Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to Persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage. What is this?
Military Commanders are charged with the inherent responsibility to take all reasonable actions to ______ and _____ collateral effects.
Commanders minimize and mitigate collateral effects by ensuring it meets legal imperatives of being:
US Military is concerned with collateral damage for the following reasons:
Required by LOW
Supports National Values
Reduces Strategic risk / Maintains International and domestic support for mission
Reduces Post-Combat Operational Requirements
Its the right thing to do.
Commanders are responsible to evalutate and balance risk based on the following three operational imperatives:
Friendly Forces (force protection)
The ______ _____ ____ ____ normally helps commanders evaluate and balance risk based on operational imperatives.
Joint Operational Planning Process (JOPP)
What strategic Consequieces are produced by Excessive Collateral Damage?
More Restrictive ROE
Prolonged Post-Combat Reconstruction
Early Terminatino of Operations.
CDM is applicable to Joint Targeting and Indirect Fires at what levels of war?
LOW require ___________ ___________ to ensure only legitimate military objectives are targeted.
What are ther 5 basic questions and at what CDE level do we answer those questions?
1) Can I PID @CDE level 1
2)Are there protectedted or collateral concerns non-combatant, human shields, CBR or environmental hazards within the effects range of the weapon i am using to attack the TGT @ CDE level 1
3)Can I mitigate with another weapon and still accomplish the mission @ CDE levels 2,3,4
4) What will be the number of civilian or NON-COMs injured or killed @ CDE level 5
5) Is the effect of the attack excessive and do I need to elevate the decision to higher level of command @ CDE level 5
CDM does _____ intend to limit or supersede a commader's ability to respond to ____ ____ ___ or the inherent right of __________
Not, Time Sensitive Targets (TST), self-defense
______ dictates decision authorities and collateral damage thresholds governing the reporting requirements and delegate CDE responsibilites of a given operation.
CDM provides a _____ framework that describes and enables a process, supported by empirical _____ data, to estimate and mitigate collateral effects.
____ or _____ _____ have the latitude to decide the manner of applicaiton of the CDM below the ______ level.
Operational, Combatant Commanders, Operational
Who develops HPAC estimates for CBR and plume hazards estimation ISO CDE evaluations?
Who develops CHAMP estimates for environmental hazards ISO CDE evaluations?
NCMI (national center for Medical Intelligence)
What dictates supreme value placed on preservation of civilian life and emulated by Military forces?
What are the 5 levels within the Join CDE methodology?
CDE 1 - Target Validation / Initial Assessment
CDE 2 - General / MTS assessment
CDE 3 - Weaponeering Assessment
CDE 4 - Refined Assessment
CDE 5 - Casuality Estimate / Assessment
CDM is needed because?
Supports identification and management of risk
Supports Decision making
Establishes policy guidance
Outputs support the STAR process
What warrants the SECDEF or POTUS review and approval, a CDE 5 High unacceptable strategic risk, requires STAR process and exceed nataional threshold and are delineated in OPLAN/CONPLANS, OPORD, EXORD and ROE by combatant Commanders?
Sensitive targets exceed national-level thresholds such as:
High collateral damage or collateral effects
adverse political ramifications
adverse public sentiment
What doctrine covers Sensitive Target and Review (STAR) process?
What doctrine covers CDE?
Collateral persons/objects are __________ persons or objects defined by _______ and or ______ that are not ______ ________ ______ in the circumstances ruliong at the time.
Non-Combatants, LOW, ROE, lawful military targets
The CDM codifies and standardizes the CDE process supporting commaders evauation of risk in the what?
Who has the responsibility for the maintenance of the CDE technical data and automation tools?
____ ____ include both Traditional and non-traditional objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the Non-combatant population.
A list of all identified objects within a specified geographic area (country or AO) functionally characterized as Non-Combatant / Civilian in nature.
No-Strike List (NSL)
The ________ ________ ______ describes how many categories of Collateral Objects? and what are they?
Category I: Most Sensitive
Category II: Least Sensitive
No-Strike guidance and policy task Combatant Commanders Shall identify No-Strike Objects and produce NSL for:
Each AOR Country
Joint Strategic Capabillities Plan (JSCP)
Guidance for employment of the force (GEF)
Each OPLAN/OPORD Area of Operations
No-strife facilities are _____ _____ within the MIDB by ________.
funtionally identified , CATCODE
No-Strike guidance and policy task National Intelligence Community (IC) to:
Support and Assist COCOMs w/ NSL development
Validate NSL additions
No-Strike Entities loacted on military instillations must be:
Geospatially defined as distinct facilities
Treated as Collateral Objects
No-Strike Entities nominated for targeting based on operational significance must:
Be re-classified as a valid target & removed from NSL
Require ROE authroization
Reclassified as a valid TGT& removed from the NSL
The NSL is a ______ and _______ list from the RSL.
____ ____ are valid military targets which the Combatant Commander has restricted/ limited effects based on Operational, political, intelligence gain/loss, CDE or other considerations.
The COCOM limits or restricts effects for restricted targets based on what?
Operational, political, intelligence gain or loss
COCOMs are responsible to produce a restricted target list for each ______.
_______ are those characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose.
Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not ____ in light of the overall _____ _____.
Excessive, military advantage
_____ Provides the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities.
LOW-protected facilities/structures occupied by Combatants are considered?
Requires CDE whereby all of the occupants of the Dual-Use Structures are characterized as _____ _____.
____ are responsible to determine the Dual-Use nature of a target based on current intelligence, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
(Dual-Use targets) May consist of ____ protected facilities/structures occupied by combatants.
LOW protected structures occupied by enemy combatants for the ____ __ ____ _____ objectives lose their LOW protection and are not classified as Dual-Use.
purpose of advancing military
____ _____ are Non-Combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
What are the two classifications or human shields?
Which type of Human Shields must be accounted for in Casualty Estimate?
Involuntary, unwitted or status unknown
If the status of human shields is ___ ____, then the more restrictive rule applies, and they are to be protected as protected persons/collateral objects.
What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
Weapon Malfunction (22%)
Conscious Decision (8%)
What are the two components that establish PID?
What factors affect Delivery accuracy?
A radius defining a circle representing mean error (50%) between the actual and perceived target location.
Target Location Error
CDE methodology uses what level of TLE?
TLE90 accuracy comes from two sources, what are they?
Acquisition system (Man or machine)
Geo-Spatial reference system
A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact. What level CEP does CE use?
Circular Error Probable (CEP), CE90
CEP size is based on what for PGM? ASUGM/SSBM?
PGM: weapon guidance system
ASUGM/SSBM: delivery system
What TLE90 values are used in CER tables?
20feet/6meters-PGM, ASUGM an SSBM predicted
450feet/137 meters for FO w/laser for SSBM OA
Range Error is normally _______ deflection error.
Weapons have a tendency to impact _______ or _______of a target.
long or short
What are the primary Colateral Damage effects of warheads?
Debis / ejecta
What is the dominate hazard to personnel?
Fragmentation / Debris (ejecta)
What CER/MTS tables has Fragmentation vs standing personnel for a dominate hazard?
1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
What CER/MTS tables has Debris/Ejecta vs standing personnel for a dominate hazard?
What CER/MTS tables has Blast vs structure as a dominate hazard?
4A, 4B, 4C
What CER/MTS tables has TLE90 as a dominate hazard?
2B, 2C Predicted
What is the dominate hazard to structures?
_____ + ______ = CER
What are the distances for predicted (P)?
6m / 20ft
What type of munition uses Observer Adjust and what are the distances?