Government may not directly or indirectly coerce individuals to exercise
    • 3                    Lemon Test
    • 4                    Reasonable government should not endorse or disapprove
    • 5                    Sometimes tolerate acknowledgement of history and tradition
  335. Lemon test
    • 1                    Primary Purpose is sectarian; or
    • 2                    Primary effect is sectarian; or
    • 3                    Excessive entanglement between government and religion
  336. Doing business taxes
    • 1                    Substantial nexus;
    • 2                    Tax fairly apportioned;
    • 3                    Tax must not discriminate against interstate commerce; and
    • 4                    Tax must fairly relate to services provided
  337. Tax types
    • 1                    Use tax
    • ·         Goods purchased out of state and used within state
    • ·         Valid unless higher than sales tax
    • 2                    Sales tax
    • ·         Tax on sale of goods consummated within the state
    • ·         Valid
    • 3                    Ad valorem tax
    • ·         Tax on assessed value of property
    • ·         Valid only if property is no longer in interstate commerce
    • 4                    Privilege, License, Franchise, and occupational tax
    • ·         Tax placed on some activity
    •    o        Valid if Substantial nexus to taxing state;
    •    o        Fairly apportioned;
    •    o        Does not discriminate against interstate commerce; or
    •    o        Fairly relates to services provided by state.
  338. Fee Simple Absolute
    • 1                    Indefinite duration
    • 2                    Presumed in absence of express contrary
  339. Fee Simple Determinable
    • 1                    Terminates upon happening of stated event
    • 2                    Automatically reverts to grantor
    • 3                    Grantor holds Possibility of Reverter
  340. Fee Simple Subject to condition Subsequent
    • 1                    Reserves right to terminate
    • 2                    Upon happening of event
    • 3                    Grantor holds Right of entry
  341. Fee Simple subject to an Executory Interest
    • 1                    Terminates upon happening of an event
    • 2                    Passes to third party
    • 3                    Third party has an executory interest
  342. Fee Tail
    • 1                    Inheritability limited to lineal heirs
    • 2                    To A “and the heirs of his body.”
  343. Life Estate
    • 1                    Measured by life or lives of one or more persons
    • 2                    Pur Autre Vie – for the life of another
    • 3                    Only ordinary uses and profits
    • 4                    Cannot commit waste
  344. Voluntary Waste
    • 1                    Exploitation of natural resources
    • ·         Exception for necessary repair or maintenance;
    • ·         Land suitable only for such use; or
    • ·         Expressly or impliedly permitted by the grantor
  345. Permissive Waste
    • 1                    Required to preserve land and structures in a reasonable state of repairs
    • 2                    Pay interest on mortgages
    • 3                    Pay ordinary taxes
    • 4                    Pay special assessments for short duration public improvements
  346. Ameliorative waste
    • 1                    A change in the property that benefits it economically
    • 2                    Actionable at common law
    • 3                    May alter or demolish if
    • ·         Market value of future interests is not diminished; and either
    •    o        Remainderman do not object; or
    •    o        Substantial and permanent change in neighborhood conditions has deprived the property in current form of reasonable productivity or usefulness
  347. Indefeasibly Vested Remainder
    • 1                    Existing and ascertainable person
    • 2                    Not subject to a condition precedent
    • 3                    Right to immediate possession of preceding estate
    • 4                    Not subject to divestment or diminution
  348. Vested Remainder Subject to open
    • 1                    Vested remainder created in class of persons
    • 2                    Certain to become possessory
    • 3                    Subject to diminution.
  349. Vested remainder subject to total divestment
    • 1                    Subject to a condition subsequent
    • 2                    Right of entry upon happening of an event
  350. Contingent remainder
    • 1                    Remainder created for unborn or unascertainable persons
    • 2                    Subject to a condition subsequent
    • 3                    Common law destroyed if failed to vest before or upon termination
    • 4                    Most states convert to an executory interest
  351. Merger of property
    1                    When a person acquires all present and future interests in land
  352. Rule in Shelly’s Case
    • 1                    Common Law
    • 2                    Rule against remainders in Grantee’s heirs
    • 3                    If to A for life estate and remainder A’s to heirs,
    • 4                    A takes life estate and remainder
    • 5                    Abolished in most states
  353. Doctrine of Worthier title
    • 1                    Rule against reminder in Grantor’s heirs
    • 2                    Becomes a reversion in grantor
    • 3                    Inter vivos only
  354. Executory interest
    • 1                    Future interests in third parties
    • 2                    Springing executory interest
    • ·         Divests the grantor’s estate
    • 3                    Shifting Executory interest
    • ·         Follow a gap in possession; or
    • ·         Cut short a grantor’s estate
  355. Class gifts
    • 1                    Group of persons with the same characteristic
    • 2                    Rule of Convenience
    • ·         Class closes when some member of the class can call for distribution
    • 3                    Survival not necessary unless stipulated
  356. Trusts
    • 1                    Fiduciary relationship to property
    • 2                    Trustee holds legal title subject to enforceable rights in a beneficiary
    • 3                    Trust creator is the settlor
  357. Rule against perpetuities
    • 1                    No interest in property where property interest will not vest for 21 years
    • 2                    If any possibility that it will not vest for more than 21 years then interest void
  358. Fertile Octogenarian
    1                    A woman is conclusively presumed to be capable of bearing children regardless of her age
  359. Joint tenancy
    • 1                    Held by multiple persons
    • 2                    Equal time, title, interest, and possession
    • 3                    Right of survivorship
    • 4                    Not transferable, destroys tenancy, becomes tenancy in common
  360. Tenancy by the entirety
    • 1                    Marital estate akin to joint tenancy
    • 2                    Severed only through death, divorce, mutual agreement or joint creditor of both marital parties
  361. Tenancy in Common
    • 1                    Ownership of property by multiple people
    • 2                    Can have different time, title, interest, and possession
  362. Leasehold
    • 1                    Estate in land
    • 2                    Tenant has a present possessory interest
    • 3                    In the leased premises
    • 4                    Landlord has future reversionary interest
  363. Tenancy for years
    • 1                    Tenancy continues for fixed period of time
    • 2                    Automatically end at termination date
    • 3                    Usually written (SOF requires writing if more than 1 year
  364. Periodic tenancy
    • 1                    Continues for successive periods
    • 2                    Created by
    • ·         Express agreement
    • ·         Implication
    • ·         Operation of law
    • 3                    Automatically renewed
  365. Tenancies at Will
    • 1                    Terminable at the will of either the landlord or the tenant
    • 2                    No stated duration
  366. Tenancy at Sufferance
    • 1                    Tenant wrongfully holds over after termination of tenancy
    • 2                    Terminates when landlord takes steps to evict
  367. Lease Duties
    • 1                    Tenant
    • ·         Not commit waste
    • ·         Pay rent
    • ·         Not use premises for illegal purposes
    • 2                    Landlord
    • ·         Delivery of possession of premises
    • ·         Quiet enjoyment
  368. Constructive eviction
    • 1                    Landlord breaches duty to tenant
    • 2                    Breach substantially and materially deprived tenant of quiet enjoyment
    • 3                    Tenant gave landlord notice and reasonable time to repair
    • 4                    After reasonable time tenant vacated premises
  369. Implied warranty of habitability
    • 1                    In the event of a breach tenant may
    • ·         Terminate lease
    • ·         Make repairs and offset costs
    • ·         Abate rent to fair rental value in view of the defects
    • ·         Remain in possession, pay rent, and sue for damages
  370. Assignment
    • 1                    Complete transfer of entire remaining lease
    • 2                    By landlord or tenant
    • 3                    Original tenant remains liable for the contract including rent and other covenants
    • 4                    Assignee assumes lease and liability of tenant 
  371. Sublease
    • 1                    Transfer of only a portion of the lease, no tall
    • 2                    Only by tenant
    • 3                    Tenant still liable
    • 4                    Sublessor liable to tenant
  372. Landlord liability
    • 1                    Dangerous conditions that he knew or should of known
    • 2                    Has reason to believe tenant may admit the public before repairing
    • 3                    Fails to repair condition
  373. Fixtures
    • 1                    Chattel so affixed to the land that it ceases being personal property
    • 2                    A fixture is objective intention of party who made the annexation was to make item part of realty
    • ·         Determined by nature of article,
    • ·         Manner of attachment,
    • ·         Amount of damage caused by removal, and
    • ·         Adaptation of item to use of realty.
  374. Implied Easements / Quasi-Easement
    • 1                    Prior to the division of a single tract;
    • 2                    An apparent and continuous use exists on the servient part;
    • 3                    That is reasonably necessary for the quiet enjoyment of the dominant part; and
    • 4                    Court determines use of land was intended to continue after division
  375. Easement creation
    • 1                    Express grant
    • 2                    Express Reservation – grantor reserves right to continue use
    • 3                    Implication – Implied or Quasi-Easements
    • 4                    Prescription – Adverse possession
    • ·         Open and obvious
    • ·         Adverse
    • ·         Continuous and uninterrupted
    • ·         For the statutory period
  376. Termination of Easements
    • 1                    Stated condition
    • 2                    Unity of ownership (merger)
    • 3                    Release
    • 4                    Abandonment – Physical action
    • 5                    Estoppel
    • 6                    Prescription
    • 7                    Necessity
    • 8                    Condemnation and destruction
  377. Burden Covenants
    • 1                    Intent
    • 2                    Notice
    • 3                    Horizontal privity – original parties
    • 4                    Vertical privity – Successor and covenanting party must hold entire durational interest
  378. Benefit Covenants
    • 1                    Intent
    • 2                    Vertical privity – benefits of covenant run to assigness of original or lesser estate
    • 3                    Touch and concern
  379. Equitable servitude
    • 1                    Promise to do or not do something on the land
    • 2                    Intent
    • 3                    Touch and concern
    • 4                    Notice if a Burden
  380. Adverse possession
    • 1                    Continuous
    • 2                    Hostile
    • 3                    Actual and Exclusive Possession
    • 4                    Open and obvious possession
    • 5                    Statute time
  381. Marketability of title
    • 1                    Implied covenant by seller that title marketable
    • 2                    Defects in chain of title make property unmarketable
    • 3                    Encumbrances such as mortgage or lien make title unmarketable
    • 4                    Zoning does not affect marketability
    • 5                    Must be marketable at closing
    • 6                    Marketable if sale price pays all remaining encumbrances
  382. Deeds
    • 1                    A transfer of title in real interest
    • 2                    In writing
    • 3                    Signed by grantor
    • 4                    Reasonably identifies parties
    • 5                    Can be intervivos gift
  383. Race Recording
    • 1                    Recorded first
    • 2                    First recorded
    • 3                    Common Law
  384. Notice Recording
    • 1                    Ohio Recording statue
    • 2                    Without Notice or in good faith
  385. Race-Notice Recording
    • 1                    Without Notice or in good faith
    • 2                    Recorded first
    • 3                    First recorded
  386. Foreclosure
    • 1                    Sale of property to satisfy debt
    • 2                    Redemption by equity
    • ·         Can pay off debt and stop sale any time prior to sale
  387. Watercourse Rights
    • 1                    Natural Flow
    • ·         Substantial or material diminution of water
    • 2                    Reasonable Use - factors
    • ·         Altering of flow
    • ·         Purpose of use
    • ·         Pollution
    • ·         Extent of use
    • ·         Destination of water take
    • ·         Other conduct that may give rise to litigation
  388. Ground water
    • 1                    Absolute ownership – only a few states
    • 2                    Reasonable use –only as long as it does not harm other owners
    • 3                    Correlative – joint tenant ownership, reasonable use
    • 4                    Appropriative rights – priority determinative
    • 5                    Restatement – use unles
    • ·         Unreasonably harms neighbors
    • ·         Exceeds reasonable share
    • ·         Directly and substantially affect surface waters
  389. Surface water
    • 1                    Natural Flow – cannot alter natural drainage
    • 2                    Common Enemy – any protective measure
    • 3                    Reasonable Use – balancing utility of use against harm
  390. Goods
    • 1                    All moveable thigs
    • 2                    Governed under article 2
  391. Types of contracts
    • 1                    Express Contract – formed by language, oral or written
    • 2                    Implied in Fact Contract – manifestation of assent other than oral or written
    • 3                    Quasi-Contract / Implied in Law – constructed by courts to avoid unjust enrichment
    • 4                    Bilateral contract - Exchange of mutual promises
    • 5                    Unilateral contract – Acceptance by performance
  392. Contract
    • 1                    Elements
    • ·         Offer – promise or undertaking to commit
    • ·         Acceptance
    • ·         Consideration – Bargained for exchange of something of legal value
    • 2                    Defenses
    • ·         Mistake
    • ·         Lack of capacity
    • ·         Illegality
    • ·         Statute of Frauds
  393. Offer
    • 1                    Promise or undertaking
    • 2                    Certainty and definiteness
    • 3                    Communication to offeree
  394. Merchant firm offer
    • 1                    Merchant
    • 2                    Offers to buy or sell goods
    • 3                    In signed writing
    • 4                    Writing gives assurances that it wil be held open
    • 5                    Not revocable for lack of consideration during time stated
  395. Acceptance
    • 1                    Offeree must know of offer
    • 2                    Mirror image abandoned
    • ·         Proposal is an acceptance, unless expressly made conditional
    • 3                    Cannot accept by silence
    • 4                    Article 2 acceptance
    • ·         By shipment or promise to ship
    • 5                    Mailbox rule
    • ·         Effective when received
    • ·         Rejection then acceptance, whichever received first is effective
    • ·         Acceptance then rejection, acceptance unless offeror detrimentally relied on rejection received first
  396. Consideration
    • 1                    Elements
    • ·         Bargained for exchange
    • ·         Of legal value
    • 2                    Requirement of mutuality
  397. Promissory estoppel
    • 1                    Promisor should reasonably expect to induce action or forbearance; and
    • 2                    Such action or forbearance is in fact induced
  398. Statute of Frauds
    • 1                    Writing
    • ·         Identify subject matter
    • ·         Indicate contract has been made
    • ·         State essential terms
    • 2                    Signature
    • 3                    Where required
    • ·         Marriage
    • ·         Year (if more than 1 year)
    • ·         Land interest more than one year
    • ·         Executor / administrator
    • ·         Goods $500 or more
    • ·         Surety
  399. General construction rules
    • 1                    Contracts construed as a whole
    • 2                    Construe words according to their ordinary meaning
    • 3                    Written or typed provisions will prevail over printed provisions
    • 4                    Courts try to reach a determination that contact is valid
    • 5                    Ambiguities in a contract construed against party preparing contract
    • 6                    Course of dealing between parties
    • 7                    Usage of trade
    • 8                    Course of performance
    • 9                    Express > course performance > course of dealing > usage of trade 
  400. Parol Evidence
    • 1                    If contract is expressed in writing with intent to be the final expression,
    • 2                    Prior writing and oral expressions contemporaneous with writing are inadmissible to vary terms.
  401. Article 2 gap fillers (if not specified)
    • 1                    Price
    • ·         The price is left open to be agreed upon; or
    • ·         Price fixed by some standard set by third party or agency
    • 2                    Place of delivery
    • ·         Usually sellers place of business
    • 3                    Time for shipment or delivery
    • ·         Due in a reasonable time
    • 4                    Time for payment
    • ·         Due at time and place at which buyer is to receive the goods
    • 5                    Assortment
    • ·         At buyer’s option
  402. Carrier Cases
    • 1                    Shipment Contract – Risk of loss passes when delivered to carrier
    • 2                    Destination Contract – Tendered to buyer at destination
    • 3                    F.O.B. – Free on Board
    • ·         Seller bears risk
    • ·         Risk passes to buyer at location
    • 4                    F.A.S. – Free alongside
    • ·         Shipped by boat
    • ·         Seller bears risk
    • ·         Risk passes to buyer at dock
  403. Perfect Tender
    • 1                    Delivery and condition of the goods must be exactly as promised in the contract
    • 2                    Followed by article 2
    • 3                    If goods on their delivery fail to conform to the contract in any way, buyer may reject all
  404. Condition
    • 1                    Condition Precedent
    • ·         Condition must occur before performance is due
    • 2                    Condition Concurrent
    • ·         Conditions to occur at same time
    • 3                    Condition Subsequent
    • ·         Condition cuts off already existing duty
  405. Anticipatory Repudiation
    • 1                    Promisor, prior to performance indicates he will not perform
    • 2                    Alternatives
    • ·         Sue immediately;
    • ·         Suspend performance and sue on performance date;
    • ·         Treat contract as discharged; or
    • ·         Ignore repudiation and urge promisor to perform
  406. Divisible contract
    • 1                    Performance of each party divided into two or more parts;
    • 2                    Number of parts due from each party is the same; and
    • 3                    Performance of each part by one party is agreed on as the equivalent of the corresponding part
  407. Discharge for impracticability
    • 1                    Extreme and unreasonable difficulty and/or expense; and
    • 2                    Its non-occurrence was a basic assumption of the parties.
  408. Discharge by Frustration
    • 1                    Supervening act or event leading to frustration
    • 2                    Did not reasonably foresee
    • 3                    Purpose of contract completely or almost completely destroyed
    • 4                    Purpose of the contract realized by both parties at time of making
  409. Discharge by accord and satisfaction
    • 1                    Accord
    • ·         Agreement to accept other performance in lieu of contracted for performance
    • 2                    Satisfaction
    • ·         Performance of the accord contract
  410. Materiality of breach
    • 1                    Amount of benefit received
    • 2                    Adequacy of compensation
    • 3                    Extent of part performance
    • 4                    Hardship
    • 5                    Negligent or willful behavior
    • 6                    The likelihood that the breaching party will perform remainder of contract
  411. Revoking Acceptance
    • 1                    If goods have a defect that substantially impairs their value to her and
    • ·         Accepted on reasonable belief defect would be cured; or
    • ·         Accepts because of difficulty of discovering defect
  412. Contract damages
    • 1                    Specific Performance – Land and Rare or unique goods
    • 2                    Compensatory – puts nonbreaching party in position she would have been had promise been performed
    • 3                    Punitive – not available
    • 4                    Nominal – breach but no loss
    • 5                    Liquidated –  Paid in reasonable view of harm
  413. Equitable defenses
    • 1                    Laches
    • ·         Claim that plaintiff has delayed bringing action and delay prejudiced defendant
    • 2                    Unclean hands
    • ·         Party seeking specific performance is guilty of wrongdoing in the transaction being sued upon
    • 3                    Sale to a bona fide purchaser
    • ·         Claim that the subject matter has been sold to person who purchased for value in good faith
  414. Rescission
    • 1                    Contract voidable or rescinded
    • 2                    Grounds
    • ·         Mutual mistake
    • ·         Unilateral mistake if other party knew or hardship extreme
    • ·         Misrepresentation of fact or law
    • ·         Other grounds
  415. Contracts Statute of limitations
    • 1                    UCC – four years
    • 2                    Parties may shorten, but not less than one year
    • 3                    Statutory period begins at breach
    • 4                    Warranty actions begin to run on delivery
  416. Contractual assignment
    • 1                    Contracts can be assigned unless
    • ·         Substantially change obligor’s duty of risk
    • ·         Assignment of future rights to arise from future contracts
    • ·         Assignment prohibited by law

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