CDE Tampa.txt

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  1. Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to Persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage. What is this?
    Collateral Damge
  2. Military Commanders are charged with the inherent responsibility to take all reasonable actions to ______ and _____ collateral effects.
    Minimize, mitigate
  3. Commanders minimize and mitigate collateral effects by ensuring it meets legal imperatives of being:
    • Necessary
    • Proportional
    • Reasonable
  4. US Military is concerned with collateral damage for the following reasons:
    • Required by LOW
    • Supports National Values
    • Reduces Strategic risk / Maintains International and domestic support for mission
    • Reduces Post-Combat Operational Requirements
    • Its the right thing to do.
  5. Commanders are responsible to evalutate and balance risk based on the following three operational imperatives:
    • Mission
    • Friendly Forces (force protection)
    • Collateral Damage
  6. The ______ _____ ____ ____ normally helps commanders evaluate and balance risk based on operational imperatives.
    Joint Operational Planning Process (JOPP)
  7. What strategic Consequieces are produced by Excessive Collateral Damage?
    • Reduced Support
    • More Restrictive ROE
    • Prolonged Post-Combat Reconstruction
    • Early Terminatino of Operations.
  8. CDM is applicable to Joint Targeting and Indirect Fires at what levels of war?
    • Strategic
    • Operational
    • Tactical
  9. LOW require ___________ ___________ to ensure only legitimate military objectives are targeted.
    reasonable precautions
  10. What are ther 5 basic questions and at what CDE level do we answer those questions?
    • 1) Can I PID @CDE level 1
    • 2)Are there protectedted or collateral concerns non-combatant, human shields, CBR or environmental hazards within the effects range of the weapon i am using to attack the TGT @ CDE level 1
    • 3)Can I mitigate with another weapon and still accomplish the mission @ CDE levels 2,3,4
    • 4) What will be the number of civilian or NON-COMs injured or killed @ CDE level 5
    • 5) Is the effect of the attack excessive and do I need to elevate the decision to higher level of command @ CDE level 5
  11. CDM does _____ intend to limit or supersede a commader's ability to respond to ____ ____ ___ or the inherent right of __________
    Not, Time Sensitive Targets (TST), self-defense
  12. ______ dictates decision authorities and collateral damage thresholds governing the reporting requirements and delegate CDE responsibilites of a given operation.
  13. CDM provides a _____ framework that describes and enables a process, supported by empirical _____ data, to estimate and mitigate collateral effects.
    logical, JMEM
  14. ____ or _____ _____ have the latitude to decide the manner of applicaiton of the CDM below the ______ level.
    Operational, Combatant Commanders, Operational
  15. Who develops HPAC estimates for CBR and plume hazards estimation ISO CDE evaluations?
  16. Who develops CHAMP estimates for environmental hazards ISO CDE evaluations?
    NCMI (national center for Medical Intelligence)
  17. What dictates supreme value placed on preservation of civilian life and emulated by Military forces?
    National Values
  18. What are the 5 levels within the Join CDE methodology?
    • CDE 1 - Target Validation / Initial Assessment
    • CDE 2 - General / MTS assessment
    • CDE 3 - Weaponeering Assessment
    • CDE 4 - Refined Assessment
    • CDE 5 - Casuality Estimate / Assessment
  19. CDM is needed because?
    • Supports identification and management of risk
    • Supports Decision making
    • Establishes policy guidance
    • Outputs support the STAR process
  20. What warrants the SECDEF or POTUS review and approval, a CDE 5 High unacceptable strategic risk, requires STAR process and exceed nataional threshold and are delineated in OPLAN/CONPLANS, OPORD, EXORD and ROE by combatant Commanders?
    Sensitive Targets
  21. Sensitive targets exceed national-level thresholds such as:
    • High collateral damage or collateral effects
    • adverse political ramifications
    • environmental harm/hazard
    • adverse public sentiment
  22. What doctrine covers Sensitive Target and Review (STAR) process?
    CJCSI 3122.06
  23. What doctrine covers CDE?
    CJCIS 3160.01,
  24. Collateral persons/objects are __________ persons or objects defined by _______ and or ______ that are not ______ ________ ______ in the circumstances ruliong at the time.
    Non-Combatants, LOW, ROE, lawful military targets
  25. The CDM codifies and standardizes the CDE process supporting commaders evauation of risk in the what?
  26. Who has the responsibility for the maintenance of the CDE technical data and automation tools?
  27. ____ ____ include both Traditional and non-traditional objects whose damage or destruction would produce a disproportionate effect on the Non-combatant population.
    No-strike Entities
  28. A list of all identified objects within a specified geographic area (country or AO) functionally characterized as Non-Combatant / Civilian in nature.
    No-Strike List (NSL)
  29. The ________ ________ ______ describes how many categories of Collateral Objects? and what are they?
    • Two,
    • Category I: Most Sensitive
    • Category II: Least Sensitive
  30. No-Strike guidance and policy task Combatant Commanders Shall identify No-Strike Objects and produce NSL for:
    • Each AOR Country
    • Joint Strategic Capabillities Plan (JSCP)
    • Guidance for employment of the force (GEF)
    • Each OPLAN/OPORD Area of Operations
  31. No-strife facilities are _____ _____ within the MIDB by ________.
    funtionally identified , CATCODE
  32. No-Strike guidance and policy task National Intelligence Community (IC) to:
    • Support and Assist COCOMs w/ NSL development
    • Validate NSL additions
  33. No-Strike Entities loacted on military instillations must be:
    • Geospatially defined as distinct facilities
    • Treated as Collateral Objects
  34. No-Strike Entities nominated for targeting based on operational significance must:
    • Be re-classified as a valid target & removed from NSL
    • Require ROE authroization
    • Reclassified as a valid TGT& removed from the NSL
  35. The NSL is a ______ and _______ list from the RSL.
    separate, distinct
  36. ____ ____ are valid military targets which the Combatant Commander has restricted/ limited effects based on Operational, political, intelligence gain/loss, CDE or other considerations.
    Restricted Targets
  37. The COCOM limits or restricts effects for restricted targets based on what?
    • Operational, political, intelligence gain or loss
    • CDE
    • Other Considerations
  38. COCOMs are responsible to produce a restricted target list for each ______.
  39. _______ are those characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose.
    Dual-Use Targets
  40. Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not ____ in light of the overall _____ _____.
    Excessive, military advantage
  41. _____ Provides the authorizations and prohibitions regarding targeting dual-use facilities.
  42. LOW-protected facilities/structures occupied by Combatants are considered?
    Dual-use targets
  43. Requires CDE whereby all of the occupants of the Dual-Use Structures are characterized as _____ _____.
    Non-Combantant Casualities
  44. ____ are responsible to determine the Dual-Use nature of a target based on current intelligence, guided by or considering the current operational ROE.
  45. (Dual-Use targets) May consist of ____ protected facilities/structures occupied by combatants.
  46. LOW protected structures occupied by enemy combatants for the ____ __ ____ _____ objectives lose their LOW protection and are not classified as Dual-Use.
    purpose of advancing military
  47. ____ _____ are Non-Combatant personnel intentionally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
    Human Shields
  48. What are the two classifications or human shields?
    • Involuntary
    • Voluntary
  49. Which type of Human Shields must be accounted for in Casualty Estimate?
    Involuntary, unwitted or status unknown
  50. If the status of human shields is ___ ____, then the more restrictive rule applies, and they are to be protected as protected persons/collateral objects.
    not known
  51. What are the primary causes of Collateral Damage?
    • PID (70%)
    • Weapon Malfunction (22%)
    • Conscious Decision (8%)
  52. What are the two components that establish PID?
    • Geo-spatially defined
    • Determine Function/activity/purpose/
    • location
  53. What factors affect Delivery accuracy?
    • TLE
    • CEP
  54. A radius defining a circle representing mean error (50%) between the actual and perceived target location.
    Target Location Error
  55. CDE methodology uses what level of TLE?
  56. TLE90 accuracy comes from two sources, what are they?
    • Acquisition system (Man or machine)
    • Geo-Spatial reference system
  57. A radius defining a circle within which 50% of weapons will impact. What level CEP does CE use?
    Circular Error Probable (CEP), CE90
  58. CEP size is based on what for PGM? ASUGM/SSBM?
    • PGM: weapon guidance system
    • ASUGM/SSBM: delivery system
  59. What TLE90 values are used in CER tables?
    • 20feet/6meters-PGM, ASUGM an SSBM predicted
    • 450feet/137 meters for FO w/laser for SSBM OA
  60. Range Error is normally _______ deflection error.
  61. Weapons have a tendency to impact _______ or _______of a target.
    long or short
  62. What are the primary Colateral Damage effects of warheads?
    • Frag
    • Blast
    • Debis / ejecta
    • Penetration
    • thermal
  63. What is the dominate hazard to personnel?
    Fragmentation / Debris (ejecta)
  64. What CER/MTS tables has Fragmentation vs standing personnel for a dominate hazard?
    1, 2A, 3A(U), 3B, 3C
  65. What CER/MTS tables has Debris/Ejecta vs standing personnel for a dominate hazard?
  66. What CER/MTS tables has Blast vs structure as a dominate hazard?
    4A, 4B, 4C
  67. What CER/MTS tables has TLE90 as a dominate hazard?
    2B, 2C Predicted
  68. What is the dominate hazard to structures?
  69. _____ + ______ = CER
    TE90, WCER90
  70. What are the distances for predicted (P)?
    6m / 20ft
  71. What type of munition uses Observer Adjust and what are the distances?
    Surface-to-Surface Ballistic Munitions (SSBM) / 137m 450ft
  72. You can only provide 3 types for spreads for heading, what are they?
    030, 090, 180
  73. Mitigation techniques employed are conditional on ____ ____.
    Target presentaion (environmental)
  74. Heading must start, end or bisect from a ______ direction
  75. Engagement zones require a ______ heading from a cardinal direction.
  76. CDM seeks to answer 5 questions, what are they?
    • 1. Can I PID the target as valid mil target and authorized by ROE?
    • 2. Are there Collateral Objects/Non-Combatant Personnel within the effects range of the weapon i want to employ?
    • 3.Can I mitigate these CE by selecting a different weapon or method of engagement?
    • 4. If not, how many Non-Combatant will be kill or injured?
    • 5. Are the negative Collateral effects excessive in relation to the expect military gain and do I need to call higher HQ for permission to engage?
  77. CDE level 1 TGT validation has How many steps, and what are they?
    • 10
    • PID, Boundary, CER/CHA, ROE/LOW, Dual-Use, NSL Protected, CBR Plume, and Environmental Hazard
  78. Which 4 factors in CDE 1 will require a Casualty Estimate (CDE 5)?
    • involuntary/unwitted human shield
    • Dual-Use
    • Plume Hazard
    • Environmental Hazard
  79. What 3 things in CDE 1 may terminate the CDE Analysis?
    • failure to PID
    • target is classified as invalid/illegal under LOW
    • target is classified as ROE .
  80. CDE 2 is a _____ ____ for ASUGM and SSBM.
    Decision Point for Feasibility
  81. CDE 4 assumes the NCP changes from outdoor to indoor. What are we concerned with?
    Structure type
  82. CDE 5 determines the ______ of each affectd Collateral Concern.
  83. What are the methods to determine collateral structure type?
    • Nearest CC
    • Weakest CC
    • Multiple CC
  84. ____ is a radius that defines a Collateral Hazard Area (CHA).
    Collateral Effects Radius (CER)
  85. How many CER/MTS reference tables are there?
  86. What tables cover the PGM CER? ASUGM CER MTS? SSBM CER/MTS?
    • PGM: 2A, 3A, 4A
    • ASUGM: 2B, 3B, 4B
    • SSBM: 2C, 3C, 4C
  87. _____ contains one CER value which is applied to all conventional weapons in the US inventory.
    CDE 1 CER reference table
  88. Under CDE 1, what are the 3 exception within the conventional weapons?
    • TLAM U/RGM-109D
    • M26A2 ER/MLRS at 1/2 range to max range
  89. How many analysis process are ther in CDE 2?
    • 2
    • PGM- General anaysis
    • ASUGM/SSBM- MTS analysis
  90. How many reference Tables are there in CDE level 2?
    • 3
    • 2A, 2B, 2C
  91. Point targets are best serviced by what?
  92. Are targets are normally best serviced by which weapons class?
    • ASUGM
    • SSBM
  93. CER for PGMs should always be measured from what?
    Precision mensurated Aimpoint
  94. from where are CERs in the CDE 2A table taken from?
    largest CER in 3A table
  95. CDE 2A has two CER values, what are they?
    • PGM Unitary
    • PGM Cluster
  96. MTS tables 2B and 2C are used to determine the ______ of employing the designated delivery platform.
  97. What are the 3 types of boundries used for process of MTS with ASUGM and SSBM?
    • Rectangular Method
    • Circle Method
    • Segment Method
  98. CDE 3A tables are listed by _____ not weapon guidance.
  99. How many and what are the types for columns in the CER 3A tables?
    • Unmitigated
    • Mitigated
  100. _____ means the warhead achives 100% sub-surface warhead or internal detonation.
  101. CDE 3B are based on the combination of what?
    • Air to Surface Delivery Platform
    • unguided Warhead (Unmitigated / Cluster weapons)
  102. T/F When performing CDE 2 analysis for multiple PGM aimpoints, all the aimpoints must have the same analysis evaluation?
    False, PGM aimpoints are evaluated individually because they may have different levels of CDE analysis CDE2, CDE3 etc
  103. In cases where the MTS in not feasible, the CDM recommends what?
    Consider PGM only
  104. CDE 3C tables are listed by what?
    • Weapon System
    • Shell
    • Fuse
    • Method of Engagment (observer adjusted or predicted)
  105. Why is heading an important part of ASUGM CDE analysis?
    It specifies the orientation pf the Engagement Zone for multipleweapons deliveries
  106. What tool is prescribed int he development of ASUGM Engagement Cone in CDE 3?
  107. CDE 4A values are determined by what?
    • Collateral Structure Type
    • Warhead
  108. CDE 4B are based on a combination of what?
    • Delivery Platform
    • Mitigated Warhead (Cluster weapons not supported)
  109. CDE 4C tables are based on what?
    • Weapon System
    • Shell
    • Fuse
    • Method of Engagement (OA or P)
    • No Collateral persons in the open
  110. What is the only time you will give a heading in a CDE 3 assessment?
    Multiple Warhead Deliveries (ASUGM)
  111. What are the 5 ways munitions effects are mitigated?
    • Delay fuzing/bomb burial
    • VT fuzing/ air burst
    • shielding
    • delivery heading
    • Aimpoint offset
  112. What are the 4 fragmentation mitigation techniques?
    • Delay fuzing/bomb burial
    • shielding
    • delivery heading
    • Aimpoint offset
  113. What are the 4 blast mitigation techniques?
    • Delay fuzing/bomb burial
    • VT fuzing/ air burst
    • shielding
    • Aimpoint offset
  114. What are the debris mitigation techniques?
    • VT fuzing/ air burst
    • shielding
    • Aimpoint offset
  115. CDE Methodology does not account for what three factors?
    • weapon malfunction
    • Unknown transient (non-combatant)
    • Secondary explosions
  116. T/F Can you achieve final CDE analysis in CDE 2B or 2C?
    No, you are only determining feasibility with MTS and must proceed to CDE 3
  117. The CERs in the CDE 3C CER reference tables are based on what weaponeering factors?
    • Weapon System
    • shell (warhead)
    • Fuze
    • Method of engagement
    • Gun-to-TGT Range relative to 1/2 the maximum gin-to-TGT range value
  118. What techniques or factors is used to differentiate between the mitigated and unmitigated cases for SSBM in 3C?
    • Unmitigated- OA
    • mitigated-Predicted
  119. What are the three types of sheaves in SSBM?
    • Circular (default) center point and radius
    • Linear -center point and Length and width
    • Converged - center point
  120. How many columns are in CDE 3C  CER References table? What are they?
    • 4
    • less than 1/2 range to 1/2 range with predicted and OA
    • 1/2 range to max range with predicted and OA
  121. What determines the sheaf type used against a TGT?
    Weaponeering solution
  122. What is assumed during CDE level 4?
    Non-Combatants are indoors
  123. What is the first step during CDE 4 while performing a PGM analysis?
    Determine the nearest collateral structure type
  124. What weaponeering elements are required to determine PGM CER using the CDE 4A tables?
    • Warhead
    • nearest collateral structure type
  125. How must warheads be fuzed to employ the CERs in CDE 4A?
    • DF 100% in a structure
    • DF 100% below non-structure (100% burial)
  126. The CERs in the CDE 4C CER reference tables are based on what weaponeering factors?
    • Weapon System
    • shell (warhead)
    • Fuze
    • Method of engagement
    • Gun-to-TGT Range relative to 1/2 the maximum gin-to-TGT range value
  127. What element must be added to the evaluation for CDE 4A and CDE 4B?
    • Delivery Heading
    • (away from NCC-PGM)
    • (parallel for ASUGM)
  128. The CERs in the CDE 4B CER reference tables are based on the combination of what two factors?
    • Air-to-Surface delivery platform
    • Unguided warhead
  129. How must warheads be fuzed to employ the CERs in CDE 4B?
    DF to acieve 100% detonating below the grade or internal to structure
  130. How many columns are in CDE 4C  CER References table? What are they?
    • 4
    • less than 1/2 range to 1/2 range with predicted and OA
    • 1/2 range to max range with predicted and OA
  131. What weaponeering exceptions are noted in CDE 4C?
    • Cluster / Improved conventional Munitions (ICM)
    • RAP and enhanced range munitions
  132. What does the values in the CDE 5 Population Density Reference Tables represent?
    Personnel per 1000 sq Feet
  133. Can PoL data be used instead of population density tables?
    Yes, Its more accurate
  134. What are the Casualty Factors use in CDE 5?
    1.0 and .25
  135. In what cases are the Casualty factors of  .25 applied?
    Indoor CC within the outer annulus of the CHA
  136. What is determined first in CDE 5?
    Facility functionality
  137. Population density tables are only valid for what?
    Specific AORs
  138. In what cases are Casualty Factors of 1.0 applied?
    • All Dual Use
    • Outdoor CC
    • Indoor CC within the inner annulus of the CHA

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CDE Tampa.txt
2015-07-27 20:41:56
CDE Tampa

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