Civil Procedure

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  1. Right court?

      In personam
        traditional basis
        statutory basis
        constitutional basis [MSPFFRCS]
      In rem
      Quasi in rem
    Jxn - fed cts have limit jxn, as such, ct must have personal & subj matter jxn over the case to exercise jxn

    • PJ - a ct has PJ if the D is a resident, consents, or is subject to states long arm statute & meets the constitutional minimum contacts test. 
    • Traditional basis- Domicile - indv, corp (incorp/PPB/nerve center)

    Statutory - long arm statute

    • Constitutional
    •   Min contacts [systematic & continuous, purposeful availment, foreseeability]
    •   PJ exercise NO offend trad'tl notions of fair play & sub'tl justice [relatedness, convenience, forum state's interest]

    In rem - cts jxn to determine issue re: rts in property

    Quasi in rem - attachment of a D's property located w/in forum used as way of get jxn
  2. right ct?


    Federal ?

    SMJ - cts only have SMJ over cases that either 1) involve ? of fed law, or 2) diversity jxn 

    • Diversity - requires complete diversity & amt in controversy >$75k
    •   Injunction - measured by value of either 1) value of harm suffered by D, or 2) cost of D to comply
    •   Aggregation 
    •     *1 P can agg all claims against 1 D (even if unrelated)
    •     *1 P can agg claims agst multi Ds, if Ds jointly lia to P
    •     *multi Ps - @ least 1 P meets amt, Ps may use supp'tl jxn enable low-amt Ps to join w/high amount P; if no single P has claim meeting amt, agg by multi Ps NOT ALLOWED
    •            EXCEPT - 2or more Ps unite to enforce single title/rt in which have common & undivided interest - agg OK
    •     *Class Actions - split - CA - OK if named class reps each have claim over $75k; other - every claim must be over $75k

    Federal ? - US Const, laws of US, & treaties 

    • Supplemental - may exercise supp'tl jxn over add'tl claims over which ct wouldn't independently have SMJ, but arise out of common nucleus of operative fact 
    • Pendant - if underlying claim under Fed? & common nucleus of op fact, ct can hear: 
    •   1) any add'tl state law claims by P whenever so related to fed claim
    •   2) add'tl claims by P that involve joinder/intervention of other parties 
    •   Ancillary - underlying claim Fed?/Div & comm'n nuc op fact, can hear any add'tl claim by anyone other than P
  3. CA SMJ

    Types of Jxn Classifications
       Small Claims


       Unlimited -> limited
       Limited -> unlimited
       Amended complaint
    • Types
    •   Limited - amt in contro $25k or less
    •   Unlimited - amt in contro >$25k 
    •      *1P can agg all claims agst 1D
    •      *1P v multi Ds on joint claim, total amt claims used to determine amt in contro
    •   Small - P individual - $7,500 or less; P corp - $5k or less

    Classification - P must initially determine amt of demand/recovery [if limit civ COA, must not classification on top of complaint]

    • Reclassification - pty, or ct on own motion, may request; notice & hearing req'd 
    •    *Unlimit>limit - ct must find will be $25k or less, or recovery >$25k is unobtainable
    •    *limit>unlimit - ct must find reasonable poss'bty verdict >$25k
    •    *amend comp't - if P files amend comp't w/reclassify, clerk will reclassify
    •    *X-compt - increase limited to unlimited, entire action reclassified as unlimited
  4. right ct?


    • Removal - any civ action brought in st ct by P an be removed by D (NOT P) to Fed Dist Ct that embraces st ct where og filed
    •    1) could've og brought in fed ct [diversity > if diversity only, no removal if D citiz of state where action filed OR more than 1 yr since comp't filed]
    •    2) sought by D w/in 30 days receive comp't
    •    3) All Ds agree

    • Remand - fed ct to st ct if no SMJ & w/in 30 days of D's removal;
    • *inconsistency where remand to, talk about venue [proper?] - otherwise, don't talk about venue
  5. rt ct?

    Proper Venue

    Transfer of Venue
      if og venue proper
      if og venue improper

    Forum non conveniens
    Proper venue - P may lay venue where, 1) all Ds reside, 2) sub'tl part of claim arose, 3) based on diversity - dist where any D subj to PJ; base on fed? - dist where any D may be found

    • Transfer of venue 
    •    Venue proper - ct MAY transfer if:
    •      1) all parties consent
    •      2) another dist where case could've been filed originally [new ct must have proper venue, SMJ, PJ]
    •      3) balancing test - convenience of parties/wit & interests of justice outweign P's interest in choice of forum
    •    Venue improper - ct MUST 1) dismiss case, or 2) interests of justice, transf case to any dist where could've og been filed [transferee ct must have proper venue, SMJ, PJ]

    • Forum non conveniens - even if PJ & proper venue, ct will DISMISS action if finds forum would be too inconvenient for parties/wit & that another, more convenient forum avail; to get FNC dismissal, D must: 
    •   1) demonstrate adequate alt forum avail &
    •   2) show considerations of pty & forum convenience override P's choice of forum 
    •       [if P st resident - stronger for P heard in home state; if wit/sources proof more avail in diff st/country; if forum's own st laws govern action - more likely if diff st law controls]
  6. CA Venue

       Specific Actions


    Inconvenient Forum
    • Venue - the county where action can be tried
    •   P may lay venue in any county where any D resides @ time of filing 
    •    Specific actions 
    •       *K actions - where k executed or county that obligation to be performed
    •       *Tort - where injury occurred
    •       *property - where prop located

    • Transfer - can move case from 1 superior ct in CA to another in CA when: 1) venue improper OR
    • 2) proper, but a) fair trial can't be had in og county, b) convenience of wit/intrst of justice requires, c) no judge of ct qualified to act

    Inconvenient forum - ct must find that in intrst of justice action should be heard in forum out of CA
  7. Choice of law

      Substance v. procedure

    CA & Erie
      Tort claims
      K claims
    • Erie - when fed/state law conflict
    •   Fed? - Fed subs'tve & procedural law controls [Erie does NOT apply]
    •   Diversity 
    •      Sub'tve - dist ct req'd to apply sub'tive law of state in which dist ct located
    •      Procedural - if fed law app's, fed law app'd even if a state rule/statute in conflict
    •         >NO fed law app's, dist ct must follow state law re: substance, but can choose to ignore st law w/re to procedure OR test: 1) outcome determinative, 2) balance interests (st v fed), 3) forum shopping deterrence 

    • substance v procedure
    •   >look @ whether the issue sub'tively affects outcome of case - probably sub'tive
    •   >look @ whether st intrst in having policy followed is fairly weak & fed interest strong - yes, then fed procedural policy app's
    •   >examples subt've law - elements of claim or defense in k or tort; SoL; rules for tolling; burden of proof; choice of law rules - privilege
    •   >procedural - judge-jury allocation

    CA & Erie - fed ct in CA (for diversity) MUST app'y CA's "conflict of law" rules in determine applicable substantive law

    •   Tort claims - govt interest approach
    •      ct determines if laws of 2 or more states are same 
    •         >if not, ct evaluates which state has interest in application of its laws
    •         >If each state has interest, true conflict exists & ct looks to see which states interest would be more greatly impaired if that state's laws weren't app'd

    •   K claims - choice of laws clauses
    •      *if choice of law clause in k, ct must determine if clause enforceable (if state's law has sub'tl relationship to parties/txn)
    •      *if enforceable, ct sees if that state's law conflicts w/a CA fund'tl policy
    •      *if there is a conflict, ct must decide if CA has materially greater interest that the other st in determine spc'fc issue
    •      *no clause exists OR unenforceable, ct app's the gov't interest approach to see which state's laws govern k
  8. Learning about case

    Service of process

    • Service - P must give notice to D re: suit w/in 120
    •   Methods
    •     *personal; substituted (leave @ D's usual place of abode w/person of suitable age & discretion lives there); D's agent
    •     *Waiver by mail - D responds w/in 30 days, D gets 60 days to respond to complaint
    •     *Corps - officer, manag/gen/appt'd agent

    • CA - 1st, must try personal, then substitute (ok if - made at D's abode/mail address, left w/component person who's @ least 18 & informed of its contents - 1st class mail)
    •    *waiver by mail - same as FRCP BUT D has 20 days to respond, waiver complete when D executes
    •     *publication - CA permits svc by publication as last resort if D can't be located
  9. Learning about case

      Rule 11


    Motions against the complaint
      Rule 12b motion to dismiss
      Mot for more definite stmt
      Mot to strike

    CA D's response
      General Demurrer
      Special Demurrer
      Motion to Strike
      Motion to quash
    • R 11- signature (by L), certification to ct 
    •    Sanctions - mot'n (21/day safe harbor fix)
    •        sua sponte (ct's own initiative)
    •     CA - 21 day safe harbor app's to mot & sua sponte

    • Complaint
    •     FRCP - notice pleading for plausible claim 
    •        Special - fraud, mistake, special dmgs
    •     CA - fact pleading (more specificity)

    • D's response 
    •     Fed - 21 days; CA - 30 days
    •     Motion agst complaint 
    •        12b - mot to dismiss
    •           >1st response (or waive) - PJ, venue, insufficient process/svc process
    •            > anytime - SMJ
    •            > any pleading, mot for jdgmt on pleadings, or trial - fail state claim upon which relief can be granted; fail to join nec'y/indispens pty
    •        Mot for more definite stmt - 1st response or waive
    •        mot to strike 
    •    Answer - admit/deny/aff'tve defenses (waived)

    • CA D's response
    •   Gen demurrer - fail state facts suff't for COA [anytime during]; SMJ [always]
    •   Special demurrer - capacity, another pending action, defect in joinder/misjoinder, uncertain pleading, fail plead if k written/oral, fail file certain certificates
    •    Mot Strike - 30 days of svc
    •    Mot quash (1st response or waive) - no PJ, venue, process
    •    CA anti-SLAPP
    •    Answer 
  10. Learning about the case


    Cross Claims

    CA Cross Complaint
    • Counterclaim - offensive claim agst opps'g pty & must file w/D's answer
    •   Compulsory - same t/o [look 4 supp'tl jxn]
    •   Permissive - same P, diff t/o [must have own SMJ, not supp'tl]

    Cross - offensive claim agst co-pty [can be in pleading] - same t/o [look 4 supp'tl jxn]

    CA cross complaint - inc counterclaim, cross claim & 3P complaints
  11. Amendments & Supplemental Pleadings

      By right
      By leave of ct

    Relation Back (SoL)
      New Claim
      Change D

    • Amendment 
    •   by rt - P - once before D answers; D - once w/in 21 days of serving answer
    •   by leave of ct - when justice so req's

    • Relation back
    •   new - if same t/o
    •   change D - same t/o, new D knew of action & w/in 120 days filing & reasonable mistake
    •   CA - "Doe" D ok if file b4 SoL & find out D w/in 3 years of filing

    Supplemental - ct discretion to allow if describe events occur after file earlier pleading
Card Set:
Civil Procedure
2015-07-24 05:36:48
civpro law

Civil Procedure bar study
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