Ethnographic Methods

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joz2015
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305676
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Ethnographic Methods
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2015-07-24 13:52:35
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Ethnographic
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Ethno2015 SIL
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  1. Anthropology
    • the study of human species and its immediate
    • ancestors
  2. Physical anthropology
    “focuses on human biological diversity in time & space”
  3. Cultural Anthro
    Study of human society & culture...describes, analyzes, interprets, & explains social and cultural similarities and differences
  4. Culture definition
    “everything that people have, think and do as members of a society” = material objects + ideas, values, attitudes + behavior patterns
  5. Charactaristics of culture
    Learned, symbolic, shared, all-encompassing, range of permissible behavior patterns, integrated, adaptive, changes
  6. Finding culturally relevant categories
    • Frequently used in talk
    • Easily recalled or identified
    • Leanred by kids
    • Number of distinctions in a given domain
    • Free listing or sorting
  7. Spradley's domains
    Inclusion, Cause-Effect, rationale, location for action, function, means-end, sequence, attribution
  8. Why map?
    • Organize information by highlighting and suppressing data, records information, improves observation skills, build rapport, collect basic terminology
    • MAIN: Correlate physical features wiht socially relevant space and fact
  9. TYpes of Hunter/Gatherers, other name
    • (Foraging, food collecting)
    • Pedestrian
    • Equestrian
    • Aquatic
  10. Pastoralism Types
    Pastoral Nomads and transhumance
  11. Pastoral Nomads
    Seasonal migrations vary year to year, entire group moves with herds
  12. Transhumance
    Cyclical pattern of migration that is seasonal - between 2 locations - small agriculture too
  13. Horticulture
    • Swidden
    • Low labor
    • Shift plots
  14. Agriculture
    • Labor-intensitve
    • Permanent plots
    • Both manual and industrial
  15. What is material culture?
    Study of how culture is expressed in material form
  16. Facts about things
    • Produced, reproduced, exchanged
    • Obects and outcomes of socially organized work
    • Embedded in networks
  17. Why to study material world
    • Discover how we use goods and consumption
    • Social life of things
  18. How to study material culture
    • Understand:
    • Object
    • Process of use and manufacture
    • context of object
    • peoples' relationship with it
  19. 4 logical marriage options
    • Monogamy
    • Polygamy
    • Polygyny
    • Polyandry (rare)
    • Group (never)
  20. Options for finding spouse
    • Exogamy
    • Endogamy
    • Homogamy
    • Symmetrical (send brides to each other)
    • Asymmetrical (sequence of families send)
  21. Exchanged in marriage
    • Bride Service
    • Bride Wealth/Bride Price
    • Dowry
    • Groom price (never)
    • Balanced exchange
  22. Living after marriage
    • Bilocal (both, alternating)
    • Ambilocal/Duolocal (choose one)
    • Neolocal
    • Patrilocal
    • Matrilocal
    • Avunculocal
    • Matrifocal
  23. Matrifocal
    Woman lives with children without co-resident male
  24. Spouse dies
    Levirate and Sorrorate
  25. Leverate
    Husband dies, brother marries widow
  26. Sororate
    Wife dies, husband marries someone on her family line
  27. Marriage
    Socially approved sexual union between man and woman that gives exclusive sexual rightes, legitimate birth status, division of labor
  28. Universal incest taboo
    Father-daughter
  29. Cognatic
    Relate to both M and F's relatives
  30. Ambilinieal
    Descent from either M or F, Ego chooses - Hawaiian
  31. Bilateral
    Trace decent through all, regardless of sex. KINDRED and nuclear family - Eskimo
  32. Kindred
    • Ego-focused
    • Major life events
  33. Unilineal
    Traced through M or F but not both
  34. Lineage
    Prescriptive, relates to consanguinal
  35. Krober's 8 principles
    • Generation
    • Consanguinal Vs Affinal
    • Sex of relative
    • Sex of ego
    • Sex of connecting relative
    • Age in generation
    • Connecting relative dead or alive
  36. Band
    • Very small
    • Kinship-based
    • Flexible composition
  37. Tribe
    • Small
    • Kinship group based on common descent
    • Include pantribal associations or sodalities
  38. Lineage
    People believe they can identify parent-child links that connect them thru common ancestor
  39. Segmentary Lineages
    • Clan - Connected in someway, but don't know precise links
    • Moiety - Two large unilinear groups
  40. Chiefdom
    • Large
    • kinship-based
    • Someone has full-time political specialization
  41. State
    • Very large
    • Impersonal relationships
    • Formal, bureaucratic governement
  42. Voluntary assoiations
    • Age sets
    • Rites of passage
    • Age grades
  43. Sodalities
    Societies, etc
  44. Status
    Culturally-defined, publically recognized social position
  45. Inequality factors
    • Property
    • power
    • prestige
    • pleasure
  46. Egalitarian society
    • Equal access to status, goods, services
    • Leader: First among equals, gives advice or convinces
  47. Rank society
    • Degree of dignity or prestige in social group
    • Unequal access to prestige, but not ec. resources
    • Leader: Lead by example and persuasion, limited authority
  48. Stratified society
    • Unequal access to prestige and economic resources
    • Leader: Authoritarian, bureaucratic, power centralized at top
  49. What governs when peace is disturbed
    • Norms
    • Law
    • Hegemony
  50. Norms
    Cultural standards enabling individuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior
  51. Law
    Legal code of state society with trial and enforcement
  52. Hegemony
    Subordinates comply with domination by internalizing rulers' values and accepting naturalness of domination
  53. Social Network Vs Group
    • Social network shows connections
    • Group - don't know how people are conected
  54. Cohesion
    Reciprocal connection
  55. Centrality in social netowrk
    How close to the middle are you
  56. Core
    Who makes up the central people that are highly connected
  57. Homophily
    Enjoy being with people who do the same things
  58. Bridge
    Person that brings two groups together
  59. Transivity
    Triangle of connections between 3 people
  60. Rules of social network
    • We shape our network (how many, density, centrality)
    • It shapes us
    • Friends affect us
    • Friends' friends affect us
    • Network has a life of its own
    • 6 degrees of separation, 3 degrees of influence
  61. Animism
    Natural objects animated by spirits
  62. Ancestral spirits
    Spirit of deceased famliy members continues to exist
  63. gods or goddesses
    powerful supernatural beings with individual identities and recognizable attributes
  64. minor supernatural beings
    beings with some amount of supernatural ability
  65. Animatism
    belief in impersonal supernatural force
  66. Magic
    Supernatural power can be compelled or influence to act in certain ways for good or evil usuing ritual
  67. Two types of magic
    • Sympathetic (like like)
    • Contagious (part whole)
  68. Sorcery
    Humans acquire knowledge to use magic to cause harm
  69. Witchcraft
    Human possesses innate, nonhuman substance that is activated - manna
  70. Tylor's 3 stages
    • Animism
    • Polytheism
    • Monotheism
  71. Fundamentalist approach - functions
    • Psychological
    • Social
    • Ecological
  72. Psychological functions of religion
    • Satisfies need to know
    • Means of emotional support in times of stress
    • Institutionalized way of dealing with frightening uncertainties
  73. Social functions or religion
    • Instills and maintains common values
    • Leads to increased conformity to norms
    • Cohesion and cooperation
    • Rewards good behavior, punishes bad
  74. Ecological functions of religion
    Cultural materialism - avoids over-exploitation, helps with food redistribution
  75. Intellectual/Cognitive approach to religion
    Symbols - objects, sounds, actions, ideas to which people assign arbitrary meaning to affirm what is really true -
  76. What are rituals and rites
    • Patterned, repeatable, predictable action
    • Emphasizes belief, influences feelings, gives meanings to relationships
  77. 3 types of rites
    • Rites of affliction
    • Intensification
    • Passage
  78. Myth
    Story of sacred significance
  79. Doug's synthesis of religion
    • Concerns something greater than humans
    • Characterized by shared beliefs/actions
    • Enables members to cope with ultimate problems of human existence
    • Used to support or challenge status quo
  80. Oraganization of religion
    • Individualistic
    • Shamanistic
    • Communal
    • Ecclesiastical
  81. Individualistic
    Personal relationship with one or more beings
  82. Shamanistic
    One person has direct contact with spirit world,directs crisis rituals
  83. Communal
    Selected members come together periodically to enact rituals that benefit the group
  84. Ecclesiastical
    Full-time religious specialists manage and carry out rituals designed to influence spiritual power and guide believers
  85. What is economics
    Systems of distribution and exchange
  86. Gemeinschaft primary focus
    Community, oriented to large association, individual is means to serve group goals
  87. Gemeinschaft exchange of goods
    • Balance economic and social gain
    • Barter system
    • Gifts create and cement relationships
  88. Gemeinschaft reciprocity
    Generalized, balanced, and/or negative
  89. Gemeinschaft relationships
    Personal, face to face, cooperative, eople as wholes
  90. Gemeinschaft incentives to work
    • Don't calculate individual work credit
    • Social ties
    • Job well done, generous spirit = prestige
  91. Usufruct
    Common ownership
  92. Gesellschaft focus:
    Society, oriented toward instrumental goal. Individual sees gorup as means to further personal goals
  93. Gesellschaft exchange of goods
    • Financial gain primary
    • Use of money
    • Ability to accumulate capital
    • Sales,
  94. Gesellschaft relationships
    efficient, elaborate division of labor, competition, particular status, statuatory laws
  95. Gesellschaft incentive to work
    Money, alienation from work
  96. Gesellschaft ownership
    Proprietary deed
  97. What is a revitalization movement?
    A deliberate, conscious organized effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying society/culture
  98. Mazeway
    Image people have of self, society, culture, nature, and body image as seen by one person
  99. Nativistic Movement
    Elimination of alien customs, peple, values, and material
  100. Revivalistic movement
    Revival and reincorporation of customs thought to have been in prev gen culture
  101. Cargo cults
    Importation of alien values, customs, and material into culture by cargo or plane
  102. Millenarian
    Coming apocalyptic world transformation engineered by supernatural means
  103. Messianic
    Rise of a divine savior in human flesh who will overthrow the old order and return things to previously ideal state
  104. Types of revitalization
    Mazeway, nativistic, revivalistic, cargo cults, millenarian, messianic
  105. Revival happens when?
    During turmoil
  106. Culture change pressures (3)
    • Forces within a society
    • Contact between societies
    • Forces from the natural environment
  107. 4 ways culture change happens
    • Cultural evolution
    • Diffusion
    • Acculturation
    • Innovation
  108. What is globalization? 3 pieces
    • Time-space stretching or compressing
    • Intensification of global interconnectedness
    • Rapid flows and increased mobility of people, goods, images, ideologies
  109. New migrants illustrate
    • Diasporic attachments (dual affinity)
    • Transnational - don't abandon one national space for another, create community
    • Translocal
  110. Causes and effects of globalization
    • Death of nation-state?
    • deterritorialization of culture
    • Cultural imperialism
  111. Problems with globalization
    • Customization/indigenization
    • We know each other lives
  112. Identity
    • Not inevitable or natural
    • Fluid
    • Potentially multiple
    • Classify similarities and differences
  113. Ethnicity
    • Tied to economics, politics
    • Conditions of contact
    • Socially constructed
    • Cultural elements highlighted or invented
    • Perceived as natural
    • Boundary maintenance

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